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Natural Features


List of Maps and Data Requirements and the Corresponding Sources

Data Requirements Sources

A. Geographical, Administrative/Political Profile
1. Geographical location of municipality Coordinates NAMRIA/Topo Map
(longitudinal/latitunal location)
2. Location and significant role in relation to the LGU/PPFP/RPFP (other national,
province, region and country, if any local area plans)
3. Municipal land area & boundaries
4. Political Subdivision (Urban-Rural Barangays) DENR-FMB
5. Alienable and disposable land DENR
Data Requirements Sources
B. Natural and Physical Characteristics
1. Climatological conditions-type of climate- PAG-ASA
prevailing winds, average annual rainfall & mean
temperature-tidal current patterns (for coastal
2. Topography NAMRIA
* topographic relief
* elevation
* slope
* surface drainage (bodies of water within the
3. Vegetation/Vegetative cover BSWM & LGU
4. Soil BSWM
- type/classification
- soil suitability
- land capabilty (if any)
Data Requirements Sources
5. Hydrogeologic Features DENR-MGB, PHIVOLCS
- groundwater resources
- fault lines, etc.
- volcanoes
- bedrock foundation
6. Conservation areas & other Special Interest Areas
* Protected Areas (NIPAS and non-NIPAS) * DENR
both terrestirail and marine
* Ancestral domains * NCIP, DENR
* Prime Agricultural Lands (NPAAAD) * DA
* Primary Forest and other forest types * DENR, FMB
* Fish Sanctuaries * DA-BFAR, PCMRD
* Historical, cultural and natural heritage sites * NHI, NCCA, DENR
* Wetlands (lake, rivers, coral reefs, mangroves, * DENR, BFAR, NAPOCOR
seagrass beds, marshes, etc.)
* Critical watersheds * DENR, NIA, NAPOCOR, PNOC
* Geothermal Sites/Plants * PNOC
* Mining and Quarrying Areas * DENR, MGB, Provincial Gov't.
Discuss the Geographical, Administrative & Political Domain of the
LGU in terms of following:

o Geographical location, boundaries and land area

o Political Units : barangays > number, location, and its area

Discuss the Natural and Physical Characteristics of the LGU in terms

of following:
o Topography and Slope : prevailing topography and location,
degree of slopes

o Climate : climate type, climatic condition and prevailing winds

o Soil Types and Soil Suitability : general soil types and suitability for
agriculture, settlements, other uses.

o Surface Drainage: major water bodies, including coastal and marine;

freshwater lakes & rivers, marshlands; & other wetlands

o Hydrogeology : presence and extent of of fault zones, types of bedrock

formation, location of surface and groundwater.

o Mineral Resources

Geographic Location

Discuss the geographical

location of the city/ munici-
pality by indicating the
boundaries in the north, east,
west and south and the
latitudinal and longitudinal
coordinates. A vicinity map is
needed as a tool for analyzing
the influence and limitation of
the planning area.

Land Area

From the data of

Assessor’s Office &
DENR, determine the
area and relate it in the
area of the province in
percent. Also specify
the barangay with
biggest/smallest area in
percent based on the
total city/ municipal


Discuss the type of climate, the prevailing rainfall and wind

direction in the locality. It is an important factor in identifying the
suitable agricultural crops and the timing and schedule of planting.
The prevailing wind direction is useful information for pinpointing
the suitable location of pollutive industries so as not to cause
adverse impact on surrounding areas.


Discuss on the types of reliefs present (e.g. mountains, hilltops,

valleys, plains, depressions) and the location of each type.
Topographic map is useful in the initial appreciation of the
potentials and limitations of land development.

Discuss the slope percentage (e.g. 0-3%, 3-5%, 5-8%, 8-15%, 15-18%,
18% & over) and the area of each slope category in the whole city/
• 0 - 3 % > broad to level to nearly level land
• 3 - 5 % > gently sloping areas w/ land sloping areas in one general direction.
• 5 - 8% > gently undulating and rolling, land sloping in one general direction.
• 8 - 15% > moderately undulating and gently rolling, land sloping is more than
one direction.
• 15- 18% > steeply undulating and rolling land sloping in many direction.
• 18% & over > very steeply sloping and rolling in many directions.

Discuss the types of soil present in the locality, using the Land
Classification Guide and other relevant information from
BSWM. Determine the area per soil type, its characteristics and
indicate the kind of use that is best suited to it.

The soil map is essential in determining the land use suitability.

