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Learning Objectives

• To understand network criteria.

• To explain the difference types of topologies.
• To understand the difference between physical &
logical topology.

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• A network is a set of devices (Often referred to as

nodes ) connected by communication links .
• A node can be a Computer ,Printer , Switch , Router
or any other device capable of sending or receiving
data generated by other nodes on the Network.

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Network Criteria

A network must be able to meet a certain number of

criteria .The most important of these are :

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Network Topology

Network topology is the layout pattern of

interconnections of the various elements (links,
nodes etc.) of a computer network. Network
topologies may be physical or logical

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Physical Topology

• Physical topology defines how the systems are

physically connected. It represents the physical
layout of the devices on the network.
• Physical topology means the physical design of a
network including the devices, location and cable
• These five types include:
• Bus
• Ring
• Star
• Hybrid or tree
• Mesh
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Mesh Topology

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Mesh Topology

• In a mesh topology every device has a dedicated

point–to-point link to every other device.
• To connect n devices ,we require n(n-1) /2 physical
channels .

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• The use dedicated links guarantees that each

connection can carry its own data load.
• It provide privacy and security.
• Points to point links make fault identification easy.
• The mesh topology is robust.
• No traffic problem as there are dedicated links

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• The main disadvantage are related to the amount of

cabling and the number of I/O ports required.
• There is mesh of wiring which can be difficult to
• Installation is complex as each node is connected to
every node.

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Star Topology

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Star Topology

• In a star topology each device has a dedicated link

only to a central controller usually called a hub.

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• A star topology is less expensive than mesh

• Each device needs only one link and one I/O port to
connect with other device.
• The star topology is robust.
• Fault identification is easy.
• Easy to add new stations
• Easy to monitor and troubleshoot

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• More cabling is required in a star than in other

topologies (except mesh).
• Entire network collapse if central controller fails.

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Bus Topology

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Bus Topology

• A bus topology is multipoint .

• One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the
devices in a network.
• A terminator is required at each end of the bus cable
to prevent the signal from bouncing back and forth on
the bus cable. A signal from the source travels in
both directions to all machines connected on the bus
cable until it finds the MAC address or IP address on
the network that is the intended recipient

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• Ease of installation.
• Uses less cabling than mesh or a star.
• Easy to implement and extend
• Typically the least cheapest topology to implement
• Failure of one station does not affect others
• Good for small networks

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• Difficult to administer/troubleshoot
• A cable break can disable the entire network.
• Performance degrades as additional computers are
• Unmanageable in a large network
• Out-of-date technology

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Ring Topology

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Ring Topology

In a ring topology each device has a dedicated point-to-

point connection only with the two devices on either
side of it .

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Ring Topology

• In local area networks where the ring topology is

used, each computer is connected to the network in a
closed loop or ring. Each machine or computer has a
unique address that is used for identification
purposes. The signal passes through each machine
or computer connected to the ring in one direction.
Ring topologies typically utilize a token passing
scheme, used to control access to the network

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Ring Topology

• By utilizing this scheme, only one machine can

transmit on the network at a time. The machines or
computers connected to the ring act as signal
boosters or repeaters which strengthen the signals
that traverse the network. The primary disadvantage
of ring topology is the failure of one machine will
cause the entire network to fail.

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• Costs are usually low

• Very orderly network where every device has access
to the token and the opportunity to transmit
• Performs better than a bus topology under heavy
network load
• Does not require network server to manage the
connectivity between the computers

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• Failure of one computer may impact others .

• Unidirectional traffic can be a disadvantages.
• Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the
• Network adapter cards are much more expensive
than Ethernet cards and hubs
• Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal

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Tree Topology

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Tree Topology

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• Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.

• Supported by several hardware and software

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• Overall length of each segment is limited by the type

of cabling used.
• If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes
• More difficult to configure and wire than other

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Logical Topology

• The Logical topology defines how the systems

communicate across the physical topologies.
• refers to how data is actually transferred in a network
as opposed to its physical design.
• the way that the data passes through the network
from one device to the next without regard to the
physical interconnection of the devices. A network's
logical topology is not necessarily the same as its
physical topology.

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Logical Topology

• the path that the data takes between nodes being

used to determine the topology as opposed to the
actual physical connections being used to determine
the topology

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Logical Topology
• Logical topologies are often closely associated with
media access control (MAC) methods and protocols.
The logical topologies are generally determined by
network protocols as opposed to being determined by
the physical layout of cables, wires, and network devices
• or by the flow of the electrical signals, although in many
cases the paths that the electrical signals take between
nodes may closely match the logical flow of data, hence
the convention of using the terms 'logical topology' and
'signal topology' interchangeably.
• Logical topologies are able to be dynamically
reconfigured by special types of equipment such as
routers and switches

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Logical Topology

• For example, twisted pair Ethernet is a logical bus

topology in a physical star topology layout. While
IBM's Token Ring is a logical ring topology, it is
physically set up in a star topology.

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• An internet is two or more networks that can

communicate with each other.
• Internet is a collaboration of more than hundreds of
thousands interconnected networks.
• This extra ordinary communication system came into
being in 1969.

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• The Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) in

the department of Defense (DOD) was interested to
connect computers so that researchers can share
their findings and thus reducing costs and eliminating
duplication of effort.
• The first network came into being in 1969 and that

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• Network Control Protocol (NCP) provided

communication between hosts.

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• The internet has revolutionized many aspects of our

daily life.
• It has affected the way we do business.
• It has effected the way we spend our leisure time.
• To paid a utility bill.
• To read news papers.
• We may research on any type of article.
• To make a hotel reservation.
• To make chatting with other peoples.

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 End of the Lecture

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