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INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
CHEMISTRY – a science that deals with the
Study of matter and the changes it undergoes
-Branch pertaining to composition and
Structure of matter, its changes it undergoes
and the energy which accompanies the
changes
HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY
a. PREHISTORIC MAN – used metals made pottery
and bricks
b. 400 B.C – beginning of Chemistry as a Science;
this was then a theory was proposed that
everything is composed of the 4
basic elements.

c. 1ST CENTURY (CHRISTIAN ERA) – combination


ENERGYand Egyptians took pla
of the arts of theGreeks
- 1ST BOOK OF CHEMISTRY- Egypt
- ALCHEMY (changing of metals) – China
HISTORY
d. TWELFTH CETURY – Alchemy reached Europe
through Spain
e. 16TH- 17TH CENTURY – Chemistry applied in
Medicine, study of gas,
quantitative experimentation
- 1st book of Chemistry was written in 1597 by
Charles Boyle, “THE SKEPTICAL CHEMIST”
f. 18th CENTURY- Phlogiston Theory (Substance in
combustible material given off when burned)
- Antoine Lavoisier discovered O2, the
beginning of modern Chemistry
g. 19th- 20th CENTURY – The Atomic Theory
(Dalton), periodic law and theories of the
structure of atom led to modern theory of the
nature of matter; further development and
application of these are carefully taking place.
IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY TO MAN

• CHEMISTRY IN INDUSTRY – applied in


manufacture of paints, plastics, iron and steel
bars, gasoline, glass, rubber, fabrics, cement,
kerosene, motor oil, fertilizers, insecticides,
natural and synthetic drugs, wood, instant food,
cosmetic, et, In the Philippines, farmers,
besides applying fertilizers, apply chemicals to
induce fruiting that give rise to out of season
fruits like mangoes in December and lanzones
in May,
• CHEMISTRY IN DIFFERENT PROFESSIONS –
The following individuals need Chemistry in the
practice of their profession; engineers,
salesmen, farmers, lawyers, (paraffin tests/ DNA
plating), doctors, pharmacists, biologists, food
technologists, nutritionists, teachers,
carpenters, nurses;

• Chemistry is applied when salt, vinegar, and


other spices are used in the preparation of
preserved milk fish;
• These chemicals stop enzymatic activities
prevent spoilage and medicinal purposes
• CHEMISTRY FOR PROGRESS – improvement of
home, economic living (development of writing
materials from paper to linen to parchment to
papyrus.
• Development from black and white to sepia to
color prints; coking, wood as a source of heat
to charcoal to electricity to kerosene to LPG to
microwave.
MAIN DIVISIONS/ BRANCHES
The test that identifies the presence of
ozone in the
a. INORGANIC atmosphere
CHEMISTRY – study ofthrough
all elements
color changes:
and compounds that do not contain carbon.
b. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – study of carbon-
containing compounds
c. ANAYTICAL CHEMISTRY – study that deals with
: • Schoenbein
• Richardson
1. Qualitative Analysis – ionic composition and
• ofLugol’s
properties matter: WHAT?
2. Quantitative Analysis – amount of
• Benedict’s
components present in a substance: HOW
MUCH?
d. BIOCHEMISTRY – the study of
Chemistry of living things:
- C, P, F/L, N.A

e. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – study of


the structure of matter, energy
changes, and the laws and
principles and theories that explain
BIOREMEDIATION
the transformation of one form to
another.
GREAT MINDS.
GREAT
CONTRIBUTIONS.
1. ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743- 1794)
• French Chemist
• Founder of Modern Chemistry
• Demonstrated that OXYGEN gas in air is involved in the combustion or
burning
• Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (1789) – new system of chemistry based on
modern concepts and conservation of mass in chemical reactions.
• System of naming chemical substances – CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE

2. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822- 1895)


• French chemist; Founder of Microbiology
• Studied the structure of crystals which made breakthroughs in medicine,
chemistry and industry
• Contradicted and disproved the Theory of Spontaneous Generation
• Pasteurization – controlled heating process for sterility of medium
3. MARIE CURIE (1867- 1934)
•French physicist famous for her research in
RADIOACTIVITY
•Discovered two elements --- POLONIUM & RADIUM
together with husband
•Nobel Prize Awardee in Physics 1903 with Pierre Curie and
Henri Becquerel
•2nd time Nobel Prize Awardee in Chemistry 1911 for
isolation of radium and its properties
•X- ray use during WW1

