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PROKARYOTIC

VS.
EUKARYOTIC
PROKARYOTES
• UNICELLULAR
• LACKS NUCLEUS AND MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES
• EX. BACTERIA
OUTER COVERING:
1. CELL WALL – PEPTIDOGLYCAN; EXTRA LAYER OF PROTECTION
2. CAPSULE – POLYSACCHARIDE; ENABLES CELL TO ATTACH TO
SURFACES
OTHER PARTS:
1. FLAGELLA – FOR LOCOMOTION
2. PILI – USED TO EXCHANGE GENETIC MATERIAL DURING
CONJUGATION
3. FIMBRIAE – USED BY BACTERIA TO ATTACH TO A HOST CELL
EUKARYOTES

ANIMAL VS.
PLANT CELL
Cell Function/ Present in Present in Animal Present in Plant Cells?
Component Feature Prokaryotes? Cells?

Plasma Membrane Separates cell from YES YES YES


external environment;
controls passage of
organic molecules, ion,
water, oxygen, and
wastes into and out of
the cell
Cytoplasm Medium in which YES YES YES
organelles are found

Nucleolus Contains genetic NO YES YES


materials (DNA)

Nucleus Houses the DNA, NO YES YES


directs synthesis of
ribosomes and proteins
Ribosomes Synthesizes proteins YES YES YES
Cell Function/ Present in Present in Animal Present in Plant Cells?
Component Feature Prokaryotes? Cells?

Mitochondria Produce ATP/Site of NO YES YES


cellular respiration

Peroxisomes Oxidize fatty acids and NO YES YES


amino acids, detoxify
poisons
Vesicles and vacuoles Storage and transport; NO YES YES
digestive function in
plant cells
Centrosome Source of microtubules NO YES NO
in animal cells

Lysosomes Digestion of NO YES YES


macromolecules;
recycling of worn-out
organelles
Cell wall Protection; structural YES NO YES
support, maintains cell Peptidoglycan Cellulose
shape
Cell Function/ Present in Present in Animal Present in Plant Cells?
Component Feature Prokaryotes? Cells?

