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# Lesson 6: TRIGONOMETRIC

IDENTITIES
Math 12
Plane and Spherical Trigonometry
OBJECTIVES

## At the end of the lesson the students are expected to:

• Review basic identities.
• Simplify a trigonometric expression using identities.
• Verify a trigonometric identity.
• Apply the sum and difference identities.
• Apply the double-angle and half-angle identities.
• Apply the product-to-sum and sum-to-product identities.
TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

## A trigonometric identity is an equation involving trigonometric

functions that hold for all values of the argument, typically
chosen to be 𝜃.
BASIC TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

Reciprocal Identities

## Reciprocal Identities Equivalent Forms Domain Restrictions

1 1 𝜃 ≠ 𝑛𝜋 𝑛 = 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟
csc 𝜃 = sin 𝜃 =
sin 𝜃 csc 𝜃
1 1 𝑛𝜋
sec 𝜃 = cos 𝜃 = 𝜃≠ 𝑛 = 𝑜𝑑𝑑 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟
cos 𝜃 sec 𝜃 2
1 1 𝑛𝜋
cot 𝜃 = tan 𝜃 = 𝜃≠ 𝑛 = 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟
tan 𝜃 cot 𝜃 2
Quotient (or Ratio) Identities

## Quotient Identities Domain Restrictions

sin 𝜃
tan 𝜃 = 𝑛𝜋
cos 𝜃 cos 𝜃 ≠ 0 𝑜𝑟 𝜃≠ 𝑛 = 𝑜𝑑𝑑 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟
2
cos 𝜃
cot 𝜃 =
sin 𝜃 sin 𝜃 ≠ 0 𝑜𝑟 𝜃 ≠ 𝑛𝜋 𝑛 = 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑟
Pythagorean Identities

## 𝒔𝒊𝒏 −𝜽 = −𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽 𝒄𝒐𝒔 −𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 𝒕𝒂𝒏 −𝜽 = −𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽

Guidelines for Verifying Trigonometric
Identities
The following suggestions help guide the way to verifying trigonometric
identities:
• Combine all sums and differences of fractions (quotients) into a single
fraction (quotient).
• Use basic trigonometric identities.
• Use algebraic techniques to manipulate one side of the other side of
the equation is achieved.
• Sometimes it is helpful to convert all trigonometric functions into sines
and cosines.
Note:
Trigonometric identities must be valid for all values of the independent
variable for which the expressions in the equation are defined (domain of
the equation).
Examples

1 1
1. 2𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃 = +
1−sin 𝜃 1+sin 𝜃

1+cos 𝜃
2. cos 𝜃
= sec 𝜃 + 1

cos 𝜃
3. sec 𝜃+tan 𝜃
= 1 − sin 𝜃

1
4. tan 𝜃+cot 𝜃
= sin 𝜃 cos 𝜃

## 5. 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 − 1 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛4 𝜃

6. tan 𝑥 + cot 𝑥 = csc 𝑥 sec 𝑥
7. sin 𝜃 − tan 𝜃 2 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝜃 cos 𝜃 − 1 2

cos 𝜃 cos 𝜃 2
8. 1+sin 𝜃
+
1−sin 𝜃
=
cos 𝜃

## 10. 1 + sin 𝜃 + cos 𝜃 1 − sin 𝜃 − cos 𝜃 = −2 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜃

𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
11. + = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑠𝑒𝑐 3 𝜃 + 𝑐𝑜𝑡𝜃
1−𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃−1

## 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥+1+sin 𝑥 1+sin 𝑥

12. =
𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥+3 2+sin 𝑥
Sum and Difference Identities

## 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 + 𝑩 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑩 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑩

𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 − 𝑩 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑩 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑩

## 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 + 𝑩 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑩 − 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑩

𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 − 𝑩 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑩 + 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑩

𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 + 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑩
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 + 𝑩 =
𝟏 − 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑩
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 − 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑩
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 − 𝑩 =
𝟏 − 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑩
Examples

## 1. Find the exact value for each trigonometric expression.

𝜋
a) sin b) sin 105° c) tan 165°
12
2. Write each expression as a single trigonometric function.
a) sin 2𝑥 sin 3𝑥 + cos 2𝑥 cos 3𝑥
b) cos 𝜋 − 𝑥 sin 𝑥 + sin 𝜋 − 𝑥 cos 𝑥
tan 49°+tan 23°
c)
1−tan 49° tan 23°
3) Find the exact value of a) sin 𝛼 − 𝛽 and b) 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝛼 + 𝛽 if
3 1
sin 𝛼 = − and sin 𝛽 = ; the terminal side of 𝛼 lies in Q3 and
5 5
the terminal side of 𝛽 lies in Q1.
𝜋 𝜋
4) Verify: sin 𝑥 − = cos 𝑥 +
2 2
Double-Angle Identities

