Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 37


What is research report writing?

 A report is the presentation of facts and findings written for a

specific readership and probably intended to be kept as a record.
 It is purely based on observation and analysis.
 A research report is formal statement of the details of the research
process and its results.
 It gives an account of the problems studied , objectives ,
methodology , findings and conclusions of the research study.
Functions of a research report

 To communicate the methodology and results of the study to the

targeted audience.
 To validate the results and to judge the research project and to
validate the ability and competence of the researcher to do the
 To act as a base for formulating policies and strategies in the
relevant areas.
 To serve as a basic reference for future study.
Characteristics of a good research report

 It must be narrative and should also be an authoritative document on

the outcome.
 It must be specific , accurate and non-ambiguous.
 It must be non-persuasive.
 It must be simple, logic and understandable.
Types of report
 Technical report
 Interim report
 Summary project
 Research abstracts
 Research articles
Technical report

 It is the full report on research process and its outcome.

 It is mainly meant for academic purpose.
 It follows a specific format.
 it is a formal long report covering all aspects of research
process viz., defining problem, statement of problem,
objectives, review of literature, methodology, findings,
suggestions and conclusions.
Interim report

 These reports are the one which are presented periodically in the
case of a long term project.
 it is used to convince the authority concerned to show that the
research is alive, is in progress and to ensure that no repetition of
work is done.
 Work carried out so far and the work yet to be done are detailed in
the report.
Summary report

 Short report consisting of a few pages

 Prepared in such a way that it is suitable for publication in daily
newspapers or magazine.
 Meant for general public.
 It s written in a simple language supported by pictorial charts and
only the important findings are narrated in lucid style.
Research abstracts Research articles
 Abstracts are brief summaries  Short term projects can be
of technical report circulated published as articles in
for a quick review before a professional journals .
detailed examination is made.  Even the long term projects
 The objectives, methodology can be split into various parts
and findings are presented in a and publishes as separate
brief format. articles.
 The style of presentation may
differ from journal to journal
but generally the articles will
have introduction,
methodology, results and
discussions, conclusions and
Steps in writing a research report

 Logical analysis of the subject matter

 Preparation of final outline
 Preparation of rough draft
 Rewriting and polishing of rough draft
 Preparation of final bibliography
 Writing the final draft
Format of research report

 A research report has a number of clearly defined sections. While

the headings of the sections and the order may vary from one
situation to another, the following is suggested as a broad sequence
of contents of research report.
 Prefatory Items
 Body of the Report
 Terminal Items
1. Prefatory Items

 Title Page
 Researcher’s declaration
 The certificate of the research supervisor
 Acknowledgements
 Table of contents
 List of graphs and charts
 Abstract of Synopsis
2. Body of the report

 Chapter 1 Introduction
 Introduction to the study
 Introduction to the organization
 Need or significance of the study
 Statement of the problem
 Scope of the study
 Objectives of the study
 Hypotheses to be tested
 Chapter II Review of Literature
 Tools/Methods used in similar studies
 Findings and conclusions of earlier studies
 Lacunae of available literature
 Chapter III Research Methodology
 Nature of the research design
 Sources of data
 Sampling design and sample size
 Techniques/Tools of data collection, methodology of data collection and period
of data collection
 Presenting of tools
 Data analysis
 Limitations of the study
 Chapter IV Results
 Tables, charts, interpretation and inferences.

 Chapter V Conclusion and Summary

3. Terminal Items
 References, bibliography, appendices, annexures.

ETHICS: Norms or standards of behavior that guide moral choices about our
behavior and our relationship with others.
RESEARCH ETHICS is following the ethical norms in research so that no one
suffers adverse consequences from research activities.

 ETHICAL TREATMENT OF PARTICIPANTS: Research should be designed in such a

manner that the rights of the participant is safeguarded.
>>explain study benefits.
>>explain participant rights and protection.
>>obtain informed consent.
 INFORMED CONSENT: securing informed consent from participants is a matter of
fully disclosing the procedures of the proposed survey or other research design
before requesting permission to proceed with the study.
 RIGHTS TO PRIVACY means all participants have right to privacy and one has
right to be interviewed or to refuse to answer any question in an interview.
 DATA COLLECTION IN CYBERSPACE : world is wired society, everything is
digitalized but there is a high danger of research abuse.

Research client or sponsors has the right to receive ethical report. They have right to:
*sponsor nondisclosure
*purpose nondisclosure
* Findings non disclosure
*providing a research design appropriate for the research question.
*maximizing researcher’s value for value expended
*providing data handling and reporting techniques appropriate for the data collected.
* Educate the sponsor about purpose of report
*explain how breaking participants faith can lead to future problems.

