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Part II

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CASCADE CONTROL
SYSTEM

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CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM

Problems with FB and FF:

 Conventional FB usually take the corrective action for D after the CV


deviates from set point.

 FF requires to calculate the disturbance explicitly and hence available


to calculate the CV.

 Employment of SECONDARY MEASUREMENT POINT &


SECONDARY FB CONTROLLER are required for recognizes the
upset condition sooner.

 The D is not necessarily measured.


 The 2nd Measurement Point (2nd FB Controller) approach is
CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM.

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CONVENTIONAL FB CONTROL
SYSTEM
Conventional FB

 Measure Temp (T) in Hot


Oil despite disturbance in
Cold Oil T

 If D occurs in FG supply P,
the fuel gas flow will change
[upsets the furnace operation
& changes Hot Oil T]

 DADV: Sluggish response

Figure 4.9 Conventional FB

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CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM

EXPLANATION:

 Primary control loop (TT & TC)


 Secondary (PT & PC)
 The hot oil is used by MASTER
controller (TC) to establish the set
point for SLAVE loop controller.

 Secondary measurement is fuel


gas pressure.

 If a disturbance in supply P
occurs, PC will act quickly to hold
the Fuel Gas P at its Set Point.
Figure 4.10 Cascade Control  ADV: FCE adjusted quickly as the
CHANGE is detected.
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CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM
EXPLANATION:

 Reactor T is affected by changes in


DV (reactant feed T)

 Control Strategy: handle D by


adjusting FCE on cooling water
inlet stream.

 How?:
 Control system measures Jacket
Temp, compare to set point, uses
the resulting error signal as the
input to a controller for CW
makeup.

 PRINCIPAL: the 2nd MV is


located closed to potential
disturbance & react quickly.
Figure 4.11 Exothermic Chemical Reactor

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Connected loops with one loop resetting the set point of a second
loop are usually referred to as cascaded loops or cascade control.
1. The outer loop is the primary loop or master loop.
2. The inner loop is the secondary loop or slave loop

FEEDBACK (DIRECT) CASCADE

7
CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM
Design Considerations for Cascade Control

Slave

Master

Figure 4.12 Block Diagram of Cascade Control Loop


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CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM
Cascade Controller control loop structure has 2 distinguishing features:

• The output signal of the master controller serves as the set point for the
slave controller.

 The two FB control are nested, which is:

 Secondary control loop (SLAVE) located inside the primary (MASTER)


control loop. [2 CVs, 2 Sensors, & 1 MV]

 CONCLUSION:

Cascade Control uses the output of the primary (MASTER) controller to


manipulate the set point of the secondary (SLAVE) controller as if it were
the final control element.

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CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM
Requirements for cascade control:

1. Secondary loop process dynamics must be at least four times as fast as


primary loop process dynamics.
2. Secondary loop must have influence over the primary loop.
3. Secondary loop must be measured and controllable.

Reasons NOT TO USE cascade:


1. Highly Cost of measurement of secondary variable
(assuming it is not measured for other reasons).
2. Additional complexity.

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CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure 4.13 Comparison between FB control and Cascade Control

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 INFERENTIAL

 SELECTOR/OVERRIDE

 ADAPTIVE

13 13
INFERENTIAL
CONTROL

14 Mrs. Nurul Hanim Haji Razak


INFERENTIAL CONTROL
Objective:

 Process measurement can be obtained more rapidly with a mathematical


model called SOFT SENSORS to infer the value of CV.

