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Experiment 9

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
HERMOGENES
MIARAL
CHEM 14.1 - SEG
INTRODUCTION
 Chemical equilibrium is a state in which the rate of the forward reaction is equals the
rate of the backward reaction. In other words, there is no net change in
concentrations of reactants and products.
 The laws of chemical equilibrium describe the direction in which a chemical reaction
will go, either forward or backward.
 Consumption and formation of substances has reached a balanced condition.
 Also called “dynamic equilibrium” or “steady state reaction”
LE CHATELIER’S PRINCIPLE
 States that if a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the
conditions, the position of equilibrium shifts to counteract the change to
re-establish an equilibrium.
 If a chemical reaction is at equilibrium and experiences a change in
pressure, temperature, or concentration of products or reactants, the
equilibrium shifts in the opposite direction to counteract the change.
OBJECTIVES

 To evaluate the effect of change in concentration and temperature on the


equilibrium system.
 To interpret the results based on Le Chatelier’s Principle.
METHODOLOGY
Place 10 drops of prepared solution
to the ff:
Test tube 1 10 drops distilled
20 drops Fe(NO3)3 + 20 water (reference) *Test tube 7 – heat over fire
drops KCNS + 7mL of Test tube 2 10 drops Fe(NO3)3 *Test tube 8 – put in ice bath
distilled water Test tube 3 10 drops KCNS
Observe each test tube.
Test tube 4 10 drops KCl
Test tube 5 10 drops AgNO3
Test tube 6 Pinch of NaF
Test tube 7 10 drops of distilled
water
Test tube 8 10 drops of distilled
water
20 drops Fe(NO3)3 + 20 drops KCNS +
7mL distilled water
RESULTS
Fe3+ + CNS- FeCNS2+
REAGENT OBSERVATION DIRECTION OF SHIFT
0.1 M Fe (NO3)3 Darker color/Turbid
0.1 M KCNS Light color
0.1 M KCl Lighter color No shift
0.1 AgNO3 White/Turbid
Pinch of NaF Lighter color/Yellowish
Increase in Temp. Lighter color
Decrease in Temp. Almost the same/ Bit darker
+10 drops of distilled +10 drops of +10 drops of +10 drops of
water 0.1 M Fe(NO3)3 0.1 M KCNS 0.1 M KCl
+10 drops of AgNO3 Pinch of NaF Heated Put in ice bath
DISCUSSION
For test tubes 2 and 3:
 There was an increase in the concentration of a reactant
 To re-establish equilibrium, the reaction shifted towards the formation of
more products (forward reaction)
 The resulting darker solution was due to the formation of more
FeSCN2+
DISCUSSION
For test tube 4:
 KCl dissociates into K+ and Cl-
 Due to the decrease in the amount of reactant, breaking down of the
product is needed to re-establish equilibrium, making the resulting
solution lighter (backward reaction)
 The lighter-colored solution can be credited to FeCl3
DISCUSSION
For test tube 5:
 Addition of AgNO3 caused a precipitation of insoluble compound AgCNS
 There was a decrease in CNS- ions hence to re-establish equilibrium,
FeCNS2+ is broken down (backward reaction)
 Resulting solution is of lighter color
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
For test tube 7:
 Heating the test tube resulted in a solution of lighter color indicating a shift
towards the formation of more reactants
For test tube 8:
 Putting the test tube in an ice bath resulted in a darker solution, indicating
a shift towards the formation of more products
 Hence, an exothermic reaction
GUIDE QUESTIONS
1. Explain your observations on the basis of Le Chatelier’s Principle.
-Based on the principle, the experiment has undergone changes that
was needed to re-establish equilibrium due to the presence of more
reactants, more products or change in temperature.
GUIDE QUESTIONS
2. Which species (ions) in the added reagents are effective in altering the
state of the system?
- Fe3+, CNS-, Na+, Ag, F-
3. Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? Why?
Due to the presence of solutions of lighter color when the temperature
is increased, the reaction is exothermic, indicating that the reaction is heat-
absorbing.