Chloroplast Contains chlorophyll NO NO YES

Endoplasmic Reticulum Modifies protein and NO YES YES


lipids

Golgi Apparatus Modifies, sorts, tags, NO YES YES


packages, and
distributes lipids and
proteins
Cytoskeleton Secures organelles in YES YES YES
specific positions, allows
cytoplasm and vesicles
to move within the cell
Central vacuole Storage of water, NO NO YES
regulates water
concentration and
turgor pressure
NUCLEUS = NUCLEI (SINGULAR)
• NUCLEAR ENVELOPE: DOUBLE-MEMBRANE, OUTERMOST
PORTION OF NUCLEUS, MADE OF PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYERS,
BOUNDARY OF NUCLEUS
• NUCLEOPLASM: GEL-LIKE SUBSTANCE
• NUCLEOLUS: CONDENSED REGION OF CHROMATIN WHERE
RIBOSOME SYNTHESIS OCCUR
• NUCLEAR PORES: ALLOW ENTRY AND EXIT OF SUBSTANCE IN
THE NUCLEUS
CELL MEMBRANE/PLASMA
MEMBRANE/ PLASMALEMMA
• PHOSPHOLIPID
BILAYER
• CONTROLS PASSAGE
OF ORGANIC
MOLECULES AND
EXIT OF WASTES
CYTOPLASM
• ENTIRE REGION OF THE CELL WITHIN THE
PLASMA MEMBRANE
• MADE UP OF THE GEL-LIKE CYTOSOL,
CYTOSKELETON, AND VARIOUS CHEMICALS
• 70-80% WATER
CELL WALL
• Rigid covering that protects the cell,
provides structural support
• Prokaryotic cell wall: peptidoglycan
• Plant cell: cellulose
Endomembrane system
•ENDO = WITHIN
•NUCLEAR ENVELOPE,
LYSOSOME, VESICLES, ER,
AND GOLGI APPARATUS
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM
• Has few or no ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface
• Synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones
• Detoxification of medication and poisons
• Storage of calcium ions
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM
• Ribosomes attached to its cytoplasmic surface give it a
studded appearance
• Ribosomes transfer their newly synthesized proteins
into the lumen of the RER where they undergo
structural modification
• Abundant in liver cells
GOLGI APPARATUS
• Series of flattened membranes
• Sorting, tagging, packaging, and distribution
of lipids and proteins
• Receiving side is called the cis face; opposite
side is the trans face
LYSOSOME
•Organelle-recycling facility
•Uses their hydrolytic enzymes
to destroy pathogen
PEROXISOME
• Carry out oxidation reactions that breakdown
amino acids and fatty acids
• Ex. Alcohol is detoxified by peroxisomes in
liver cells
CYTOSKELETON
• Network of protein fibers that help maintain the
shape of the cell, secure the position of the
organelles, allow cytoplasm and vesicles to move
within the cell
• 3 types: microfilaments, intermediate filaments,
microtubules
CYTOSKELETON
• Microfilaments- narrowest, made of two strands of globular
protein called actin
• Intermediate filaments- function is purely structural; anchor
nucleus and other organelles in place
• Microtubules- small hollow tubes, helps cell resist compression,
pull replicated chromosomes to opposite ends of a dividing cell
VACUOLE
• Central vacuole- regulates cell’s concentration of water
• Vacuole- larger than vesicles, does not fuse with the membranes of other
cellular component
• Vesicles- smaller, can fuse with the plasma membrane or the other
membrane systems
CENTROSOME
• Microtubule-organizing center found
near the nuclei of animal cells. It
contains a pair of centrioles. Each
centriole is a cylinder of nine triplets
of microtubules.
• The important point is that the surface
area to the volume ratio gets smaller as the
cell gets larger. Thus, if the cell grows
beyond a certain limit, not enough material
will be able to cross the membrane fast
enough to accommodate the increased
cellular volume.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
• It is the major energy currency of the cell that provides
the energy for most of the energy-consuming activities
of the cell. The ATP regulates many biochemical
pathways.
• Mechanism: When the third phosphate group of ATP is
removed by hydrolysis, a substantial amount of free
energy is released.
Synthesis of ATP
• ADP + Pi → ATP + H2O
• requires energy: 7.3 kcal/mole
• occurs in the cytosol by glycolysis
• occurs in mitochondria by cellular respiration
• occurs in chloroplasts by photosynthesis
MITOCHONDRIA
• sites of cellular respiration, the
metabolic process that uses oxygen to
drive the generation of ATP by
extracting energy from sugars, fats,
and other fuels.
Outer membrane
• a selectively permeable membrane that surrounds
the mitochondria. It is the site of attachment for
the respiratory assembly of the electron transport
chain and ATP Synthase. It has integral proteins
and pores for transporting molecules just like the
cell membrane.
Inner membrane
•folds inward (called cristae) to increase surfaces for
cellular metabolism. It contains ribosomes and the DNA
of the mitochondria. The inner membrane creates two
enclosed spaces within the mitochondria:
• intermembrane space between the outer membrane and
the inner membrane; and matrix that is enclosed within
the inner membrane.
CHLOROPLAST
- found in plants and algae, are the sites of
photosynthesis. This process converts solar energy
to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it
to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as
sugars from carbon dioxide and water.
Greek word chloros which
means ‘green’ and plastes
which
means ‘the one who
forms’.
Outer membrane
• This is a semi-porous membrane
and is permeable to small molecules
and ions which diffuse easily. The
outer membrane is not permeable to
larger proteins.
Intermembrane Space
• This is usually a thin intermembrane
space about 10-20 nanometers and is
present between the outer and the
inner membrane of the chloroplast.
Inner membrane
• The inner membrane of the chloroplast
forms a border to the stroma. It regulates
passage of materials in and out of the
chloroplast. In addition to the regulation
activity, fatty acids, lipids and carotenoids are
synthesized in the inner chloroplast membrane.
Stroma
• This is an alkaline, aqueous fluid that is protein-rich
and is present within the inner membrane of the
chloroplast. It is the space outside the thylakoid
space. The chloroplast DNA, chloroplast ribosomes,
thylakoid system, starch granules, and other proteins
are found floating around the stroma.
Thylakoid System
The thylakoid system is suspended in the stroma. It is a collection
of membranous sacks called thylakoids. Thylakoids are small sacks
that are interconnected. The membranes of these thylakoids are the
sites for the light reactions of the photosynthesis to take place. The
chlorophyll is found in the thylakoids. The thylakoids are arranged
in stacks known as grana. Each granum contains around 10-20
thylakoids.
The word thylakoid is derived from the Greek word thylakos which
means 'sack'.