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Andrew Anton Tevin Salmin Amanda

Joy Yahaya

Ninah-Miriam Mohammed
White Board

Mugashe
Teacher’s Desk Amal
Ruby
Masuma

Yuk Yi
Kelvin Sacha
Nikoli
Emmanuel

Door
IB CHEMISTRY

Topic 1: Atomic structure


(chapter 2 in the textbook)

Higher level
R: respectful***, resourceful, robust, riveting, reliable

O : open-minded*, open***, organized

p : positive, passionate, punctual, peaceful*, practical, posters

e : energetic*, exciting**, ectatic, epic, enlightening, exothermic,


enthusiastic, electric*

s : super, symbiotic, scientific*, supreme, smart, supportive


2.1 The nuclear atom
OBJECTIVES

• Atoms contain a positively charged dense nucleus composed of


protons and neutrons (nucleons).
• Negatively charged electrons occupy the space outside the nucleus.
• The mass spectrometer is used to determine the relative atomic mass
of an element from its isotopic composition.
• Use of the nuclear symbol notation 𝐴𝑍𝑋 to deduce the number of
protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions.
• Calculations involving non-integer relative atomic masses and
abundance of isotopes from given data, including mass spectra.
Just How Small are Atoms?
Atomic Structure
Atoms are very small ~ 10-10 metres
All atoms are made up of three sub-atomic
particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons

Label this diagram:

• The protons and neutrons form a small positively


charged nucleus
• The electrons are in energy levels outside the
nucleus
Subatomic particles

 What do you notice about this table?

 What things stand out?


Subatomic particles
 The actual values of the masses and charges of the sub-atomic
particles are shown in your data booklet:

 A meaningful way to consider the masses of the sub-atomic


particles is to use relative masses
So we know what
makes up an
atom.

…but what makes


an atom of
carbon (C)
different from an
atom of gallium
(Ga)?
Nuclear Symbol
Notation

 Element (X)

 Atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It is


also known as the proton number.
 No. of protons always equals the no. of electrons in any neutral atom of an element.

 Mass number (A) is the sum of the number of protons and the number of
neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
 Which will always be bigger? A or Z?
Problem:
Calculate the number of protons and neutrons in:

Z = number of protons = 17 protons


A = number of protons and neutrons = 35
Number of neutrons = A - Z= 35 - 17 = 18 neutrons
Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same
atomic number, but different mass numbers, i.e. they
have different numbers of neutrons.

Each atom of chlorine contains


the following:

35 Cl Cl 37
17 17

17 protons 17 protons
17 electrons 17 electrons
18 neutrons 20 neutrons

The isotopes of chlorine are often referred to as chlorine-35 and chlorine-37


Practice – Nuclear Symbol Notation

1. Determine the number of protons, electrons and


nucleons in 27
13𝐴𝑙. Protons – 13
Nucleons - 14
Electron – 13 (neutral atom)

2. Draw the nuclear symbol of Carbon-14.


14
6𝐶
Some Isotopes of Carbon
Ions
Ions are atoms that have more OR less electrons than protons,
giving the atom a negative OR positive charge. Electrons are
negative so an excess of electrons makes the ion negative
(anion), while fewer electrons than protons yields a positive ion
(cation).
Formation of Na+

Same number of
protons

One less electron 


positive charge
Nuclear Symbol Notation - Ions
Determine the number of protons, neutrons 39𝐾 +
and electrons in Potassium-39 ion.

Potassium is 19th element (19 protons)

Z = 19 protons

A is # of protons + neutrons

39 – 19 = 20 neutrons

Ion has a +1 charge  one more proton than electron

19 – 1 = 18 electrons
Independent Learning

Read (and take notes) on pp. 58-66 of CH. 2

Answer exercises 1-4 in your notebook

Be prepared to discuss on Monday.


Andrew Anton Tevin Salmin Amanda
Joy Yahaya

Ninah-Miriam Mohammed
White Board

Mugashe
Teacher’s Desk Amal
Ruby Karthik
Masuma

Yuk Yi
Kelvin Sacha
Nikoli
Julieth Emmanuel

Door
Bell Ringer – Monday, August 20th 2018

Determine the number of each subatomic particle in


atom shown below.
IB CHEMISTRY

Topic 1: Atomic structure


(chapter 2 in the textbook)

Higher level
Properties of isotopes
 Isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties because they
have the same number of electrons. When a chemical reaction takes
place, it is the electrons that are involved in the reactions.

