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Making an action

Research

Pedrito G. Mercurio
Sevilla’s Farm and Resort
Lucena City
July 3 – 5, 2014
Specific Objectives:
1.Review the meaning of action research;
2.Discuss the importance of conducting an
action research; and
3. Explain the guidelines in writing an
action research.
A -Analyze the existing n
C -condition of the school as an organization

T -through offering

I -innovative programs and services in

O -order to create a
N -nurturing and life – giving community through

Research.
Introduction (The Problem and Its Background)

The first part of the action research


Must arouse the interest of the readers
Must convince the readers that the research is worth
reading
Discussed the original source of the problem
 An explanation of the circumstances which prompted
the researcher to consider the study
 Described the observed prevailing and existing
conditions related to the problem (to justify the choice
of the study)
Points to consider in making a good
introduction:
•Describe the situation under which the problem exists;
•Discuss the felt problem or a phenomenon that must be
solved;
• Discuss the nature of the study that begins with a
broad perspective;
• Present empirical or experiential observations and
other conditions related to the study;
• To give credibility and to reinforce what is presented,
quotations or statements of experts regarding the
problem may be discussed.
•Results of researches which clearly show the presence
of a problem may also be shown.
•Legal bases of the action research such as
Presidential decrees, letters of instruction,
DepEd/CHED memoranda, bulletins, the Philippine
Constitution or others which are to be used as the
bases of the study should be presented;
•The relationship of the legal basis/es should be
clearly discussed;

The reasons that prompted the researcher to


conduct an action research must be clearly
presented in the last paragraph.
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
•This portion consists of a synthesis of theories
or principles which are closely related to the
action research.
•It serves as the theoretical backbone of the
problem being investigated.
•It develops the theoretical basis of the study
and discusses how the factors to be investigated
interrelate with one another.
•The synthesis of theories which the researcher
has decided to use as the framework of the
study is translated into models or paradigms.
•The paradigm is the schematic diagram which
shows the variables included in the action
research.
•Arrows and lines are placed and connected
between figures to show the relationship
between and/or among the variables.
The theoretical framework may be organized
as follows:

•Present the theory upon which the action research is


anchored in one or two sentences.

•Discuss how this theory is related to the present


study.

• Explain the observed relationships among the


variables.
• Sketch the model or paradigm of the study. Include
the key features of the framework.
•The words “Theoretical/Conceptual Framework” must
be introduced by a statement.
• The conceptual framework is a formulation of the
conceptual scheme for the researcher’s problem
which is a tentative explanation of the problem
he/she is going to investigate.
•The action research may have only a theoretical
framework or a conceptual framework. The
theoretical/conceptual framework may be summed
up into paradigm/schematic diagram showing the
variables of the problem and their
interrelationships.
• A research problem is anchored on a theory or concept.
Hence, strict consistency should be observed in the title
of the statement of the problem, hypothesis/es, and in
the conclusions.
•Inasmuch as the thesis is theory-oriented, the
conclusion should state that theory/concept is either
true or false and that it needs further validation,
development or modification.
Statement of the Problem
The problem to be investigated is one which
arises from a crisis or from unresolved
difficulties. Bear in mind that:
•The statement of the problem usually starts with a general
objective followed by specific or sub-problems stated in
question form.

•The problem should be stated precisely, accurately and


clearly.
•It be defined in terms of the data that can be obtained.

Other things to consider when formulating and stating


the problems and sub-problems:
•A Thesaurus helps the researcher find the exact word.
•Avoid the use of polysyllabic words if shorter words will do.
•Use simple and short sentences with phrases and clauses in
proper order.
•Specific questions must be logically arranged and should start
with “what”, “how”, “To what extent”, etc.
•The heading “Statement of the Problem” must be introduced by
a paragraph containing the main objective of the study.
•The word “Statement of the Problem” is flushed with the left
margin, highlighted and with the first letters capitalized.

