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Prepared by:
Ador, Ariel S.
Albus, Rheno Greg P.
Bogay, Jeric Jones A.
Mrs. Mercy L. Navarro
A. The meaning of Values-
A value is anything which
satisfies a human need.
Value is identical to that
which is good defined by
Aristotle as ‘‘fitting a
1. The Significant of Value

 Our ultimate happiness in this life, it consist

in the sum of earthly goods essential to us.
Accordingly, values relate to our ultimate
purpose, to that which would make us
completely happy.
 Morally good actions are “authentic values”,
while immoral actions are “apparent values”.
4 kinds of Values

 1. Biological values are necessary to the

physical survival and growth of man such us
food, shelter, work, pleasure, sex, sports,
career, health, and medicines.
 2. Psychological values are necessary to the
psychological maturation of man such us
companionship, friendship, marriage, family
life, and social interaction.
3. Intellectual values are necessary to the
mental fulfillment of man, such as truth,
science, art and religion.
4. Moral values are necessary for the
development of character.
We also speak of cultural values-those that
are shared in a community such as ideals,
laws, customs, beliefs, rituals, and
ceremonies. Some values are described as
religious, economic, or aesthetic.
The Hierarchy of Values
 Values are not equal in their respective worth.
From the time of Greek philosophers to the
present, the moral values are held as more
important than the others. The hierarchy of
values refers to the ranking of values from lowest
to highest.
 1) The biological values, which correspond to our
survival and procreation, are the lowest. The
most fundamental value in this category is self-
preservation, or health. The other values such us
food, exercise, work, pleasure, and sex, are the
means of sustaining and promoting the physical
 2) The social values corresponding to our
psychological growth are the lower middle
values. The fundamental value in the category is
love which is the foundation of friendship,
marriage, family, or community.
 3) The intellectual values corresponding to our
mental growth. Are the middle values. In this
category, the most fundamental value is Truth.
The value of science, arts, technology and
experience are means of acquiring knowledge.
 4) The moral values corresponding to spiritual
development rank the highest in the hierarchy.
These values constitute moral integrity.
Social Dimension of Values
 The authenticity of values consist in their being
shared with others. The higher a value goes up
the ranking the more it becomes altruistic.
 The lower values are seen as competitive and
egotistic because they tend towards the
accumulation of material possession which man
finds difficult to share with others.
 The nature of intellectual value is also altruistic.
People find it easy to talk, to communicate and
to share news with another. Knowledge lends
itself to sharing.
Moral Values
 Moral values are those pertaining to the
functions of the intellect and the will- our
choices, decisions, actions, and habits. Moral
values relate to our spiritual growth.
 Strictly speaking, only those related to the
spiritual growth are moral values. But in the
context of integral perfection, all values
whether biological or social, acquire moral
 Eating becomes the object of temperance,
s0 that over indulgence to the food is
gluttony. Again while eating is necessity, the
act of fasting is also required for medical,
political, religious, or moral purpose.
Characteristics of Moral
(1) They have intrinsic worth
This means that moral values are in
themselves good independent of our opinion of
(2) They are universally accepted by all people
Non would find fault with helping the needy, or
testifying on the truth of something, or working
honestly for a living. The Bill of Rights is
accepted by the community of nations.
(3) They are obligatory
This means that person, when so capacitated, is
duty bound to do what is good when the situation
demands it. Thus, one is duty bound to return to its
rightful owner a lost-and-found property . Likewise,
one is duty bound to help accident victims. This also
means that every person is obliged to be honest, to
be respectful of others, to be diligent, and to avoid
doing what harms others.
Since values have relative worth, a person has to choose those which are
relevant to him. These guidelines serve a purpose :
1. Permanent or lasting values must be preferred over temporary
perishable ones.
EXAMPLE : Education is objectively better than leisure ; moral habit better than physical
2. Values favored by the majority must be preferred over those appealing
only to a few.
EXAMPLE: Marriage is better than remaining single; wealth better than staying poor.

3. Essential values must be preferred over the accidental values.

EXAMPLE: Good reputation is better than being pretty; Attending to parental duties
better than involvement in social gatherings or parties.
4. Moral values must be preferred over the physical values.
EXAMPLE: The practice of religion is better than sports; Feeding the orphans is better
than spending money for luxuries.

Moral character is the sum of man’s good habits.

HABIT - comes from the Latin word “habere”.
HABERE - means to have or to possess.

ENTITATIVE HABITS- Predispose man to acquire certain nature or
quality, like being healthy, being beautiful, being intelligent, or being rich.
OPERATIVE HABITS- Predispose man to act readily toward a
purpose, like singing, dancing, playing basketball, or helping others. The
operative habit of doing well is called VIRTUE; that of doing evil is VICE.
MORAL VIRTUES –Those are pertaining to the will.

Four moral virtues ;

1. Prudence enables a person to know the best means to
employ in attaining a purpose. A prudent person weighs the
pros and cons of situation and acts with reasonable
2. Justice inclines a person to give to everyone what is
due. A just person pays his legal debts, honors his elders,
observes the laws of society, and worships God.
3. FORTITUDE gives a person the strength of the will to
face dangers and the problems in life. A person of
fortitude is not easily discouraged and is ready to stand
by what is right.
4. TEMPERANCE moderates a person’s instincts and
emotions. A temperature person is not given to inordinate
anger, jealousy, desire or love.
INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES- Virtues pertaining to mental
or intellectual operation.
Four Intellectual virtues ;
1. UNDERSTANDING is the habit or intuition of the first
principles, such as “the whole is greater than the sum of any of
its parts” , or that “doing well is batter than doing bad”. This is
also called common sense.
2. SCIENCE is the habit of proximate causes, why things are
such because of their nature or natural properties. Thus, we have
the different sciences on different field of studies.
3. ART is the habit of making beautiful things, such as an
literature, in architecture, and in the fine arts.
4. WISDOM is the habit of the ultimate causes, such as the
independence of creative things in the eco-system; or how the
negative emotions of man—like hatred, anger, or sadness—are not
signs of weakness but are natural instincts for self-preservation
and growth.
A vice is the opposite of virtue. Vice is the habit of doing evil
acquired through the repetition of an evil act. One immoral act
does not constitute a habit of a vice for the matter. But it is no less
unfortunate. The fact is every single evil act speaks of an evil
A vice is evil either because of excess or of defect.
1. Vices opposed to prudence by excess are – cautiousness, fraud,
flattery, trickery; by defect-- imprudence, impulsiveness,
carelessness, or stubbornness.
2. Vices opposed to justice by excess are– profligacy, idolatry,
fanaticism, and superstition; by defect are– disrespect to elders,
irreligion, and nonpayment of debts.
3. Vices opposed to fortitude by exes are– rashness, boldness,
recklessness; by defect– cowardice, timidity, sensitivity, and
4. Vices opposed to temperance by excess are– rigorousness, lack
of self-confidence, moroseness; by defect– pride, lust, hatred,
gluttony, and vanity.

Moral integrity is man’s true worth.

With it, a person is distinguish as “
mabuting tao”. Without it a person
is “masamang tao”.

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