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Lesson 6: TRIGONOMETRIC

IDENTITIES
Math 12
Plane and Spherical Trigonometry
OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson the students are expected to:


• Review basic identities.
• Simplify a trigonometric expression using identities.
• Verify a trigonometric identity.
• Apply the sum and difference identities.
• Apply the double-angle and half-angle identities.
• Apply the product-to-sum and sum-to-product identities.
TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

A trigonometric identity is an equation involving trigonometric


functions that hold for all values of the argument, typically
chosen to be 𝜃.
BASIC TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

Reciprocal Identities

Reciprocal Identities Equivalent Forms Domain Restrictions

1 1 𝜃 ≠ 𝑛𝜋 𝑛 = 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟
csc 𝜃 = sin 𝜃 =
sin 𝜃 csc 𝜃
1 1 𝑛𝜋
sec 𝜃 = cos 𝜃 = 𝜃≠ 𝑛 = 𝑜𝑑𝑑 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟
cos 𝜃 sec 𝜃 2
1 1 𝑛𝜋
cot 𝜃 = tan 𝜃 = 𝜃≠ 𝑛 = 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟
tan 𝜃 cot 𝜃 2
Quotient (or Ratio) Identities

Quotient Identities Domain Restrictions


sin 𝜃
tan 𝜃 = 𝑛𝜋
cos 𝜃 cos 𝜃 ≠ 0 𝑜𝑟 𝜃≠ 𝑛 = 𝑜𝑑𝑑 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟
2
cos 𝜃
cot 𝜃 =
sin 𝜃 sin 𝜃 ≠ 0 𝑜𝑟 𝜃 ≠ 𝑛𝜋 𝑛 = 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑟
Pythagorean Identities

𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐 𝜽 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜽 = 𝟏 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝜽 + 𝟏 = 𝒔𝒆𝒄𝟐 𝜽 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒕𝟐 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒔𝒄𝟐 𝜽

Negative Arguments Identities

𝒔𝒊𝒏 −𝜽 = −𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽 𝒄𝒐𝒔 −𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 𝒕𝒂𝒏 −𝜽 = −𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽


Guidelines for Verifying Trigonometric
Identities
The following suggestions help guide the way to verifying trigonometric
identities:
• Start with the more complicated side of the equation.
• Combine all sums and differences of fractions (quotients) into a single
fraction (quotient).
• Use basic trigonometric identities.
• Use algebraic techniques to manipulate one side of the other side of
the equation is achieved.
• Sometimes it is helpful to convert all trigonometric functions into sines
and cosines.
Note:
Trigonometric identities must be valid for all values of the independent
variable for which the expressions in the equation are defined (domain of
the equation).
Examples

Verify the following identities:


1 1
1. 2𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃 = +
1−sin 𝜃 1+sin 𝜃

1+cos 𝜃
2. cos 𝜃
= sec 𝜃 + 1

cos 𝜃
3. sec 𝜃+tan 𝜃
= 1 − sin 𝜃

1
4. tan 𝜃+cot 𝜃
= sin 𝜃 cos 𝜃

5. 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 − 1 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛4 𝜃


6. tan 𝑥 + cot 𝑥 = csc 𝑥 sec 𝑥
7. sin 𝜃 − tan 𝜃 2 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝜃 cos 𝜃 − 1 2

cos 𝜃 cos 𝜃 2
8. 1+sin 𝜃
+
1−sin 𝜃
=
cos 𝜃

9. sin 𝜃 + cos 𝜃 2 tan 𝜃 = tan 𝜃 + 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃

10. 1 + sin 𝜃 + cos 𝜃 1 − sin 𝜃 − cos 𝜃 = −2 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜃

𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
11. + = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑠𝑒𝑐 3 𝜃 + 𝑐𝑜𝑡𝜃
1−𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃−1

𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥+1+sin 𝑥 1+sin 𝑥


12. =
𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥+3 2+sin 𝑥
Sum and Difference Identities

𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 + 𝑩 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑩 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑩


𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 − 𝑩 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑩 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑩

𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 + 𝑩 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑩 − 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑩


𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 − 𝑩 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑩 + 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑩

𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 + 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑩
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 + 𝑩 =
𝟏 − 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑩
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 − 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑩
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 − 𝑩 =
𝟏 − 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑩
Examples

