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Climate change is a change in the statistical

distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts
for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions
of years). Climate change may also refer to a change in
average weather conditions, or in the time variation of
weather within the context of longer-term
average conditions.

• Global warming
• Sea level rise
• Glacier melting
• Extreme weather
including longer summers
heat waves etc.

Climate change is caused by many factors such as

• Biotic processes
• Variations in solar radiations received by Earth’s surface
• Plate tectonics
• Volcanic eruptions
• Human activities
All these factors are playing their part in fluctuating
temperatures and weather events.

Over the past century, the planet’s average temperature has

risen by 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, according to the Environme-
-ntal Protection Agency. Based on current patterns, it is
projected to rise another 2 to 11.5 degrees Fahrenheit over the
next century.
Human Impact on Climate Change

• In fall 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change (IPCC) reported that: “It is extremely likely [95
to 100 percent] that human influence has been the
dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-
20th century.”
• Since the Industrial Revolution, we have been releasing
large quantities of gases into the atmosphere, including
carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons.

• A large portion of the carbon dioxide comes from the

burning of carbon-based fossil fuels such as coal and oil.
These gases linger in our atmosphere, blocking the planet’s
heat from escaping into space. We are, in effect, creating an
artificial greenhouse effect.
• During the past decade, evidence of our contribution to
global warming has continued to mount. For example:

 The IPCC reports that levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide rose

faster from 1995 to 2005 than they did since these levels were
first measured in 1960.
 According to NASA: “All three major global surface temperature
reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880. Most of
this warming has occurred since the 1970s.”
Effects of Rising Temperatures

If the earth’s heat cannot escape into space, it must disperse

itself elsewhere. Trapped by greenhouse gases, it is most frequently
absorbed by our oceans. According to numerous scientific reports:

• The top 2,300 feet of ocean indicate a gradual warming of 0.302

degrees Fahrenheit since 1969.
• The breadth and thickness of sea ice in both the Arctic and
Antarctic has decreased significantly in the last few decades.
• Globally, sea levels have risen 6.7 inches in the past century.
In addition, the IPCC warned in a 2014 report that sea levels
could rise as much as three feet by the end of the century if
emissions continue at their current pace.

Heat dispersal is not the only issue: The amount of carbon dioxide
absorbed by the upper layer of the ocean is increasing by an estimated
2 billion tons per year, which in turn is increasing the ocean’s acidity.
Since the Industrial Age, the acidity of ocean waters has risen by
approximately 30 percent.

As a result, our climate is becoming increasingly

unpredictable. Scientists point to record high and low
temperatures, more frequent extreme weather events,
significant changes in microclimates and increased
coastal flooding.
Sustainability towards Climate change
and Global Warming
Mitigating Global Warming

Nevertheless, the overall scientific consensus is that

global warming is real and dangerous. If we wish to
have a sustainable society built on sustainable energy
resources, governments and businesses need to take
direct and immediate action on climate change.
Those actions include:
• Investment in Low-Carbon Energy:
To meet climate targets, the 2014 IPCC report suggests
that annual investment in fossil fuel power plants will
need to decline by approximately 20 percent in the coming
two decades; investment in low-carbon energy will need to
• Taxing Carbon Emissions:
Wealthy countries are often sluggish about reducing high
carbon emissions and many developing countries are still
building coal-fired power plants; high taxes on carbon
emissions may be the only way to spur action.
• Higher Efficiency Standards:
The more energy we save, the less we have to create.
Stronger efficiency standards for items like vehicles,
buildings and consumer goods contribute to reduced
• Reforestation:
Forests and woodlands act as terrestrial carbon sinks,
soaking up atmospheric carbon dioxide. Efforts are underway
across the world to combat industrial deforestation.
• Individual Action:
There are plenty of steps that individuals can take to
reduce carbon emissions, including limiting vehicle use,
purchasing energy-efficient products and switching to
renewable energy sources.
Similarly, there are many sustainable or mitigatory
steps to stop or to reduce sea level rise and glacier melting