It is the researcher’s responsibility to design a project so that the safety of the
interviewers, surveyors etc can be maintained.
Assistants are expected to carry out the sampling plan,to interview without
bias and obtain accurate results.
Researchers should protect the confidentiality of sponsor’s information and
anonymity of the participants

 Many corporations and research firms have adopted code of ethics.

federal, state and local government have laws, policies, and procedures in
place to regulate research on human beings.
 The center for ethics and business at Loyola Marymount university provides
an online environment for discussing issues related to the necessity, difficulty
etc of conducting business ethically.

 Referencing is the process of citing or documenting the

sources of quotes, theories, ideas, illustrations and
diagrams that you have used in writing your university
 When we acknowledge sources in this way, we give
credit to another person’s words, ideas or opinions in the
form of a note and/or bibliographic reference or citation.
Why Reference ?

Your  Reader’s Ethical reasons:

benefits benefits
• Intellectual integrity
• To show off! • To understand the
context of your • To distinguish between:
• To add authority work • Your ideas
to your argument
• Someone else’s ideas
• To allow your
• To add credibility reader to track • Intellectual property
to your down your issues
information research
What is the Purpose Of Reference ?

 To show that relevant sources have been investigated

 To enable the person reading our work to trace the
original sources we have used
 To provide documentary support for an argument
 To give differing points of view of an argument
 To indicate that we have not used someone else's ideas
and claimed them as our own
What should be referenced?

 Ideas, information, results, opinions from any source that

you have summarised, paraphrased or directly quoted
 Definitions of terms
 Illustrations, tables, figures drawn from sources
 Your ideas that are also those of an author you have
 Plans, ideas or anything that was stimulated by others
Guiding principles

 Respect the
• Creation of ideas by others
• Concept of intellectual property
 Acknowledge the ideas of others
Don’t reference “common knowledge”
What is common knowledge?

If you didn’t know it before you read the research,

then it is not common knowledge and you need to
reference it.
If most classmates would know it then it probably is
common knowledge.
Different Styles of Referencing

There are several different styles of referencing:

• APA - American Psychological Association
• MLA - Modern Language Association
• Oxford
• Harvard
• Chicago
 APA style is commonly used in Education, Business, and some Social Sciences
and Humanities disciplines.
 MLA style is often used in English and Media Studies.
 Oxford style is often used in History, Philosophy, and Classics.
 Harvard and Chicago styles are used by some individual disciplines.
American Psychological
Association (APA)
 APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as
scholarly journal articles and books. It is commonly used for citing sources
within the field of social sciences.
 It is described in the style guide of the American Psychological
Association (APA), which is titled the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association.
 The guidelines were developed to aid reading comprehension in the social
and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and for "word
choice that best reduces bias in language"
Citing a book in print

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of work. Publisher City, State:
APA format example:
Finney, J. (1970). Time and again. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
 Notes: When citing a book in APA, keep in mind:
• Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles, as well
as the first letter of any proper nouns.
• The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be stated
and italicized.
Citing an e-book from an e-reader

 E-book is short for “electronic book.” It is a digital version of a book that can
be read on a computer, e-reader (Kindle, Nook, etc.), or other electronic
APA format structure:
Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of work [E-Reader Version].
Retrieved from http://xxxx or DOI:xxxx
APA format example:
Eggers, D. (2008). The circle [Kindle Version]. Retrieved from
Citing a book found in a database

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of work. Retrieved from
http://xxxx or DOI:xxxx
APA format example:
Sayre, Rebecca K., Devercelli, A.E., Neuman, M.J., & Wodon, Q.
(2015). Investment in early childhood development: Review of the world
bank’s recent experience. DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0403-8
 Notes: When citing an online book or e-book in APA, keep in mind:
• A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content
to its location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to
use it when creating a citation. All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and are
separated by a slash.
Citing a newspaper article in print

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Newspaper
Title, pp. xx-xx.
APA format example:
Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal
weapon.The New York Times, p. D5.
 Notes: When creating you newspaper citation, keep in mind:
• Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. (for a single page) or
pp. (for multiple pages).
• If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and
separate the numbers with a comma (e.g., pp. B1, B3, B5-B7).
Citing a journal article in print

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Publication Year). Article title. Periodical
Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.
APA format example:
Nevin, A. (1990). The changing of teacher education special
education. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the
Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 13(3-4),
Citing online lecture notes or presentation

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Publication Year). Name or title of lecture [file format].
Retrieved from URL

APA format example:

Saito, T. (2012). Technology and me: A personal timeline of educational
technology [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from
Citing a general website article

 Citing a general website article with an author :

APA format structure:
Author, A. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL

 Citing a general website article without an author :

APA format structure:
Article title. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Retrieved from URL
Citing an episode from TV or radio show

APA format structure:

Writer, A. (Writer), & Director, A. (Director). (Year of Airing). Episode title
[Television series episode]. In Executive Producer, A. (Executive
Producer), TV series name. City, State of original channel: Channel.

APA format example:

Kang, K. (Writer), & Fryman, P. (Director). (2006). Slap bet [Television series
episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive Producer), How I met your mother. Los
Angeles, CA: Columbia Broadcasting System.