4. LINUS CARL PAULING (1901- 1994)


•American chemist; contributed much in Structural
Chemistry & Molecular Biology
• The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of
Molecules and Chemistry (1939)
•Nobel Prize Awardee in Chemistry 1954 --- Chemical
Bonding, Structure of Proteins
• Nuclear Weapon Testing in WW2 – Nobel Prize 1963
FILIPINO
CHEMISTS &
THEIR
CONTRIBUTIONS
1. JULIAN A. BANZON, 2. CLARA Y. LIM- SYLIANCO,
Ph.D Ph.D (B. 1925)
(1908- 1988) • Teacher in biochemistry &
organic chemistry; scientist
• Biophysical chemist
• Study of mutagens
• Philippine palm or (substances that increase
coconut proving how it the rate of mutation of
can be a renewable cells), antimutagens and
source of chemicals and bioorganic mechanisms.
fuels.
• Medicinal plants
• Researcher and
demonstrator on 2 • Research in UP was
Philippine indigenous passed on to Washington
crops --- coconut and DC, U.S.A
sugarcane.
3. LUZ OLIVEROS 4. ALFREDO
BELARDO, Ph.D SANTOS, Ph.D
(1906- 1999) (1900- 1990)
• Scholar in • Trained in
phytochemistry pharmaceutical
• Essential oils from chemistry
Philippine medicinal • Natural products
plants and medicinal
plants
• Flavors from these oils
have appetite • Structure of
enhancers and curing alkaloids
properties. • Less costly
imported raw
• Phytochemical analysis materials for
for herbal medication medicine
1. ISHMAEL D. ORDONEZ, Ph.D (2000)
• Materials science for microelectronics
assembly, polymers, photchemistry,
photocatalysis, rechargeable batteries, free
radical mechanism against cancer
• UP Diliman --- research laboratory,
professorial level
2. CHRISTINA A.
BINAG, Ph.D (2001)
• Polymer- based
chemical sensors & 3. MARY ANN A.
biosensors, ENDOMA Ph.D
electrochemistry, (2003)
REDOX property of • Synthetic organic
conductive polymers. chemistry
• Sensor technology • Synthesis of ant- cancer
products from
Philippine plants
• 3rd World Academy of
Sciences Science Prize
2003
Logical
• process or an
organized planevidences
gathering for to arrive a
answer

Used to answer a question or


give a solution to a problem

•It is not a linear process but a


cyclic process.
Steps in Scientific Method
•Identifying the problem
•Gathering data
•Formulating a hypothesis
•Experimentation
•Analysis of the data
•Conclusion
Scientific question is answered not by personal
opinion, values and judgment
Controlled Experiment – Tests the effect
of one variable while the other variables
are constant or unchanged

Variable – any factor that can change in


an experiment.
a. Independent variable- changed
variable in the experiment
-Manipulated variable
b. Dependent variable- gives the
changes in the experiment
-Responding variable

Control Group- basis or the generic


SCIENTIFIC THINKING
SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

• Foundation for critical thinking


• Scientific inquiry requires students to
• Traits and attitudes required
use higher order thinking skills as
they learn science using a hands-on • The cause and effect of scientific inquiry
minds-on approach. Inquiry's
foundation has its roots in John • 3 COMPONENTS:
Dewey's book Democracy in 1. Empiricism: The Use of Empirical Evidence -
Education (1916) Empirical evidence is evidence that one can
• Science is an error correcting see, hear, touch, taste, or smell; it is
process. evidence that is susceptible to one's senses.
• This is evidenced when students:
 ask questions during an investigation 2. Rationalism: The Practice of Logical
 design their own investigations Reasoning
 conduct investigations using their • Scientists and critical thinkers always use
design logical reasoning.
 formulate explanations of findings
 present their findings 3. Skepticism: Possessing a Skeptical Attitude
 reflect upon their findings The final key idea in science and critical
thinking is skepticism, the constant
questioning of your beliefs and conclusions.
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Describing Matter
How would you describe yourself so
that someone else could identify you?

