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1. Emotional Behavior Disorders

2. Communication Disorder
3. Learning Disorder
4. Mentally Retarded
5. Gifted
6. Physical Challenges
Responding to the educational
needs of exceptional Students
In 1990, IDEA or Individuals w/
Disabilities Education Act amended
PL 94-142.

-Changes was the terminology and

the wording
Full Inclusion Versus A Continuum of

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)-

placing children w/ disabilities in as normal a
setting as possible.
Regular Education Initiative (REI)-

an attempt to restructure special education

so that the regular classroom would serve as
the primary setting for special education
services, a REI also attempts to include all
special needs students in one basic program
rather that establish separate programs for
each type of need
Full Inclusion

The belief that all students w/ disabilities

should be educated in regular classrooms
in their neighbourhood schools
Including Children With exceptional Intelligence

•Intelligence: A Singular Trait or Multiple

-early researchers believed intelligence was a
general or unitary trait because scores on diverse
measures of intelligence including verbal ability,
numerical competence, and abstract reasoning
were all highly correlated
Guilford’s Structure of Intellectual

•Operation-process of thinking
-evaluation, convergent production,
divergent production, memory, cognition

•Content-depends on what we think

-figural, symbolic, semantic, behavioral

•Products-result of operation
-units, classes, relations, systems,
transformations, implications
Howard Gardner: Multiple
8 Intelligences
1.Linguistic Intelligence
2.Mathematical Intelligence
3.Spatial Intelligence
4.Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence
5.Musical Intelligence
6.Intepersonal Intelligence
7.Intrapersonal Intelligence
8.Naturalistic Intelligence
Robert Sternberg: Triarchic Theory and
process Model
3 kinds of intelligence

1.componential- the process that underlie

2.experiential-the ability to relate to
novel tasks or new ideas in one’s
3.contextual-reflected in one’s ability to
adapt, select, or shape one’s environment

Stanford-Binet test
-an individually administered
standardized test of intelligence
composed of verbal and performance
subtest; correlates well with school
success and teacher’s evaluation of
IQ = M.A.(mental age) x 100
C.A (chronological age)

-substantial limitations in present

functioning. It is characterized by
significantly subaverage intellectual
functioning. Limitations in two or more of
the ff. areas: communication, self-care,
home living, social skills, community use,
self direction, health and safety,
functional academics, leisure and work.
Mental retardation manifest before age
Mild Retardation- a classification
used to specify an individual whose
IQ test score is between 55 and 69

Severe Retardation- a classification

used to specify an individual whose
IQ test score is between
approximately 25 and 40
Causes of Retardation
-presence of an extra chromosome w/c
result in down syndrome
-maternal infection w/ rubella, herpes
simplex, or syphilis during pregancy,
maternal drug or alchohol,maternal and
fetal blood type incompatibility, and any
trauma at birth that may significantly
deplete oxygen supply to the child’s brain
Down Syndrome

-a condition resulting from a

chromosomal abnormality; characterized
by mental retardation and such physical
signs as slanted-appearing eyes, flattened
features, shortness, tendency toward
Gifted and Talented Students

Because giftedness is not considered a

disability and is not addressed in IDEA, or
any other federal law or regulation, the
unique educational needs of gifted
students often go unattended and
overlooked. In the past, students who
were viewed as “Bright” or “Gifted” may
have simply been advanced to a higher
GIFTED- a category in special
education that defines individuals
who give evidence of high-
performance capability in certain
Program for gifted students

1. Enrichment Program-provides richer

and more varied content through
strategies that supplement or go
beyond normal grade level work
2. Acceleration Program- placing gifted
students in grade levels ahead of their
peers in one or more academic subjects
Specific Learning Disabilities

Learning Disability problem with

acquisition and use of language; may
show up as difficulty with reading,
writing, reasoning, and math

Dyslexia- characterized by difficulty in

reading, spelling, confusion between right
and left, and the tendency to reverse
letters in writing and speech
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

– medical condition characterized by

attention problems and impulsivity; may
exist with or without hyperactivity
-this disability is also heavily rooted in
brain physiology
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD)

-current term for disruptive behavior

marked by overactivity, excessive
difficulty sustaining attention, or
Characteristics of child with ADHD

1. Often fidgets with hands or feet or

squirms in seat
2. Has difficulty remaining seated when
asked to do so
3. Is easily distracted by extraneous
4. Often blurts out answers to questions
before they have been completed
5. Has difficulty waiting for his turn in a
game or in a group situations
6. Has difficulty following through with
instructions from others; may fail to finish

7.Has difficulty sustaining attention in

tasks or play activities

8.Often shifts from one uncompleted

activity to another
9. Has difficulty playing quietly
10. Often talks excessively
11. Often interrupts others, for example,
butts into other children’s games

12. Often does not seem to listen to what

is being said to him/her

13. Often loses things necessary for task

at school or home, such as toys or pencil
14. Often engages in physically dangerous
activities without considering the possible
consequences, such as running out into
the street without looking