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# Chapter 2

## One dimensional Element Analysis of Bars and Trusses

and
Result Analysis
Degree of freedom
• When the force or reaction acts at nodal
point, node is subjected to deformation. The
deformation includes displacement, rotations,
and/or strains. These are collectively known as
degrees of freedom(DOF).
Stress strain relations
x y z
Ex  v v
E E E
x y z
Ey  v  v
E E E
x y z
Ez   v v  (1)
E E E

Txz
 yz 
G
Txz
 xz 
G
Txy
 xy 
G
E
G
2(1  v)

(1  2v)
Ex  Ey  Ez  ( x   y   z )
E

  DE
1  v v v 0 0 0 
v 1 v v 0 0 0  

E v v 1 v 0 0 0 
D  
(1  v)(1  2v) 0 0 0 0.5  v 0 0 
0 0 0 0 0.5  v 0 
 
0 0 0 0 0 0.5  v 
Shape functions

## • In the finite element analysis aims is to find

the field variables at nodal points by rigorous
analysis, assuming at any point inside the
element basic variable is a function of values
at nodal points of the element. This function
which relates the field variable at any point
within the element to the field variables of
nodal points is called shape functions.
• If only continuity of basic unknown (displacement)
is to be satisfied, Lagrange polynomials can be
used to derive shape functions. Lagrange
polynomial in one dimension is defined by
• Two noded bar element
Natural coordinate system
• A natural coordinate system is a coordinate system which
permits the specification of a point within the element by a
set of dimensionless numbers, whose magnitude never
exceeds unity. It is obtained by assigning weightages to the
nodal coordinates in defining the coordinate of any point
inside the element. Hence such system has the property that
ith coordinate has unit value at node i of the element and
zero value at all other nodes.
• The use of natural coordinate system is advantages in
assembling element properties (stiffness matrices), since
closed form integrations formulae are available when the
expressions are in natural coordinate systems.
• It may be noted that, at node 1 where x = x1,

## and at node 2, where x = x2, we get

Application of Boundary Conditions

## • In a problem there is only one boundary

condition i.e. δ1 = 0 or it may have specified
value. There are two methods of imposing the
boundary conditions:
(i) Elimination Approach
(ii) Penalty Approach
(i) Elimination Approach
(ii) Penalty Approach
Convergence

## • Convergence refers to this process, where we optimize the mesh to arrive

at the desired results. In general, there are three main types of
convergences:
• Von-Misses Stress (VMS) convergence: Mesh is refined until the
percentage variation in VMS is less than 1,5,10 or any given value selected
by the user. VMS convergence should be avoided if there are stress
concentrations points, convergence will be difficult to achieve.
• Strain Energy Convergence: Mesh is refined until the percentage variation
in the average strain of elements is less then a chosen value. Strain
convergence is a better criterion for optimizing an FEA mesh. Stress
concentrations points do not significantly influence the average strain
energy of elements and variation in strain energy is influenced by mesh
size or polynomial order of the elements only.
• Deflection Convergence: It is similar to the above convergences, except,
node deflection values are used for the convergence criterion.

h-method & p-method

## • In finite element analysis, solution accuracy is judged in

terms of convergence as the element “mesh” is refined.
• There are two major methods of mesh refinement.
• In the first, known as h-refinement, mesh refinement refers
to the process of increasing the number of elements used
to model a given domain, consequently, reducing individual
element size.
• In the second method, p-refinement, element size is
unchanged but the order of the polynomials used as
interpolation functions is increased.
• The objective of mesh refinement in either method is to
obtain sequential solutions that exhibit asymptotic
convergence to values representing the exact solution.