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The Cavite mutiny of was an uprising of military personnel

of Fort San Felipe,the Spanish arsenal in

Cavite,Philippines on January 20,1872.Around 200
soldiers and laborers rose up in the belief that it would
elevate to a national uprising.The mutiny was
unsuccessful,and government soldiers executed many of
the participants and began to crack down on a
burgeoning nationalist movement.Many scholars believe
that the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was the beginning of
Filipino nationalism that would eventually lead to the
Philippine Revolution of 1896.
This event has been unforgettable and reflected in the 12
events that changed influenced the Philippine History in
a major way.
This event is meaningful to the following Filipinos-
Gomburza (an acronym donating the surnames of
the priests Mariano Gomez, Jose Apolonio Burgos,
and Jacinto Zamora,three Filipino priests who
were executed on 17 February 1872 at Bagumbayan
in Manila,Philippines by Spanish colonial
authorities on charges of subversion arising from
the 1872 Cavite mutiny.Their execution left a
profound effect on many Filipinos;Jose Rizal,the
national hero,would dedicate his novel El
filibusterismo to their memory)
Mariano Gomez
Jose Apolonio Burgos
Jacinto Zamora

Mariano Gomez – born on August2, 1799 at Santa Cruz Manila by

Mariana Guard and Francisco Gomez, he was designated as
head priest in Cavite in 1824 and was a member of GOMBURZA
later on. He was executed during the Cavite Muntiny in 1872.

Jose Apolonio Burgos – was a Filipino mestizo secular

priest,accused of munity by the Spanish colonial authorities in
the Philippine in the 19th century [wiki] he was born on Febuary
9 1837 by Florencia Garcia and Don Jose Burgos in Vigan Ilocos
Sur. He was executed along with Mariano Gomez and Jacinto

Jacinto Zamora – born August 14,1835 in Manila. He was placed in

a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila along with two
other clergymen.He was a Roman Catholic priest.The Gomburza
execution was carried out on Febuary 17, 1872 at Bagumbayan
field in Manila during cavite mutiny in the 19th century.
The Two Faces of the 1872 Cavite
The 12th of June of every year since 1898 is a very
important event for all the Filipinos.In this particular
day,the entire Filipino nation as well as Filipino
communities all over the world gathers to celebrate the
Philippines’ Independence Day.1898 came to be a very
significant year for all of us-it is as equally important as
1896-the year when the Philippine Revolution broke out
owing to the Filipinos’ desire to be free from the abuses
of the Spanish colonial regime. But we should be
reminded that another year is as historic as the two-
Two major events happened in 1872,first was the 1872
Cavite mutiny and the other was the martyrdom of the
three martyr priest in the person of Fathers Mariano
Gomes,jose burgos and Jacinto Zamora (GOMBURZA).
However,not all of us knew that there were different
accounts in reference to the said event. All Filipinos must
know the different sides of the story-since this event led
to another tragic yet meaningful part of our history-the
execution of GOMBURZA which in effect a major factor
in the awakening of nationalism among the Filipinos.
1872 Cavite Mutiny: Spanish
 Jose Montero y Vidal, a prolific spanish historian
documented the event and highlighted it as an
attempt of the Indios to overthrow the Spanish
government in the Philippine.Meanwhile,Gov. Gen.
Rafael Izquierdo’s official report magnified the event
and made use of it to implicate the native clergy, which
was then active in the call or secularization. The two
accounts complimented and corroborated with one
other, only that the general’s report was more spiteful.
Initially, both Montero and Izquierdo scored out that
the abolition of privileges enjoyed by the workers
of Cavite arsenal such as non-payment of tributes and
exemption from force labor were the main reasons of the
“revolution” as how they called it,however,other causes were
enumerated by them including the secular throne, dirty
propagandas proliferated by unrestrained press,democratic,liberal
and republican books and pamphlets reaching the philippines,
and most importantly the presence of the native clergy who out of
animosity against the Spanish friars,”conspired and supported” the
rebels and enemies of Spain. In particular,Izquierdo blamed the
unruly Spanish Press for “stockpiling” malicious propagandas
grasped by the Filipinos.He reported to the King of Spain that the
“rebels” wanted to overthrow the Spanish government to install a
new “hari” in the likes of Fathers Burgos and Zamora.
The general even added that the native clergy enticed other
participants by giving them charismatic assurance that their
fight will not fail because God is with them coupled with
handsome promises of rewards such as employment, wealth,
and ranks in the army.Izquierdo, in his report lambasted the
Indios as gullible and possessed an innate propensity for

The two Spaniards deemed that the event of 1872 was planned
earlier and was thought of it as a big conspiracy among
educated leaders,mestizos, abogadillos or native lawyers,
residents of Manila and Cavite and the native clergy. They
insinuated that the conspirators of Manila and Cavite was the
firing of rockets from the wall of intramuros.
According to the accounts of the two,on 20 January
1872, the district of Sampaloc celebrated the feast of the
Virgin of Loreto,unfortunately participants to the feast
celebrated the occasion with the usual fireworks
displays. Allegedly,those in cavite mistook the fireworks
as the sign for the attack,and just like what was agreed
upon, the 200-men contingent headed by sergeant
lamadrid lauched an attack targeting spanish officers at
sight and seized the arsenal.

