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Ch.

11 - Chemical Bonds

I. Why Atoms Combine


 Chemical Formula
 Chemical Bond
 Stability
A. Chemical Formula
 Shows:
1) elements in the compound
2) ratio of their atoms

H2O 1 oxygen atom


2 hydrogen atoms
B. Chemical Bond

 Strong attractive force between atoms


or ions in a molecule or compound.

 Formed by:
• transferring e- (losing or gaining)
• sharing e-
C. Stability
 Octet Rule
• most atoms form bonds in order to
have 8 valence e-
• full outer energy level
• like the Noble Gases! Ne

 Stability is the driving force behind bond


formation!
C. Stability
 Transferring e-

 Sharing e-
Ch. 11 - Chemical Bonds

II. Kinds of Chemical Bonds


 Ionic Bond
 Covalent Bond
 Comparison Chart
A. Ionic Bond
 Attraction between 2 oppositely
charged ions
• Ions - charged atoms
• formed by
transferring e-
from a metal
to a nonmetal
A. Ionic Bond
• ions form a 3-D crystal lattice

NaCl
B. Covalent Bond
 Attraction between neutral atoms
• formed by sharing e- between two
nonmetals
B. Covalent Bond

• covalent bonds result in discrete


molecules

Cl2 H2O
NH3
B. Covalent Bond

 Nonpolar Covalent Bond


• e- are shared equally
• usually identical atoms
B. Covalent Bond
 Polar Covalent Bond
• e- are shared unequally between 2
different atoms
• results in partial opposite charges

+ -
B. Covalent Bond

 Nonpolar

 Polar

 Ionic

View Bonding Animations.


C. Comparison Chart
IONIC COVALENT
transferred from shared between
Electrons
metal to nonmetal nonmetals
Melting
Point
high low

Soluble in
yes usually not
Water
Conduct yes
no
Electricity (solution or liquid)
Other crystal lattice of ions, molecules, odorous
Properties crystalline solids liquids & gases
Ch. 11 - Chemical Bonds

III. Naming Molecular


Compounds
 Molecular Names
 Molecular Formulas
A. Molecular Names

 Write the names of both elements.

 Change the final ending to -ide.

 Add prefixes to indicate subscripts.

 Only use mono- prefix with oxide.


A. Molecular Names

PREFIX SUBSCRIPT
mono- 1
di- 2
tri- 3
tetra- 4
penta- 5
hexa- 6
A. Molecular Names

 CCl4
• carbon tetrachloride

 N2O
• dinitrogen monoxide

 SF6
• sulfur hexafluoride
B. Molecular Formulas
 Write the more metallic element first.

 Add subscripts according to prefixes.


B. Molecular Formulas

 phosphorus trichloride
• PCl3

 dinitrogen pentoxide
• N2O5

 dihydrogen monoxide
• H2O
B. Molecular Formulas
 The Seven Diatomic Elements
Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2
Ch. 11 - Chemical Bonds

IV. Naming Ionic Compounds

 Oxidation Number
 Ionic Names
 Ionic Formulas
A. Oxidation Number
 The charge on an ion.
 Indicates the # of e- gained/lost to
1+ become stable. 0
2+ 3+ 4+ 3- 2- 1-
B. Ionic Names

 Write the names of both elements,


cation first.
 Change the anion’s ending to -ide.
 Write the names of polyatomic ions.

 For ions with variable oxidation #’s,


write the ox. # in parentheses using
Roman numerals. Overall charge = 0.
B. Ionic Names

 NaBr
• sodium bromide

 Na2CO3
• sodium carbonate

 FeCl3
• iron(III) chloride
C. Ionic Formulas
 Write each ion. Put the cation first.
 Overall charge must equal zero.
• If charges cancel, just write the symbols.
• If not, crisscross the charges to find
subscripts.
 Use parentheses when more than one
polyatomic ion is needed.
 Roman numerals indicate the oxidation #.
C. Ionic Formulas

 potassium chloride
• K+ Cl-  KCl

 magnesium nitrate
• Mg2+ NO3-  Mg(NO3)2

 copper(II) chloride
• Cu2+ Cl-  CuCl2
C. Ionic Formulas

 calcium oxide
• Ca2+ O2-  CaO

 aluminum chlorate
• Al3+ ClO3-  Al(ClO3)3

 iron(III) oxide
• Fe3+ O2-  Fe2O3
Ch. 11 - Chemical Bonds

V. Naming Acids
 Definition
 Acid Names
 Acid Formulas
A. Definition

 Acid

• Compound that forms H+ in water.


• Formula usually begins with ‘H’.

 Examples:
• HCl, HNO3, H2SO4
B. Acid Names

Anion
Ending Acid Name
-ide hydro-(stem)-ic acid

-ate (stem)-ic acid

-ite (stem)-ous acid


B. Acid Names

 HBr
• -ide  hydrobromic acid

 H2CO3
• -ate  carbonic acid

 H2SO3
• -ite  sulfurous acid
C. Acid Formulas

 hydrofluoric acid
• -ide  HF

 sulfuric acid
• -ate  H2SO4

 nitrous acid
• -ite  HNO2