The Hypothesis of the Study
A hypothesis is a prediction about the outcome of
the study in terms of the variables being investigated. It
serves as a tentative answer to one or more specific
problems and is subjected to a statistical test.
The hypothesis should be stated in a testable form.
The level of significance usually at 0.05 level should
be set before testing.
The null hypothesis should be stated.
The “Hypotheses” should be introduced by an
introductory statement .
The word “Hypotheses” is flushed with the left
margin, highlighted and with the first letter
capitalized.
Significance of the Study
•A clear explanation of the reason for the conduct of the study
should be discussed in this part of the action research.
•It should explain why the problem being investigated is important
and the possible significance of the results.
•It should also include the people or groups of people who may
benefit from the study as well as benefits that they may get from it.
•It should also present the probable impact of the study to
education, society, and other researchers.
•The groups that will benefit most should be presented in the
second paragraph and the other groups in the subsequent
paragraph. The first paragraph contains the introduction.
•It must also include a discussion of the study’s relevance to felt
needs, its potential contribution to new knowledge as well as policy
implication in education.

Guidelines :
The paragraphs should be arranged according to its
impact on the groups who shall benefit from the study.

The Significance of the Study” must be introduced by


a paragraph in two to three sentences.
The number of paragraphs after the introductory
paragraph depends upon the number of groups who
shall benefit from the study.
The word “Significance of the Study” is flushed with
the left margin, highlighted and with the first letters
capitalized.
Definition of Terms
•Start this portion of the study with an introductory
statement.
•Define only those terms that are basic to the action
research being conducted.
•Some of the terms to be defined may be common
words but may have different meanings to different
people.
•The words should be defined operationally. However,
there are words that may be defined conceptually.
These words get their meaning from the dictionary or
other material.
Other things to consider:
Every word to be defined should be indented, highlighted and
ended with a period. Only the first letter of every word is
capitalized.
All conceptual definitions must be acknowledged following the
documentation format of the school.
Only words related to the variables used in the action research
will have to be defined.
Terms to be defined should be alphabetically arranged. However,
if specific terms are components of a broader term, they must be
presented under the said broader term. Component terms should
also be highlighted, ended in a period, but indented twice or 10
spaces using double tabs.
The word “Definition of Terms” is flushed with the left margin,
highlighted and with the first letters capitalized.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This section discusses the nature, coverage and time
frame of the study. To be more specific, this part should
include the following:
Extent of the Study
•the information included in the title of the study
population or respondents
the sample drawn from this population
the variables or factors involved
the period covered by the study
Limitations of the Study
accepted shortcomings of the study e.g. due to time
constraints, the researcher was not able to use a larger
sample hence limiting the coverage of the study.
boundaries or areas where the findings of the research
cannot be applied.
The word “Scope and Limitation of the Study” is flushed with the left
margin, highlighted and with the first letters capitalized.
Research Methodology
•The statement of the method of research used and the
justification is an essential part of the action research.
•Justification can take the form of identifying the
purpose/emphasis of the method to be used in undertaking the
study.
•Methodology includes the research design, research locale,
research population and sample, data gathering design including
instrumentation, and statistical treatment of data.
The Research Designs
•Research method employed by the researcher should be
thoroughly discussed. Brief description of method employed
should be presented in the light of the present investigation.
Research Locale
• Descriptions of the research environment should be clearly presented in
this section. Reason for choosing this particular research venue should be
spelled out.
Research Population and Sample
•The description of the population and the selection of the
samples and the detailed description of the sampling procedure
employed by the researcher should be presented in this section.
If the total population is included in the study, then the selection
of samples is no longer essential. The population, samples and
percentage of samples must be shown in a table.
Instrumentation
•The main instrument used as well as the techniques in gathering valuable data
and information about the study should be properly stated.
•A description of the adoption, construction, validation and administration of
instruments should be included.
•Three kinds of instruments can be used. These are the standardized instruments,
non-standardized instruments previously used in studies in the same problem
areas as well as new instruments constructed for the purpose of utilizing them
for the investigation under consideration.
•In the construction of the questionnaire, indicate how one is able to acquire
knowledge and insights in devising it.
•Identify the parts of the instrument by stating what each part is all about.

