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SCALAR & VECTOR

QUANTITIES
SYMBOLS
▹ mass
▹ time,
▹ velocity
▹ acceleration.
■ These quantities can be a scalar quantity or
a vector quantity
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
▹ differentiate between scalar and vector quantities
and
▹ apply vector addition to find the vector sum of
several vectors
SCALARS VS.
VECTORS
We will better understand
the difference between a
scalar quantity and a
vector quantity by
4

analyzing the
following examples,
Physical quantities Description

scalar quantity Has magnitude only

Examples: mass 15 kilograms

time 30 seconds

speed 100 meters/second

energy 4,184 joules

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Physical quantities Description

vector quantity Has magnitude and direction

Examples: velocity 80 meters/second westward

displacement 20 meters going east

acceleration 9.8 meters/second downward

force 500 newtons, 20e north of east

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What difference did you
observe between the
scalar and vector 7

quantities from the given


examples?
scalars vectors
▹ Are quantities ▹ are quantities that are
that are specified by both
specified by magnitude and direction.
magnitude only ▹ Velocity: 80m/s westward
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▹ Mass: 15 kg ▹ Displacement: 20m west
▹ Time: 30 s ▹ Acceleration: 9.8m/s^2
▹ Speed :100 m/s downward
▹ Energy: 4,184J ▹ Force: 500N north of east
Additional info:
vectors
▹ Is represented by a symbol – an arrow

Length of the arrow


Tail head 9

▹ The head of the arrow indicates the


direction of the vector
▹ The tail represents the origin
▹ The length of the arrow represents the
magnitude of the vector.
VECTOR
ADDITION

Scalar quantities may be
added using simple
arithmetic.
Addition of vectors must
be done by considering
their directions.
Sample Problem:
Suppose a teacher walked from his
house going to school and then back to
his house
50 m east S

40m north 40m south 12

H
50 m west

What is the total distance and displacement


made by the teacher?
Finding the distance:
50 m S

40m 40m

H
50 m

The total distance traveled is the sum of all the distances


(scalar)
40 meters + 50 meters 40 meters + 50 meters = 180 meters.
Finding the displacement
50 m east
(vector) : S

40m north 40m south

H
50 m west

Displacement is the length and direction of the change in position


measured from the starting point. It is a vector quantity
Displacement =0.
Because the starting position and the end position are the same.
40m+50m-40m-50m =0m
The
resultant
vector
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Resultant Vector

Two or more vectors can be represented by a


single vector called the resultant vector.

Found using: 16

• Graphical method
• The Pythagorean theorem,
Graphical Method
Whenever we speak of quantities which require a
direction, we must define a coordinate system or a
direction guide. In this book, we will use the
coordinate system and direction guide shown
below.
+y N
17

-x +x w E

-y s
Sample Problem:

Andre was observing an ant that


crawled along a tabletop. With a
piece of its path. He determined the
ant's displacement by using a ruler 18

and protractor .
The displacements were as follows:
2 cm east; 3.5 cm, 32° north of east;
and 2.3 cm, 22° west of north.
Draw the resultant vector.
Andre was observing an ant that crawled along a tabletop. With a piece of
its path. He determined the ant's displacement by using a ruler and
protractor .The displacements were as follows: 2 cm east; 3.5 cm, 32° north
of east; and 2.3 cm, 22° west of north. Draw the resultant vector.
Given:
D1 : 2 cm east
D2 : 3.5 cm, 32° north of east
D3 : 2.3 cm, 22° west of north

Required to find:
DR = resultant displacement vector

Solution:
Use the graphical method of solving for the D1
resultant vector. To draw the vector diagram, we
can use the scale 1 cm is to 1 cm.

Answer: DR= 5.8 cm, 46° N of E


The order in which displacement vectors are taken does not affect the
value of the resultant displacement vector.

The steps in the graphical method can be summarized as follows:


1. First, choose an appropriate scale and coordinate system for the given vectors.
2. Draw the first vector starting from the origin of the coordinate system.
3. Draw the second vector starting from the head of the first vector.
4. Proceed to draw the remaining vectors starting from the head of the most recent
vector drawn. All vectors must be connected in series, head-to-tail fashion.
5. Draw a new vector connecting the tail of the first to the head of the last vector
drawn
6. This new vector is the resultant of the given vectors.

The graphical solution of the resultant of vectors depends on the


accuracy of the instruments (protractor and ruler) used and the precision
with which the drawing is made. Hence ,care must exercised when using the
graphical method.
Pythagorean Theorem or
the component method
The resultant of two vectors that form a right angle
May be computed by applying the Pythagorean
Theorem
21
dr
d2

d1
Sample Problem:

A plane flying due north at 100 m/s


is blown by a strong wind at 500
m/s due east. What is the plane's 22

resultant velocity?
A plane flying due north at 100 m/s is blown by a strong wind at 500 m/s due east.
What is the plane's resultant velocity?
Given: 2. Use the Pythagorean Theorem
v1 = 100 m/s north Formula:
v2 = 500 m/s east c2=a2+b2
vr2=v12+v22
Substitute given:
Required to find: vr
vr2 =(100 m/s)2+ (500 m/s) 2
Solution: vr =509.90 m/s
1. Draw first the vector diagram
500 m/s E * to determine the direction
𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒
𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 =
𝑎𝑑𝑗𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒
100 m/s E =
100𝑚/𝑠
=0.2
500𝑚/𝑠
Vr 𝜃 = arctan 0.2
=11.31 north of east

Therefore: vr=509..90 m/s,11.31 north of east


Lessons learned:
▹ 1. Scalars are quantities that are specified by
magnitude only.
▹ 2. Vectors are quantities that are specified by
both magnitude and direction. 24

▹ 3. in getting the resultant of two or more vectors,


we use vector addition which can be done by
using any of the following methods: graphical
method and applying trigonometry particularly
Pythagorean theorem, which is very useful.