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# PEMERIKSAAN

LENSOMETRI DAN
KERATOMETRI
Lensmeter
Spherical and cylindrical power

Cylindrical axis

## Presence and orientation of prism

Optical centration
Manual Lensmeter Automated Lensmeter
Parts of manual lensmeter
How to use Manual Lensmeter?

## • Look through eyepiece,

turn the power drum
1. out of focus
• Turn eyepiece in ‘+’
Focusing direction
• Slowly turn the
Eyepiece eyepiece oposite
direction
• Focus the mires at
of 0)
•Place the lower
rim of
2. eyeglasses on
Positioning spectable table
Eyeglasses •Align the
eyeglass lens
and the mires
3. Measuring Sphere and Cylinder
Power
Turn the power drum to read high minus

the triple lines

## Focus the mires at power drum reading of 0)

If the single lines
and triple lines
comes to focus at the
same time = sphere If not = spherocylinder
lens
Cylindrical After reading the power sphere, measure
power
present cyllindrical power, focus the triple line

## Calculate the first power drum (single

lines) and the second power drum (triple
lines)

## Read the axis of cylinder from cylinder

axis wheel
1. Center bifocal
add at bottom in
lensmeter
gimbal, refocus
triple-line

Measuring
Bifocal
3. If the distance Power 2.The difference
portion of between the
eyeglass lens is distance reading
sphere, just
of triple-line
refocus the bifocal
segmen and focus and the
calculate the new triple-line
algebraic focus is the add
difference (bifocal power)
Measuring Prism Power and
Orientation
The existence of prescribed prism power in a spectacle lens generally is
revealed when the lensmeter mires cannot be centered in the central portion
of the lensmeter target. Once you have determined the presence of a prism,
measure prism power and deter- mine orientation as follows:
1. With a nonpermanent marker, mark the position on the lensthrough which
the patient is viewing while he is looking straight ahead. Center this mark in
the lens- meter target.
2. Count the number of black concentric circles from the central cross of the
lensmeter target to the center of the vertical and/or horizonta l crossed mires
(Figure 1). Each circle represents 1 prism diopter.
3. Record the direction of the thick portion (base) of the prism by determining
the direction of the displacement of the mires. For example, if the mires are
displaced upward, the prism base is base up; downward displacement
indicates base-down prism; displacement toward the nose, base-in prism; and
displacement toward the temples, base-out prism .
Prism-compensating devices are incorporated into some lensmeters. Such
devices permit the measurement of prism without using the concentric circles.
To avoid re- cording prism power that is not actually present when using
these devices, be sure the prism-compensating device is set to O. Auxiliary
prisms are available for use with some lensmeters to assist in measuring
lenses with prism power greater than the number of concentric circl es.
Measuring Optical Centration of
Spectacle Lenses
At times, it is important to be able to note the proper position of the optical
center of a spectacle lens, to see if it lines up appropriately with a patient's
pup ils. Most lensme- ters have a marking or dotting device that can be used
to mark temporarily the optical center of a spectacle lens. The technique for
checking optical centers is as foll ows:
1. Place the spectacle lens against the lens stop of the lensmeter.

2. Make certain the eyeg lasses frame sits square ly on the spectacle table,
rim down, templepiecesawayfrom you.
3. Focus the mires and center them with the focused eyepiece targ et (Figure
1). Use the dotting device to mark the lens while it is held in this position.
The center mark (usually of 3 marks) is the optical center of the lens. If the
lensmete r does not have a dotting device, use a nonpermanent marker to
record the approximate center of the lens by noting where the lensmeter
light source shines through the eyeglass lens and marking this point.
Measuring Vertex Distance
1. Ask the seated patie nt to close both eyes.

2. Gently rest the fixed caliper arm of the distometer on the closed eyelid and
carefully place the movable caliper arm against the back surface of the
trial lens, refractor lens, or the patient's eyeg lass lens (see Figure 5.16).

## 3. Record the separation distance between these 2 surfaces from the

millimeter scale on the distometer. (The scale allows for an average eyelid
thickness.)