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Directional and Anatomical

Location Terminology
Sports Medicine Injuries Learning
Targets
• Unit 1 – Anatomical Directions and Movement
Terminology
– I can define terminology used to describe anatomical locations.
– I can differentiate between the cardinal anatomical planes.
– I can define terminology used to describe anatomical
movements.
– I can describe anatomical locations using correct medical
terminology.
– I can apply anatomical movement terminology to specific
anatomical actions.
Anatomical Position
• Anatomical position
– Standard reference
point
• Body standing erect
(upright)
• Facing forward
• Arms at side
• Palms and toes
directed forward
Reference Positions
• Fundamental position
– Similar to anatomical position
– Arms more relaxed
– Palms face inward
• Relative angle
– Included angle between two
segments
Cardinal Planes
• Sagittal
– Left and right halves
– Mediolateral axis
– Midsagittal plane
• Frontal (coronal)
– Front and back halves
– Anteroposterior axis
• Transverse (horizontal)
– Upper and lower halves
– Longitudinal axis
• Many other planes exist
• Cranial / Superior
• Caudal / Inferior
• Anterior:
• Posterior:
• Ventral:
• Dorsal:
• Superficial
• Deep
• Medial:
• Lateral:
• Distal:
• Proximal:
• Ipsilateral – on
the same side
• Contralateral –
on opposite
sides
Flexion & Extension
• Flexion
– Decreasing joint angle
• Extension
– Increasing joint angle
• Hyperflexion
– Flexion beyond normal
range
• Hyperextension
– Extension beyond normal
range
Abduction & Adduction
• Abduction
– Moving away from midline
• Adduction
– Moving toward midline
• Hyperabduction
– Abduction past 180° point
• Hyperadduction
– Adduction past 0° point
Movement Descriptors
• Circumduction:
– Movement in a conic
fashion
– Combination of flex,
ext, abd, add, IR, ER
Movement Descriptors
• Inversion
– Lift medial edge of foot
• Eversion
– Lift lateral edge of foot
Movement Descriptors
• Plantarflexion
– Increase angle
between foot and
shank
• Dorsiflexion
– Decrease angle
between foot and
shank
Movement of the Scapulae
• Elevation – raising the
scapula (shrug)
• Depression –
lowering the scapula
Movement of the Scapulae
• Protraction – move
scapulae apart
• Retraction – move
scapulae together
Movement of the Scapulae
• Upward rotation –
bottom of scapula
moves away from
trunk
• Downward rotation –
return to normal
Other Movement Descriptors
• Horizontal adduction
– Combination of
flexion and
adduction
• Horizontal abduction
– Combination of
extension and
abduction
Other Movement Descriptors
• Rotation
– Medial (internal) or
lateral (external)
– Right/left for head
and trunk
– Shoulder or hip
Other Movement Descriptors
• Medial/Internal
Rotation: rotation of
the bone inward
around the long axis
of the bone
Other Movement Descriptors
• Lateral/External
Rotation: rotation of
the bone outward
around the long axis
of the bone
Specialized Movement Descriptors
• Lateral Flexion:
– Head or trunk only
– Example: head tilts
sideways
Specialized Movement Descriptors
• Supination – turn
palms frontward
• Pronation – turn
palms backward
• Radial flexion – hand
toward thumb
• Ulnar flexion – hand
toward little finger
• Opposition – Thumb
to little finger
Movement Descriptors of the
Foot
• Plantarflexion
– Increase angle between foot and shank
• Dorsiflexion
– Decrease angle between foot and shank
• Inversion
– Lift medial edge of foot
• Eversion
– Lift lateral edge of foot
Pronation and Supination of the
Foot
• Pronation and supination of the
feet are not the same as
inversion and eversion
• Pronation of the foot
– Dorsiflexion at the ankle
– Eversion in the tarsals
– Abduction of the forefoot
• Supination of the foot
– Plantarflexion at the ankle
– Inversion in the tarsals
– Adduction of the forefoot
Specialized Movement Descriptors
• Anterior Tilt
• Posterior Tilt
• Lateral Tilt
Degrees of Freedom
• Degree of freedom
– Number of planes in which a joint has the ability to move
• 1 degree of freedom
– Uniaxial
– Example: Elbow
• 2 degrees of freedom
– Biaxial
– Example: Wrist
• 3 degrees of freedom
– Triaxial
– Example: Shoulder
Planes of Movement

Sagittal

Frontal

Transverse

Directions and Positions

Superior

Inferior

Posterior
Anterior
Directions and Positions

Proximal

Distal

Medial

Lateral

Superficial

Deep
Movements of the Body
Spine and Thorax
(vertebral column)

Neck
(cervical spine)
Ribs/Thorax
Customize text here…
Scapula
(scapulothoracic joint)
Shoulder
(glenohumeral joint)
Elbow and Forearm
(humeroulnar and humeroradial joints – elbow,
proximal and distal radioulnar joints – forearm)
Wrist
(radiocarpal joint)
Thumb
(first carpometacarpal and
metacarpophalangeal joints)

Fingers
(metacarpophalangeal, proximal
and distal interphalangeal joints)
Mandible
(temporomandibular joint)

Pelvis
Hip
(coxal joint)
Knee
(tibiofemoral joint)
Ankle, Foot and Toes
(talocrural, talotarsal, midtarsal, tarsometatarsal,
metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints)
Types of Joints

Ball-and-Socket Saddle
Ellipsoid Joint
Joint Joint

Hinge Joint Gliding Joint Pivot Joint