• On a separate sheet of paper, write as


many physical descriptions of yourself as
you can. Do not put your name on the
paper.
Physical Properties
• A property of matter that can be observed or
measured without changing the identity of the
matter.
• Physical properties identify matter.
– Examples include but are not limited to:
• Density
• Malleability
• Ductility
• Solubility
• State
• Thermal Conductivity
Physical Properties
• Density
• Amount of mass in a given volume
• A substance is always the same at a given pressure and
temperature regardless of the size of the sample of the
substance.
• The density of one substance is usually different from that of
another substance.
• Density equals mass divided by volume.
– D=m/v
Physical Properties
• Malleability
• The ability to be pounded into thin sheets.
– Example:
– Aluminum can be rolled or pounded into sheets to make
foil.

• Ductility
• The ability to be drawn or pulled into a wire
– Example
– Copper in wiring – soldering wires or joints
Physical Properties
• Solubility
• The ability to dissolve in another substance.
• Example:
– Sugar or salt dissolve in water
• Three ways to increase solubility
– Heat or make warmer
– Grind or smash
– Stir or mix
Physical Properties
• State of Matter
• The physical form in which a substance exists at
room temperature, such as:
– Solid – matter has a definite shape and volume
– Liquid – matter takes the shape of its container and has a
definite volume
– Gas – matter changes in both shape and volume
Physical Property

• Thermal Conductivity
• The ability to transfer thermal energy from
one area to another.
– Examples:
– Plastic foam is a poor conductor, so a hot drink
won’t burn your hand.
– The inside of the toaster (hot coils)
Chemical Property
• A property of matter that describes a
substance based on its ability to change into a
new substance with different properties.
• Combustibility
• Flammability
• Reactivity
– Acids
– Bases
– Oxidation
Chemical Property

 Can be observed with your senses.


 Are Not as easy to observe as physical properties
Example:
 Flammability – Only when wood burns
 Combustibility – Only when fireworks explode
 Reactivity – Only when iron Oxidizes (rust)
Physical Change
• A change that affects one or more physical
properties of a substance.
• Do Not form new substances.
• Can often be Undone
– Example Butter on counter can be placed back in
refrigerator.
– Change of State
• Solid to Liquid
• Liquid to Gas
Chemical Change
• A change that occurs when one or more substances are
changed into entirely new substances with different
properties.
• Can Not change back under normal conditions (some can be
changed back by other chemical means)
• Common Examples:
– Reactivity – Oxidation (rust) on a bicycle
– pH (Acid / Base) – Effervescent tablets
– Flammability – Burnt wood
– Combustibility - Fireworks
5 Signs of a Chemical
Change
• The only sure way to know there has been a
chemical change is the observance of a new
substance formed

• Sometimes that is hard to do, so look for the


signs…….
Sign 1 a Chemical Change
• Odor Production-this is an odor far
different from what it should smell like
• Ex: Rotting eggs, food in fridge,
decomposing flesh
2nd Sign of a Chemical Change
• Change in Temperature
• Exothermic-When energy is released do
during the chemical change ex: wood
burning
Change in Temperature

• Endothermic- Energy is absorbed causing a


decrease in temperature of the reactant
material ex: cold pack in first aid kit
3rd Sign of a Chemical Change

Change in Color
Ex: fruit changing color when it ripens, leaves
changing color in the Autumn, dying your hair
4th sign of a Chemical Change

• Formation of Bubbles
• This can indicate the presence of a gas.
Bubbles produced when boiling water is
not a chemical change.
5th Sign of a Chemical Change

• Formation of a Precipitate
• When two liquids are combined and a solid is
produced
1. An ice cube has a volume of 36 cmᴲ. If the ice cube has a mass of
33.2g, what is the density of the ice cube?

2. What is the process of turning solid into gas?

3. Give 6 examples of physical properties.

4. Give 3 examples of chemical properties.

5. Give the steps in scientific method.

6. Give one Filipino Scientist and his/her contributions.

7. Short timeline of the History of Chemistry