Soil cover is primarily important in determining appropriate
crops for certain areas as well as suitable fertilizer/additives in
enriching the soil. It is also important in infrastructure programs
and urban development in determining strength and capability of
the area to hold and maintain infrastructure development. This
may include the soil capability to hold water, erosion,
susceptibility, etc. 12
Discuss the presence of fault zones, types of bedrock formation and
location of surface and groundwater in the locality through the
Hydrogeologic map from MGB.
Fault zones are areas where there is observable amount of
displacement below the earth’s surface. The presence of fault
zones in the map reveals that the area is environmentally critical,
being readily subject to earth movements.
Information on ground water includes the following:
• Water level Contour - depth and area whereby ground water is available.
• Piezometric Level - the elevation to which an artesian aquifer will rise in
a well.
• Permeability - the case which a fluid may pass through a porous medium.
• Bedrock Quality Type - stability and permeability of the underlying rock
Surface Drainage

• Discuss the surface drainage (major rivers and their

tributaries and significant water bodies such as lakes)
of the city/municipality and record this in the base map.

• Surface drainage study helps the local planners in their

planning and management activities by identifying
watershed areas for environmental protection and
drainage basin, drainage channel and potential for
irrigation areas.

Infrastructure Facilities
Discuss the location, distribution, volume and types of
infrastructure utilities found in the city/municipality.

Evaluate the presence, adequacy of the infrastructure facilities

in the locality based on those enumerated/listed in the Local
Government Code:
• Municipal roads and bridges
• School buildings
• Clinic, health centers
• Communal irrigation and other similar projects
• Fishports
• Artesian wells, spring development and water supply system.
• Seawalls, dikes, drainage,sewerage, flood control.
Mapping Techniques
Topic Coverage:

o Basic Map Contents o Types of

MAP is a reduced and simplified model of reality
containing geographical information. Such model is
very useful because the real world is too big and too
complex. It is easier to see spatial patterns and
structures if certain spatial characteristics are
selected and made visible on similar scale. A map is
an essential tool in our society because of the rapidly
growing need to analyze and represent data and
their spatial relationship.

Primary Content
The actual subject of the map, i.e. land use map, soil map, slope map.
For land use map, this includes the names of barangays,
municipality and province.

Secondary Content

This includes the coastlines and boundaries of the planning area.

Supportive Content
This relates to the marginal information usually contained in a
portion of the map known as the title block. This enables the users
to interpret clearly the information reflected on the map.
supportive contents

• Map Title - defines the information and purpose of the map,

ex. “Urban Land Use Map”
• Legend Column - contents the key to the codes and symbols
use in the map.
• Scale - is the ratio of the distance on the map to the actual
distances they represent. This enables the user to measure the
actual distance and location of the information reflected on the
 Numerical Scale - relationship of the map distance with that of the actual
actual ground distance (ex. 1 - 2,000)
 Graphical Scale - is a line or bar subdivided into map distance
corresponding to the numerical scale.
supportive contents

• Area Coverage - indicates the area, location, boundaries of

the planning area expressed through political boundaries or
natural boundaries.

• Date and Author - the date or period would show that the
information reflected on the map were true for the period

• North Orientation - provides the user the proper perspective in

interpreting the information on the map.

• Explanatory Text - provided for purposes of further

clarification, interpretation and evaluation of the contents of the
General Maps - show a complex of physical and natural features.
o Based Map
o Vicinity Map
Thematic Maps - depicting one single feature of the earth’s surface
or representing a single theme or subject.
• Topographic Map • Infrastructure Map
• Climate Map • Cadastral Map
• Hydrogeologic Map • Land Classification Map
• Slope Map • Land Use Map
• Soil Map • Population Density Map

Analytical Maps - illustrates the derived results of an analysis and
synthesis of two or more variable factors according to the desired output.

• Slope / Soil Map > Erosion Potential Map

• Slope / Soil Map > Flooding Hazard Map

• Soil/Erosion Potential/Flooding/ Soil Condition Limitation >

Land Capability Classification Map
• Soil/Erosion Potential/Slope/ Flooding Hazard Map >
Soil Suitability Map
• Soil/Hydrogeologic/Topographic Map >
Development Constraints Map

Erosion Potential
Shows the degree of susceptibility to erosion of the area. This is
primarily dependent on the type of soil, slope, vegetation and the
intensity of rainfall. This is important in determining land capability
and soil suitability for specific crops, identifying suitable areas for
urban expansion. Describe the erosion potential of your area
following these categories.
1. Not susceptible to erosion
2. Slightly susceptible
3. Moderately susceptible
4. Highly susceptible
5. Very highly susceptible
Flooding Hazard
Determine the flooding hazard categories considering two factors such as :
soil drainage and slope.