When the news reached the iron-fisted Gov. Izquierdo,

he readily ordered the reinforcement of the Spanish
forces in Cavite to quell the revolt. The “revolotion” was
easily crushed when the expected reinforcement from
Manila did not come ashore. Major instigators including
sergeant Lamadrid were
killed in the skirmish, while the GOMBURZA were tried by a
court-martial and were sentenced to die by stragulation.
Patriots like Joaquin Pardon De Tavera, Antonio Ma. Regidor,
Jose and Pio Basa and other abogadillos were suspended by
the Aundencia (High Court) from the practice of law, arrested
and were sentenced with life imprisonment at the Marianas
Island. Furthermore, Gov. Izquierdo dissolved the native
regiments of artillery and ordered the creation of artillery force
to be composed exclusively of the penisulares

On 17 February 1872 in a attempt of the Spanish government

and Frailocracia to instill fear among the Filipinos so that they
may never commit such daring act again, the GOMBURZA
were executed. This event was tragic but served as one of the
moving forces that shaped Filipino nationalism
A Response to Injustice: The
Filipino Version of the Incindent
Dr. Trinidad Hermenigildo Pardo De Tavera, a Filipino scholar
and researcher, wrote the Filipino version of the bloody
incindent in Cavite. In his point of view, the incident was a
mere muntiny by the native Fiipino soldiers and laborers of
the Cavite arsenal who turned out to be dissatisfied with the
abolition of their privileges. Indirectly , Tavera blamed Gov.
Izquierdo’s cold-blooded policies such as the abolition of
privilege of the workers and native army members of the
arsenal and the prohibition of the founding of school of the
founding of shool of art and trades for the Filipinos, which
the general believed as a cover-up for the organization of a
political club.
On 20 January 1872, about 200 men comprised of soldiers,
laborers of the arsenal, and resident of Cavite headed by
Sergeant Lamadrid rose in arm and assassinated the
commanding officer and Spanish officer in sigth. The insurgents
were expecting support from the bulk of the army
unfortunenately , that didn’t happen. The news about the
munity reached authorities in manila and Gen. Izquierdo
immediately ordered the reinforcement of Spanish troops in
Cavite. After two days, the munity was officially declared

Tavera believed that the Spanish friars and Izqueirdo used the
cavite mutiny as a powerful lever by magnifying it as a full-
blown conspiracy involving not only the native clergy to
overthrow the Spanish government and the direction and
management of education institution.
This turnout of event was believed by Tavera,prompted
the friars to do something drastic in their dire sedire to
maintain power in the Philipines.

Meanwhile, in the intention of installing reforms, the

central Government of Spain welcomed an educational
degree authored by Segismondo Moret promoted the
fusion of sectarian schools run by the friars into a school
called Philippine Institution. The decree proposed to
improve the standard of education in the Philippines by
requiring teaching posision in such schools to be filled
by competitive examination. This improvement was
warmly received by most Filipinos in spite of the native
clergy zest for secularization.
The friars, fearing that their influence in the Philippines would be
a thing of the past, took advantage of the incident and presented
it to the Spanish Government as a vast conspiracy organize
throughout the archipelago with the object of destroying
Spanish sovereignty. Tavera sadly confirmed that the Madrid
government came to believe that the scheme was true without
any attempt to investigate the real facts or extent of the alleged
“revolution” reported by Izqierdo and the friars.

Convicted educated men who participated in the mutiny were

sentenced life imprisonment while members of the native.
Unraveling the Truth
 Considering the four accounts of the 1872 Muntiny, there
were some basic facts that remained to be unvarying:
First, there was dissatifaction among the workers of the
arsenal as well as the members of the native army after
their privileges were drawn back by Gen. Izquierdo
intruduced rigid and strict policies that made the
Filipinos move and turn away from Spanish government
out of disgust;Third , the Central Government failed to
conduct an invetigation on what truly transpired but
relied on reports of Izquierdo and the friars and the
opinion of the public; Fourth, the happy days of the
friars were already numbered in 1872 when the Central
Government in Spain decided to deprive them of the
affairs as well as in the direction and management of schools
promting them to commit frantic moves to extend their stay
and power,Fifth the Filipino clergy members actvely
participated in the secularization movement in order to allow
Filipino priests to take hold of the parishes in the country
making them prey to the rage of the friars; Sixth, Filipinos
during the time were actve participants, and responded to
what they deemed as injustices; and Lastly, the execution of
GOMBURZA was a blunder on the part of the Spanish
government, for the action severed the ill-feelings of the
Filipinos and the event inspired Filipino patriots to call for
reforms and eventually independence. There may be different
versions of the event, but one thing is certain, the 1872 Cavite
Mutiny paved way for a momentous 1898.
The road to independence was rough and tough to
toddle, many pariots names and unnamed shed their
bloods to attain reforms and achieve independence. 12
June 1898 may be a glorious event for us, but we should
not forget that before we came across to victory, our
freedom, may be more historically aware of our past to
have a better future ahead of us. And just like what Elias
said in Noli me Tangere, may we “not forget those who
fell during the night.”
Thank you for listen