•The validation process should indicate what and how it is done. For
standardized instrument, it is sufficient to merely identify the instrument
used. However, pretesting of the non-standardized instrument used in other
studies and the researcher-made instrument is essential to establish the
validity and reliability of the instrument, hence the need for the dry-run or
trail-run to a group of respondents not included in the actual study.
•Before the final draft of the instrument is distributed to the
respondents, permission to administer the instruments should
be sought.
•Administration and retrieval of the instrument should be
done by the researcher.

•The other instruments/ techniques used in the


process of conducting the study and reasons for
utilizing them should be incorporated following the
acceptable format.
Note: In case of experiments, this section should include
instructions given to the participants, the formation of groups,
the experimental manipulations, and the control features in the
experimental design. Also, point out the limitation in the
procedures which may have effects on the research result.
Statistical Treatment of Data
This portion of the research paper includes the statistical
tools to be employed in analyzing the data. The formula is
included.
•Provide an introductory statement enumerating the statistical
formulas to be used.
•Indicate the statistical formulas for every specific problem.
•The presentation of the statistical formulas must follow the
order of the specific problems in the “Statement of the
Problem”.
•Null hypothesis should be rejected/ accepted at 0.05 percent
level of significance.
•Statistical computations may be manual or computer-
processed with the assistance of a statistician. Analysis and
interpretation of computed data should be done by the
researcher.
•Weighted average may be 3-point or 4-point scaled.
•Data analysis may be quantitative and/
or qualitative.
•Quantitative analysis uses statistics and a
description of the statistical methods of testing
the null hypothesis. This procedure is done in
quantitative designs such as descriptive and
experimental designs.
•However, qualitative and quantitative
methods may be combined. Richie and Lewis
(2003: 39) show how the said methods can be
combined.
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
•This section should begin with an introduction stating
the score of the action research.
•The subdivisions and order of presentation of this
section depend upon the number of specific questions
stipulated in the Statement of the Problem.
•This section presents the summary of the data
gathered and the results of the statistical analysis
presented in tabular, textual or in graphical form.
Things to remember in:
Presenting Data
•All collected data should be presented in tabular form; however,
unnecessary tabulated data may be placed in the Appendix for
reference. Quantitative researches should indicate in the tables
results of the statistics, degree of freedom and the level of
significance.
l Data of less than three categories must not be tabulated.
Analyzing Data
•When analyzing tabulated data, be sure to report in the text only relevant
data. Individual averages, scores, ranks, and percentage should not be
reported. Highlights in table as in the individual who ranked first or last or the
group’s weighted mean or mean performance should be given attention in
the analysis.
•Data should be analyzed objectively and logically by emphasizing facts
and not personal opinions.
•The researcher should carefully note all relevant results especially
those that run counter to the hypothesis.
Interpreting Data
•The analysis should be strengthened by interviews or observation
conducted by the researcher to the respondents and by citing statements
from authors/ authorities and the finding, similar or somewhat
contradicting in the studies reviewed. Sources must be acknowledged
following the (Author, year) format.

•Interpretations of findings must include implications and factors which


may have affected the outcomes of the research. All conditions which may
have limited the generalizations of the findings due to the weaknesses of
the research design, instruments/ techniques or population should be
discussed thoroughly.

Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations


The last part of the action research paper contains an overview of the
research study. It gives a brief restatement of the problem, procedure, findings as
well as the recommendations after drawing out the conclusions.
Summary of Findings
•The summary of findings briefly recapitulates the entire content
of the study. The specific questions raised in the Statement of the
Problem are followed by their corresponding answers.
•Each specific question must be answered clearly and concisely.
Analytic and interpretative discussions should not be repeated.