Category Soil Absorption Capability Slope

No flooding hazard Well drained Any slope
Moderately drained 5% & over
Slight flooding hazard Very poorly drained 15% & over
Moderately drained 3% - 5%
Moderate flooding hazard Very poorly drained 8% - 15%
Moderately drained 0% - 3%
Severe flooding hazard Poorly drained 0% - 3%
Very poorly drained 3% - 5%
Very severe flooding hazard Very poorly drained 0% - 3%
Land Capability Map
Indicates the suitability of areas for cultivation according to soil
conservation management requirements. Factor considered in
identification of land capability classes are soil erosion, potential flooding
and soil condition limitations.

Some of the land capability classes are:

very good land - can be cultivated safely.
good land - require easily applicable conservation practices.
moderately good land - must be cultivated with caution.
fairly good land - requires careful management and complex
conservation practices for safe cultivation.
steep land - very severely eroded, not for cultivation, limited to pasture
or forest
Soil Suitability Map
Provides data on the degree of suitability for urban development. Important
factors/considerations are slope, erosion potential, soil drainage, depth of water
table and soil permeability.
Four (4) classes of Soil Suitability:
Good - areas which have properties favorable for the rated use with none
to slight limitations.
Fair - areas with moderate limitations mainly due to soil erosion, moderate
drainage problems caused by run-off and slow permeability.
Poor - areas with soil having one or more properties unfavorable for the
rated use. Limitation are difficult and costly to modify/overcome.
Very Poor - have very severe limitations for urban requirements which are
very difficult and costly to overcome. Complete replacement or
modifications of existing soil conditions may be needed. 31
Soil Suitability Studies will also determine the suitability of land
for various urban uses such as: residential, commercial, industrial,
transportation, natural and developed recreational land uses.

Discussion shall give emphasis on the following:

1) Soil Suitability for Urban Use

2) Soil Suitability for Rice Crops
3) Soil Suitability for Diversified Crops
4) Soil Suitability for Tree Crops

Soil Suitability Classification for URBAN USE
Classes Slope Erosion Soil Profile Flooding Stoniness/ Rocks
Good 0-10%; Level to gently Well to No flooding; No rockiness and
sloping; none to moderately well good drainage shrinking or
moderately sloping drained with low water swelling problems
Fair 15% to gently sloping to Moderately Moderate Slight to moderate
rolling relief; moderately deep to deep drainage shrinking and
to severe eroded profile erosion problem due to swelling rockiness
run-off & slow and stoniness
permeability rate problem
Poor 15-25% - steep or hilly Deep with clay Soil drainage
topography; moderately loam to clayey good or fair
to severely eroded texture
Very Over 25% - very steep to
Poor mountainous; very
severe erosion 34
Development Constraints Map

• This map is use to determine where urban settlement and certain

uses such as industry cannot be located and also in identifying
areas for conservation and preservation, environmentally
stressed areas with the least limitations, suitable sites for urban
development, site for major infrastructure and industrial

• This will illustrate the physical obstacle to development in the

physical sense like subsidence and flooding risk. This could be
well illustrated when the combination of soil, hydrogeologic,
and topographic maps is sieved.

Land Use Accounting
Municipality of ____________________
Area (hectares) Percentage (%)




Urban Use Areas

Existing Land Uses Area, Distribution, and Percent to Total
Area Percent to
Land Use Categories
(in hectares) Total
* Urban Use Areas
Parks/playgrounds and other recreational spaces
* Agriculture
* Forest and forest use categories
* Mining/quarrying
* Grassland/pasture
* Agro-industrial
* Tourism
* Other uses/categories
Dumpsites/Sanitary Landfills
Buffer zones/greenbelts
Idle/vacant lands
* Water uses
Nipa swamps
Mangrove forests
Tourism (recreation/resorts)
Settlement on stilts
Infrastructure (e.g ports, fish landing)
Aquaculture and marine culture (e.g fish cages/
fish pens, seaweed culture, etc.)
Others, specify (e.g river sand/gravel quarrying,
coral reef, seagrass beds)
TOTAL 100%
Materials used in Mapping

a. Supplies: b. Equipment :
• tracing paper • mechanical pen
• pentel Pen • T-square
• pencil • triangle
• masking tape • cutter
• eraser • french curve
• drafting ink • lettering set
• coloring paint • triangular scale
• paint brush • circular template


• Grid Method
• Scaling Method
• Use of Panthograph


 Use of Triangular Scale

 Use of Millimeter/Dot Grid Template

 Use of Planimeter