Example:

 an overhead product stream in a distillation column can’t be analyzed on-


line, the measurement of selected tray temperature can be used in order to
infer the actual composition

General structure of Inferential Controller:

 X = 2nd measurement (fast sampling)


 Y = 1st measurement (obtained intermittently & less frequently)

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INFERENTIAL SYSTEM
Design Consideration of Inferential Controller

Figure 16.12 Soft Sensor Block Diagram used in Inferential control


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INFERENTIAL CONTROL
There are several advantages to using inferential control.
i. When there are large measurement delays for controlled variables, performance
of the control loop suffers.
ii. In such cases, inferential control is a good choice because it relies on
measurements that have relatively low levels of deadtime.
iii. In many cases, the cost on on-line analyzers used to measure primary variables
can be excessive. Analyzers that measure secondary variables are typically less
expensive and easier to maintain.
iv. In some cases, on-line analyzers to measure primary variables are not available
at all, making inferential measurement the only option.
The main disadvantage of inferential control is that model errors can lead to poor
controller performance.
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INFERENTIAL SYSTEM
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS:

i. Inferential control is commonly used with distillation columns. Tray


temperature can be used to infer product composition.

ii. Inferential control can also be used to measure the total cell mass for a bio-
reactor. Though total cell mass can be measured on-line by drawing a
sample of the reaction broth, the analysis is slow. The total cell mass can be
determined more frequently by measuring CO2 concentration and flow rate.

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Mrs. Nurul Hanim Haji Razak 19
SELECTIVE
CONTROL/OVERRIDE
SYSTEM

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 Most of control applications have an equal number of controlled
variable and manipulate variable.

 If fewer MV than CV are available, it is not possible to eliminate


offset (disturbance and set point change).

 For control problems with fewer MV than PV, SELECTORS are


employed for sharing MV among the CV.

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SELECTOR is a practical solution for:

 Choosing the appropriate signal from among a number available


measurements.

 Can be based on multiple measurement points, multiple final controllers or


multiple controllers.

OBJECTIVES:

 To improve the control system performance and equipment protection from


unsafe operating conditions.

SYMBOLS:

 (>) high selector, (<) low selector

 The output signal is the highest (OR lowest) of two or more input signals
22 (AUCTIONEERING).
Design Consideration of Selector Controller

Figure 4.13 Control of Reactor Hotspot Temp by using High Selector


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EXPLANATION:

 On normal op., LC adjusts the


slurry exit by changing pump
speed.

 The slurry velocity in exit


line, MUST BE KEPT above
MIN value to prevent sanding
up.

 As flow rate approaches


LOWER limit, FLOW
controller takes over form LC
& speed up the pump.
Figure 4.14 Selective control system to handle sand/water slurry
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Design Consideration of Selector Controller

Figure 4.15 Block diagram for selective control loop with two measurements and
two controllers
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ADAPTIVE CONTROL
SYSTEM

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CONCEPT:

 Controller parameters are adjusted automatically to compensate for process changing


conditions (a.k.a self-tuning controllers/self-adaptive controllers)

 Adaptive control techniques proposed for situation like:


largely UNKNOWN or unpredictable.

Process Condition that require ADAPTIVE Controller:

a) Changes in equipment characteristic (catalyst deactivation)

b) Unusual operational status (failure, start-up, shutdown)

c) Large or frequent disturbance (feed quality)

d) Ambient variation (rain storms, daily cycles)

e) Change in product spec (grade changes)

f) Nonlinear behavior (dependent on chemical reaction rates on Temp)


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Design Consideration of Adaptive Controller

Figure 4.16 Block Diagram of Self-tuning Control


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 In adaptive controller,
- The parameters in the process model are updated as a new data required for the
controller calculations are based on the updated model.
 Based on Fig. 4.16:
Three sets of computations are employed,
(a)Estimation of model parameters
(b)Calculation of the controller settings
(c) Implementation of the controller output in a feedback loop.

*DURING A DISTURBANCE OR SET-POINT CHANGE:


-The process response is compared to the predicted model response – the model
can be updated with the prediction error.
*Problematic when high-level of signal noise or unmeasured disturbances (that
are not included in the model)
Advantages of self-tuning controller:

1. Not restricted to low-order linear transfer function.


2. The controller is not required to have a PID controller.
3. The model structure can be multi-variable, even incorporated
with nonlinear modeling elements such as NN.
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