Conclusions
•Conclusions should be drawn based on the actual findings of
the study. Broad generalizations not adequately supported by
data should be avoided.
•If findings/ results have modified the theoretical/conceptual
framework, the conclusion should contradict the theory/
concept used. However, a discussion for the re-
conceptualization of the research framework must be
presented as summary paragraph.
Recommendations
•Recommendations should be functional to the
sectors/ agencies concerned.
•They should be gleaned from the findings and
conclusions.
•Recommendations should be stated in terms of
the policies/ issues/ concerns arising from the
study.
•It should include at least three suggested topics
for further evaluation and research.
QOUTATIONS
AND
REFERENCE CITATIONS
Plagiarism Defined
Plagiarism refers to:
• the false assumption of authorship: the
wrongful act of taking the product of another
person’s mind, and presenting it as one’s own.
•the use of another person’s ideas, information,
or expressions without acknowledging that
person’s work constitutes intellectual theft.
•the passing of another person’s ideas,
information, or expressions as your own to get a
better grade or gain some other advantage.
Consequences of Plagiarism

Plagiarism is almost always seen as a


shameful act. Plagiarists are pitied
because they have demonstrated their
inability to develop and express their
own thoughts, and are scorned too
because of their dishonesty and their
willingness to deceive others for
personal gains.
According to MLA (2003), you have plagiarized if:

• you took notes that did not distinguish summary and


paraphrase from quotation and then you presented wording
from the notes as if it were all your own.
•while browsing the Web, you copied the text and pasted it into
your paper without quotation marks or without citing the
source.
•you presented fax without saying where you found them.
•you repeated or paraphrased someone’s wordings without
acknowledgement.
•you took someone’s unique or particularly apt phrase without
acknowledgement.
•you paraphrase someone’s argument or presented someone’s
line of thought without acknowledgement.
•you bought or otherwise acquired a research paper and
handed in part or all of it as your own.
You can avoid plagiarism by:
•making a list of the writers and viewpoints
you discovered in your research and using this
list to double-check the presentation of
materials in your paper.
•keeping the following three categories distinct
in your notes: your ideas, your summaries of
other’s materials, and the exact wordings you
copy.
•identifying the sources of all materials you
barrow-exact wordings, paraphrase, ideas,
argument, and facts.
Types of Quoting

Direct quoting is done when the:


idea cannot be put in a better manner
contrast of opposing ideas makes the precise, working
of the author essential, and
the author is clearly an authority in the field being
discussed.

Paraphrasing or Translating Quotation is:


expressing the meaning of a passage in approximately
the same number of words, using your own
phraseology. The source of the idea, however, should
also be cited.
Mechanics of Direct Quoting
Quoting is effective in research papers when used
selectively. Over quotation can bore your readers and
might lead them to conclude that you are neither an
original thinker nor a skilful writer.
Quote only words, phrases, lines passages that are
particularly interesting, vivid, unusual, or apt, and
keep all quotations as brief as possible.
Changes must not be made in the spelling,
capitalization or interior punctuation of the source.
The whole quotation must be enclosed in double
quotation marks.
Use single quotation marks if a quote is within a
quotation.
Whenever omitting a word, a phrase, a sentence, or
more from quoted passage, you must use ellipsis
point, or three space period (…), to indicate that your
quotation does not completely reproduce the
original. However, for ellipsis at the end of the
quotations, use three periods with a space and one
period after the last (…).
Direct quotations of less than five typewritten lines
should be integrated in the text, and simply enclosed
in quotation marks. Direct quotations of more than
five lines are indented 10 spaces and are typed
single-spaced. The quotation is also indented five
spaces from the right hand margin.
Mechanics of Translating/ Paraphrasing Original
Texts
The accuracy of quotations in research writing is
extremely important. Hence, the following guidelines
in translating/ paraphrasing should be observed:

Translated and paraphrased quotations must


reproduce the original sources exactly in meaning.
You must construct a clear, grammatically correct
sentence that allows you to introduce a quotation in
its complete accuracy.
Paraphrasing the original and quoting
only fragments may be easier to integrate
into the text.
Translations of foreign words will help
readers understand unfamiliar words in
the quotations. However, extra care must
be exercised especially in the choice of
words.
Translated and paraphrased quotations
must, likewise, be acknowledged.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH!
GOD BLESS US ALL!