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Fabrication of Polystyrene/Clay

nanocomposites
by

Vivek Patil Nitin Purohit

(708042) (708044)

Under guidance of
Dr. R.K.Goyal
Objective

To fabricate polystyrene matrix composite by changing


the weight percent of the nano sized clay particles for
packaging and timing belt applications

 To study effect of wt. % of clay on various properties


of PS/ Clay nanocomposite
Introduction

Composite
1. Definition
2. Nano composites
Polystyrene
1. Structure
2. Properties
Clay
1. Types
2. Properties
Properties of polystyrene

 Colorless substance

 Thermoplastic polymer

 Glass transition temp. – 85 to 125 ºC

 Melting point – 240 ºC

 Used in automobiles, consumer electronics, packaging.


Nano Clay particles

 Inorganic material
 Types
1. Fireclay
2. Bentonite
3. Limonite
4. Kalonite
 Montmorillonite (MMT)
1. Sodium and Calcium MMT
2. High aspect ratio
Properties of Polystyrene and Clay

Sr. Properties Polystyrene Clay


No.

1 Density 1.05 g/cc 1.70 g/cc

2 Tensile strength 46–60 MPa 101 MPa

3 Coefficient of Thermal 8× 10−5 /K 1.72×10-8 /K


Expansion

4 Dielectric constant 2.4- 2.7 1.8- 2.8


Experimental process
Clay/ Chloroform + Sonication Polystyrene

PS/ CLAY were mixed in chloroform using Magnetic stirrer with heating for 4 hrs.

Drying in oven at 65oC for 2 hrs.

Hot pressing at 200oC / 300 kg

Composite pellet of 5 mm thickness and 13 mm diameter

Characterization
Hot pressing of composite film

Pellet Dimensions t= 5 mm
d= 13 mm

Temperature 200°C

Load 300 kg

Soaking Time 15 min.

Line diagram of hot compression

 3 Samples with 0wt.%, 2wt.% and 5wt.% of Clay in PS were prepared


Density measurement

 Volume fraction :
Vf = Wf / [Wf + (1-Wf).ρf / ρm ]

 Theoretical density by Rule of Mixture :


ρTh = (ρm Vm + ρf Vf)

 Experimental density by Archimedes method :


ρExp = [Wair / (Wair -Walcohol)]. ρalcohol
Density Vs Wt. % of Clay

Wt. % of Clay Experimental density Theoretical density


0 1.0042 1.05
2 1.0195 1.058
5 1.0265 1.071
Micro hardness measurement

 Microhardness - resistance to indentation


 Using Vickers Microhardness tester (FM 700 Future
Tech.)
 Load - 100 gm
 Dwell time - 15 sec
 Vickers hardness(Hv) :
Hv = (1.8544×P)/ d2
Microhardness Vs Wt. % of Clay

Sample Average
Reading (Hv)

Pure PS 16.35

2% Clay/PS 16.50

5% Clay/PS 16.85
Dielectric Constant measurement

 Dielectric constant – measure of degree of slow down of


electromagnetic waves travelling through insulating material

 Using Precision Impedance Analyzer


(Wayne Kerr 6500 B), Capacitance is measured

 Dielectric constant :
Ԑ = (c×t)/( Ԑ0×A)
Dielectric Constant Vs Wt. % of Clay(10 MHz)
Results

 Nanocomposites of PS/ Clay of various compositions can be prepared


by using hot pressing with proper loading.
 The mass of sample depends on the weight percentage of filler.
 Density of nanocomposite increases as clay content increases
 Microhardness of nanocomposite increases as Wt. % of clay in PS
increases
 Dielectric constant of nanocomposite increases as clay content
increases
Future Scope

 Study on effect of change in wt.% of clay in PS/Clay


nanocomposite on
a) Melt flow index
b) Coefficient of thermal expansion

 To study the dispersion of Clay in nanocomposites by XRD.


Acknowledgements

 We are immensely thankful to HOD, Dr. M. J. Rathod for allowing


us to carry the project out. Our sincere thanks to our guide Dr. R. K.
Goyal who helped us in every way while doing the project work. All
other professors and non-teaching staff of the department were also
very helpful to us throughout the project. All the B.Tech students
and Mr. Amol Kadam from M.Tech working in the same area helped
us too.
References

 1.R.K. Goyal , A.N. Tiwari , Y.S. Negi


Microhardness of PEEK/ceramic micro- and nanocomposites: Correlation
with Halpin–Tsai model

 2.Tsung et al.
Preparation of exfoliated PS/Clay nanocomposites, advances materials
17 (2005) 1769-1773.

 3. Yuaci Hu et al.”Nanoindentation study of Nylon 11/Clay


composites”, Polymer Testing 25 (2006) 492-497.

 4.Santosh D. and I.P.Jog,”Polybutene/clay nanocomposites and its


properties” Polymer science 41 (2003) 1021-1041.
Thank You.