1. Find the exact value for each trigonometric expression.


𝜋
a) sin b) sin 105° c) tan 165°
12
2. Write each expression as a single trigonometric function.
a) sin 2𝑥 sin 3𝑥 + cos 2𝑥 cos 3𝑥
b) cos 𝜋 − 𝑥 sin 𝑥 + sin 𝜋 − 𝑥 cos 𝑥
tan 49°+tan 23°
c)
1−tan 49° tan 23°
3) Find the exact value of a) sin 𝛼 − 𝛽 and b) 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝛼 + 𝛽 if
3 1
sin 𝛼 = − and sin 𝛽 = ; the terminal side of 𝛼 lies in Q3 and
5 5
the terminal side of 𝛽 lies in Q1.
𝜋 𝜋
4) Verify: sin 𝑥 − = cos 𝑥 +
2 2
Double-Angle Identities

Sine Cosine Tangent

𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝟐𝑨 = 𝟐𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐𝑨 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝑨 − 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐 𝑨 𝟐 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨


𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝟐𝑨 =
𝟏 − 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝑨
𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐𝑨 = 𝟏 − 𝟐𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐 𝑨

𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐𝑨 = 𝟐𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝑨 − 𝟏
Examples
5
1. If cos 𝑥 = and sin 𝑥 < 0, find a) tan 2𝑥 b) cos 2𝑥
13
3𝜋
2. If csc 𝑥 = −2 5 and 𝜋 < 𝑥 < , find sin 2𝑥.
2
3. Simplify each expression and evaluate the resulting expression
exactly, if possible.
2 tan 15°
a) b) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 + 2 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝑥 + 2
1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 15°
4. Verify each identity.
a) sin 𝑥 + cos 𝑥 2 = 1 + sin 2𝑥
b) sin 3𝑥 = sin 𝑥 4𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 − 1
Half-Angle Identities

Sine Cosine Tangent

𝑨 𝟏 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝑨 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝑨 𝟏 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨


𝒔𝒊𝒏 =± 𝒄𝒐𝒔 =± 𝒕𝒂𝒏 =±
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨

𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨
𝒕𝒂𝒏 =
𝟐 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨
𝑨 𝟏 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨
𝒕𝒂𝒏 =
𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨
Examples

1. Use half-angle identities to find the exact values of the


following:
7𝜋
a) cos 22.5° b) cot c) sin 75°
8
𝑥
2. If csc 𝑥 = −3 and cos 𝑥 > 0, find cos .
2
24 𝜋 𝑥
3. If cot 𝑥 = − and < 𝑥 < 𝜋, find sin .
5 2 2
4. Verify the following:
𝑥 𝑥
a) sin −𝑥 = −2 sin cos .
2 2
Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Prroduct
Identities
Product-to-Sum Identities
𝟏
𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝑨 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝑩 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 + 𝑩 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 − 𝑩
𝟐
𝟏
𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑩 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 − 𝑩 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 + 𝑩
𝟐
𝟏
𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑨 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝑩 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 + 𝑩 + 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 − 𝑩
𝟐
Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product
Identities
Sum-to-Product Identities
𝑨+𝑩 𝑨−𝑩
𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑨 + 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑩 = 𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒄𝒐𝒔
𝟐 𝟐

𝑨−𝑩 𝑨+𝑩
𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑨 − 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑩 = 𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒄𝒐𝒔
𝟐 𝟐

𝑨+𝑩 𝑨−𝑩
𝒄𝒐𝒔𝑨 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝑩 = 𝟐𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒄𝒐𝒔
𝟐 𝟐

𝑨+𝑩 𝑨−𝑩
𝒄𝒐𝒔𝑨 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝑩 = −𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒔𝒊𝒏
𝟐 𝟐
Examples

1. Write each expression as a sum or difference of sines and/or


cosines.
3𝑥 5𝑥
a) cos 10𝑥 sin 5𝑥 c) sin sin
2 2
𝜋 𝜋
b) 4 cos −𝑥 cos 2𝑥 d) sin − 𝑥 cos − 𝑥
4 2

2. Write each expressions as a product of sines and/or cosines:


a) cos 2𝑥 − cos 4𝑥 c) sin 0.4𝑥 + sin 0.6𝑥
𝑥 5𝑥 𝜋 𝜋
b) sin − sin d) cos − 𝑥 + cos 𝑥
2 2 4 6
Examples

3. Simplify the following trigonometric expressions:


cos 3𝑥 −cos 𝑥 cos 5𝑥 +cos 2𝑥
a) b)
sin 3𝑥 +sin 𝑥 sin 5𝑥 −sin 2𝑥

4. Verify the following:


𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝐴+sin 𝐵 𝐴+𝐵
a) = 𝑡𝑎𝑛
cos 𝐴+ cos 𝐵 2
sin 𝐴−sin 𝐵 𝐴−𝐵
b) = 𝑡𝑎𝑛
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝐴+𝑐𝑜𝑠𝐵 2
References

• Algebra and Trigonometry by Cynthia Young


• Trigonometry by Jerome Hayden and Bettye Hall
• Trigonometry by Academe/Scott, Foresman
• Plane and Spherical Trigonometry by Paul Rider