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CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION
TO ORGANISATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR
INTRODUCTION TO FACILITATORS

KIM SADIQAH MONIQUE AMINAH


RASMUS GALANT ROWE MOBARA
WHAT IS THE
PURPOSE OF THIS
WORKSHOP?

To make HR students more


employable in 2016 by using Robbins
theory and work done by Jack Welch
at GE.
GROUND RULES
ICE BREAKER
THE JOURNEY OF THIS WORKSHOP
Define How HR
Organisational Describing graduates
Behaviour the can be more
variables Explain employable
diagnostic in 2016
process Linking of
OB model to
work done
by Jack
Welch

(Mobara, Rasmus , Galant &


Rowe, 2015).
1. DEFINE ORGANISATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR

At the end of this outcome, learners must be


able to:

• Define the term organisational


behaviour and understand the
multidisciplinary nature of this field.

(Mobara et al., 2015).


• A collection of people who
work together to achieve
ORGANISATION organisational goals (Bagraim,
2005:3).

• Behaviour of individuals and


groups within the organisation
BEHAVIOUR as well as interaction between
members (Bagraim, 2005:4).

(Sikupela et al., 2013:7).


• “OB is a field of study that
investigates the impact of
individuals, groups and
Organisational structure have on behaviour
within organisations”
Behaviour (Robbins, Judge, Odendaal
& Roodt, 2009).

Organisation Behaviour OB

(Sikupela, Milanzi-Chilopora,
Kapandoro, Musakuro & Angukku,
2013:8).
ActIvIty1

(Mobara et al., 2015).


2. IDENTIFY AND DISTINGUISH THE
DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT
VARIABLES IN THE ROBBINS OB MODEL

At the end of this outcome, you should be able to:

• Identify and define dependent and independent


variables.
• Differentiate between dependent and
independent variables.
• Draw the OB model.

(Mobara et al., 2015).


WHAT IS A VARIABLE?

(Robbins et al., 2009:17).


THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES
DEPENDENT
DEFINITION
VARIABLE  Is the key factor
that you want to
predict and it is
affected by some
PRIMARY other factors.
DEPENDENT OR
VARIABLES OF OB  A response that is
 PRODUCTIVITY affected by an
 ABSENTEEISM independent
 TURNOVER variable.
 JOB SATISFACTION
 DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOUR
 ORGANISATIONAL CITIZENSHIP
BEHAVIOUR
 EFFECTIVENESS
 EFFICIENCY
 QUALITY
 RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI)
(Sikupela et al., 2013:15).
THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES CONTI..
Productivity • Is a performance measure that include effectiveness
and efficiency.
Absenteeism • Failure to report to work.

Turnover • Withdrawal from and organisation voluntary or


involuntary.
Job Satisfaction • Positive feeling about one’s job after an evaluation.

Deviant workplace behaviour • Anti-social behaviour, counter productive or


workplace inactivity.
Organisational • Discretionary behaviour that is not part of the formal job
citizenship behaviour requirements but that promotes the effective functioning of the
organisation.
• Achievement of goals or doing the right things.
Effectiveness

Efficiency • The use of less resources or the transfer of input or


output at the lowest level.

Quality • Standards of something as measured against similar


things or excellence.
ROI • Performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency
of an investment.
(Robbins et al., 2009:17).
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

(Robbins et al., 2009:61).


INDIVIDUAL LEVEL

(Sikupela et al., 2013:18).


GROUP
GROUP LEVELLEVEL
VARIABLES
The behaviour of people in groups is more than the sum total of all the
individuals acting on their own.

When we acknowledge that people behave differently in a group then


when they alone. Group behaviour is influenced by:

Group decision-making
Leadership and trust
Communication
Work teams
Group structure
Conflict
(Robbins & Judge,
Power and politics 2009:20).
ORGANISATION SYSTEM LEVEL

Work
Design and
Technology

Organisational
Organisational Structure and
Culture Design

Human
Resource
Policies and
Practice

(Robbins
Robbins&et
Judge 2009:66)
al (2009:66).
THE OB MODEL

Other DV’s are:


- Deviant workplace
behaviour
- Efficiency
- Effectiveness
- Quality
- ROI
Dale (2015).

(Robbins et al., 2009:21).


ACTIVITY 2:
3. EXPLAIN THE DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS

At the end of this outcome, you should


be able to:

• Understand how the diagnostic


process (pre-test, intervention, post-
test) works.

(Mobara et al., 2015).


