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Aldehydes &

Aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group.
Aldehydes are considered the most important functional
group. They are often called the formyl or methanoyl
group. Aldehydes derive their name from the dehydration
of alcohols. Aldehydes contain the carbonyl group bonded
to at least one hydrogen atom. Ketones contain the carbonyl
group bonded to two carbon atoms.
Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which
incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon
atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be
occupied by hydrogen, alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least
one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is
an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is
a ketone.
Nomenclature (naming aldehydes)
• The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a
characteristic suffix -al to aldehydes.
• Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the
end of a carbon chain, it is always is given the #1 location
position in numbering and it is not necessary to include it
in the name.
• If the aldehyde moiety is attached to a ring the suffix –
carbaldehyde is added to the name of the ring. The
carbon attached to this moiety will get the #1 location
number in naming the ring.
Nomenclature (naming ketones)
• The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a
characteristic suffix of -one to ketones
• A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere
within a chain or ring, and its position is usually given by
a location number. Chain numbering normally starts from
the end nearest the carbonyl group.
• The common names for ketones are formed by naming
both alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl then adding
the suffix -ketone.
• When benzene ring is a substituent then it is called
Nomenclature (naming)
• If other functional groups are present and the doubly
bonded oxygen is considered a substituent on a parent
chain, the prefix oxo- is used.
Nomenclature (naming)
• Simple substituents incorporating a carbonyl group are
often encountered. The generic name for such groups
is acyl. Three examples of acyl groups having specific
names are shown below.
Organic Compounds Boiling Point
Ketone Polar (Dipole – Dipole)
Aldehydes Polar (H – Bonding)

Organic Compounds Solubility

Ketone Polar (Slightly Soluble)
Aldehydes Polar (Soluble)
• Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones due to the
following reasons
1. Hydrogen is smaller than methyl group, water can
easily attach to the aldehydes
2. Carbon is partially positive and the oxygen is partially
negative, it pulls the density upward making the carbon
* Methyl – weak electron donator, it partially satisfy the
electrons, carbon wants.
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event of a lab accident.)
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