 However isotopes of an element have the slightly different physical


properties because they have different numbers of neutrons, hence
different masses.

 The isotopes of an element with fewer neutrons will have:


• Lower masses
• Faster rate of diffusion
 Lower densities
 Lower melting and boiling points
Radioisotopes

Radioisotopes are isotopes that have unstable nuclei and therefore emit
radiation when then break up.

 Radioisotopes are very useful in society:


 14C is used in radiocarbon dating14C is used in radiocarbon dating
 Detecting gas leaks
 Industrial quality control
 60Co is used in radiotherapy

 131I and 125I are used a medical tracers

 Nuclear power

 Radioisotopes can also be very dangerous to living things:


 Radioactive contamination of the environment
 Radiation poisoning
Industrial use: detecting blockages in underground pipes
A radioactive isotope which is a gas gets passed down the
pipe, where it concentrates the blockage is present.
Industrial use: Quality Control
The radioactive isotope is used as a source
of radiation and the amount penetrating
the material gives a measure of it’s
thickness.
Radiotherapy
A cobalt-60 source can be rotated around the patient. The gamma rays
emitted are focussed on the tumour. Healthy surrounding tissue receives a
much smaller dose. The cells in the tumour are damaged while surrounding
tissue is not.
A radioactive sample can be swallowed. The
chemical chosen will be one that concentrates
in a particular area. For example, cancer of the
thyroid can be treated using iodine-131.
Relative Atomic Mass

 What’s the difference between atomic mass and mass


number and atomic number?
 Atomic number = number of protons
 Mass number = # of protons + # of nucleons/neutrons
 Atomic mass = weighted average of all the isotopes of an element

Boron has two isotopes: 10B and 11B m/z value 11 10


The table shows the relative Relative 18.7 81.3
abundance (ie. What % of boron is abundance %
boron-10)
Mass Spectrometer

When charged particles pass through a magnetic field, the


particles are deflected by the magnetic field, and the
amount of deflection depends upon the mass/charge ratio
of the charged particle.
Isotope cations are made
when vaporized sample is
bombarded with high
energy electrons. Cations
are attracted to magnetic
12C+ 13C+ 14C+ field (like bees are
attracted to flowers).
Heavier bees (isotopes)
travel farther.
Isotope cations are made when vaporized sample is
bombarded with high energy electrons. Cations are
attracted to magnetic field (like bees are attracted to
flowers). Heavier bees (isotopes) travel farther.

12C+ 14C+
13C+
Problem1: Determine the relative atomic mass of boron from
the following spectrograph:
m/z value 11 10

Relative 18.7 81.3


abundance %

Ar of boron = (amu1 x %1) + (amu2 x %2)


total %

= (11 x 18.7) + (10 x 81.3)


(18.7 + 81.3)

= 205.7 + 813
100
Ar = 1018.7 = 10.2
100
Problem 2: A mass spec chart for a sample of neon
shows that it contains 90.9% 20Ne, 0.17% 21Ne, and
8.93% 22Ne. Calculate the relative atomic mass of
neon.

Ar of neon = (amu1 x %1) + (amu2 x %2) + (amu3 x %3)


total %
= (90.9 x 20) + (0.17 x 21) + (8.93 x 22)
100
= 1818 + 3.57 + 196.46
100
Ar = 2018.03 = 20.18
100
Use the mass spectrum of silicon below to
determine the element’s relative atomic
mass
Solution:
Challenge:

The relative atomic mass of


lithium is 6.94 amu. Sketch
what your would expect the
mass spectrum of a sample of
lithium to look like.
4 5 6 7 8
Assume lithium only has two
isotopes 6Li and 7Li.
Atomic mass/electron
configuration problem set:
Chapter 2:

Exercises: 8-10, 15-18, 20-21, 27

Practice Questions: 12 (redraw diagram from


textbook)

DUE Monday August 27th

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