THE DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS
• Measuring the
PRE-TEST dependent &
independent variables.
• Making
interventions on the
INTERVENTION
independent
variables.
• Re-measuring the
dependent and
POST-TEST independent
variables.
(Sikupela et al., 2013:23)
and (Mobara et al., 2015).
THE DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS CONT..

INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT
VARIABLE VARIABLE

(Mobara et al., 2015).


PRE-TEST
• Measure labour productivity (DV):
𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑
𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑒𝑠
• Measure individual motivation (IV):
Questionnaires, interviews, one-on-
one sessions.
(Mobara et al., 2015).
INTERVENTION

(Mobara et al., 2015).


POST-TEST
5 MONTHS LATER…
• Measure labour productivity (DV):
𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑
𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑒𝑠
• Measure individual motivation (IV):
Questionnaires, interviews, one-on-one
sessions.
(Mobara et al., 2015).
END RESULT
Successful  Unsuccessful 
• Employee motivation • Diagnostic process (pre-test,
heightened through the intervention, post-test) to
intervention which results be carried out again.
in an increase in labour
productivity.
ACTIVITY 3:CHOC QUIZ

1. Identify the IV and DV variable?


2. Mention 2 research instruments
used?
3. Name the intervention which was
implemented at the Media
company?
4. Indicate the 3 elements included in
the diagnostic process? (Mobara et al., 2015).
4. LINKAGE OF OB MODEL TO WORK
DONE BY JACK WELCH

At the end of this outcome, you should be able to:

• Recognise who Jack Welch is.


• Highlight issues experienced at GE.
• Identify interventions used by Jack Welch and link
it to the OB model.

(Mobara et al., 2015).


INTRODUCTION TO JACK WELCH
(Welch, 2001).
ISSUES EXPERIENCED AT GENERAL
ELECTRIC

ISSUES AT GE
INTERVENTIONS USED BY JACK WELCH
LINKED TO THE OB MODEL
Organisation • Jack’s Values to
change the culture at
system level GE.

• 4Es and a P to change


Group level the leadership and
trust at GE.

Individual • Vitality curve to


improve individual
level motivation at GE.

(Mobara et al., 2015).


ORGANISATION SYSTEM LEVEL
INTERVENTION

Clear communication

Understand accountability and


commitment

Eliminate bureaucracy

Develop global brains

Stimulate and relish change

Boundryless organisation

Speed and accuracy

(Mobara et al., 2015).


GROUP LEVEL INTERVENTION
• High energy from managers is pivotal
Energy
• A manager must have the ability to brighten
Energize others their employees

• Managers must have the ability and


Edge confidence to take tough decisions without
the fear of being disliked

• Focus on figuring out how to get the job


Execution done

• Passion is what holds the E’s together.


Passion Manager must be passionate about goals

(Mobara et al., 2015).


INDIVIDUAL LEVEL INTERVENTION

(Mobara et al., 2015).


PURPOSE OF JACK’S INTERVENTIONS AT
GE
- Productivity
4E’s Jack’s
H - Job satisfaction
and 1P Values
I - Efficiency
G - Effectiveness
H - Citizenship Vitality
Curve
E - Return on
Investments
R
- Quality
L

- Labour turnover O

- Absenteeism W To Create optimal


- Deviant workplace E organisational
behaviour R performance!
(Mobara et al., 2015).
ACTIVITY 4: POP QUIZ

1. List the three interventions (as discussed in the


presentation) which were used by Jack Welch.

2. Describe what you understand by the term “edge”.

3. The _ _ _ _ _ _ system supports the vitality curve.

(Mobara et al., 2015).


5. MAKE HR STUDENTS MORE
EMPLOYABLE IN 2016

At the end of this outcome, you should be able to:

• Observe how to apply yourself during


an interview by using Robbins theory
linked to interventions used by Jack
Welch.
(Mobara et al., 2015).
QUESTIONS
References
Dale, J.G. 2015. Organisational Behaviour: Other dependent variables. Cape
Town: Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

Mobara, A., Rasmus, K.K., Galant, S. & Rowe, M.J. 2015. Making HR students
more employable in 2016 by linking Robbins OB model to work done by Jack
Welch at GE. Cape Town: Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

Robbins, S.P., Judge, T.A., Odendaal, A. & Roodt, G. 2009. Organisational


Behaviour. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa (Pty) Ltd.

Sikupela, Z., Milanzi-Chilopora, G., Kapondoro, L., Musakuro, R. & Angukku, F.


2013: Introduction to Organizational Behavior Chapter 1: Cape Town: Cape
Peninsula Univeristy of Technology.

Welch, J. 2001. Straight from the gut. New York: Warner Books.