## 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝟐𝑨 = 𝟐𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐𝑨 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝑨 − 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐 𝑨 𝟐 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝑨

𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝟐𝑨 =
𝟏 − 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝑨
𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐𝑨 = 𝟏 − 𝟐𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐 𝑨

𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐𝑨 = 𝟐𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝑨 − 𝟏
Examples
5
1. If cos 𝑥 = and sin 𝑥 < 0, find a) tan 2𝑥 b) cos 2𝑥
13
3𝜋
2. If csc 𝑥 = −2 5 and 𝜋 < 𝑥 < , find sin 2𝑥.
2
3. Simplify each expression and evaluate the resulting expression
exactly, if possible.
2 tan 15°
a) b) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 + 2 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝑥 + 2
1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 15°
4. Verify each identity.
a) sin 𝑥 + cos 𝑥 2 = 1 + sin 2𝑥
b) sin 3𝑥 = sin 𝑥 4𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 − 1
Half-Angle Identities

## 𝑨 𝟏 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝑨 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 𝑨 𝟏 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨

𝒔𝒊𝒏 =± 𝒄𝒐𝒔 =± 𝒕𝒂𝒏 =±
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨

𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨
𝒕𝒂𝒏 =
𝟐 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨
𝑨 𝟏 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨
𝒕𝒂𝒏 =
𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨
Examples

## 1. Use half-angle identities to find the exact values of the

following:
7𝜋
a) cos 22.5° b) cot c) sin 75°
8
𝑥
2. If csc 𝑥 = −3 and cos 𝑥 > 0, find cos .
2
24 𝜋 𝑥
3. If cot 𝑥 = − and < 𝑥 < 𝜋, find sin .
5 2 2
4. Verify the following:
𝑥 𝑥
a) sin −𝑥 = −2 sin cos .
2 2
Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Prroduct
Identities
Product-to-Sum Identities
𝟏
𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝑨 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝑩 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 + 𝑩 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 − 𝑩
𝟐
𝟏
𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑩 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 − 𝑩 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑨 + 𝑩
𝟐
𝟏
𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑨 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝑩 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 + 𝑩 + 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑨 − 𝑩
𝟐
Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product
Identities
Sum-to-Product Identities
𝑨+𝑩 𝑨−𝑩
𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑨 + 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑩 = 𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒄𝒐𝒔
𝟐 𝟐

𝑨−𝑩 𝑨+𝑩
𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑨 − 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝑩 = 𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒄𝒐𝒔
𝟐 𝟐

𝑨+𝑩 𝑨−𝑩
𝒄𝒐𝒔𝑨 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝑩 = 𝟐𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒄𝒐𝒔
𝟐 𝟐

𝑨+𝑩 𝑨−𝑩
𝒄𝒐𝒔𝑨 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝑩 = −𝟐 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒔𝒊𝒏
𝟐 𝟐
Examples

## 1. Write each expression as a sum or difference of sines and/or

cosines.
3𝑥 5𝑥
a) cos 10𝑥 sin 5𝑥 c) sin sin
2 2
𝜋 𝜋
b) 4 cos −𝑥 cos 2𝑥 d) sin − 𝑥 cos − 𝑥
4 2

## 2. Write each expressions as a product of sines and/or cosines:

a) cos 2𝑥 − cos 4𝑥 c) sin 0.4𝑥 + sin 0.6𝑥
𝑥 5𝑥 𝜋 𝜋
b) sin − sin d) cos − 𝑥 + cos 𝑥
2 2 4 6
Examples

## 3. Simplify the following trigonometric expressions:

cos 3𝑥 −cos 𝑥 cos 5𝑥 +cos 2𝑥
a) b)
sin 3𝑥 +sin 𝑥 sin 5𝑥 −sin 2𝑥

𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝐴+sin 𝐵 𝐴+𝐵
a) = 𝑡𝑎𝑛
cos 𝐴+ cos 𝐵 2
sin 𝐴−sin 𝐵 𝐴−𝐵
b) = 𝑡𝑎𝑛
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝐴+𝑐𝑜𝑠𝐵 2
References

## • Algebra and Trigonometry by Cynthia Young

• Trigonometry by Jerome Hayden and Bettye Hall