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Material Evaluation And

Process Selection

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Material Evaluation

• The design engineer specifies the material to be used,


the process planner have to enter into a meaningful
dialogue with the design engineer about the materials
specified, based on the availability of manufacturing
processes.

• Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the materials


used in manufacturing is essential for effective
process planning.
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Four Important Factors Influence The Use Of Materials
In Manufacturing

• The product design must meet the specified need


• Materials with appropriate properties must be
selected
• Based on both of the above, suitable manufacturing
processes must be selected
• The response of the material during manufacture and
in service.

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Classification Of Materials For Manufacture

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General mechanical and physical
material properties

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Metals - General classification of metals

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Ceramics
General classification for ceramics

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Polymers
General classification of polymers

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Composites
• A composite material is one that contains two
or more component materials combined.
• These are usually combined mechanically or
metallurgically to produce a material which
has properties not exhibited by conventional
materials. The component materials generally
remain discrete during processing and, as
such, retain their characteristic properties.

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Composites
• Laminar composites- where the component
materials are bonded together in layers.
A common example of this is plywood, where
layers of wood veneer are bonded together.
• Particulate composites - where one or more
component materials is surrounded by another
component material known as a matrix.
A good example of this is concrete, which is sand
and gravel surrounded by cement.
• Fibre-reinforced composites- where thin fibres of
one component material are embedded within a
matrix of another component material.
A good example of this type of composite is glass-
fibre-reinforced resins. 10
The Material Selection Process

Three approaches arise for the materials selection process:

• The design and development of a new product

• The modification of an existing product.

• Case-History Method.

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Design And Development Of A New Product.
There are five basic steps that can be followed for this approach:

• Specify the performance parameters of the design and


translate these into the required material properties.

• Specify the manufacturing considerations such as the


quantity/ batch size; size, weight and complexity of the
part; dimensional and geometrical accuracy required, the
surface finish required.

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Design And Development Of A New Product.

• Draw up a shortlist of materials from the largest possible


database of materials suitable for the application.

• Evaluate the candidate materials in more detail. The result


of this evaluation should be the selection of a single
material.

• Develop design data and/or a design specification for the


chosen material.

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Modification Of An Existing Product

• Evaluate the current product in terms of the materials


performance, manufacturing process requirements and cost.

• Identify which characteristics have to be improved for


enhanced product performance.

• Search for alternative materials and/or manufacturing routes.

• Compile a shortlist of materials and manufacturing routes.


Evaluate each in terms of the cost of manufactured parts.

• Evaluate the results of Step 4 and employ the best alternative.

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Material selection methods
• Selection with computer-aided databases
• Performance indices
• Decision matrices
• Selection with expert systems
• Value analysis (particularly for materials
substitution)
• Failure analysis
• Cost-benefit analysis.

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Material evaluation method
In terms of the material evaluation, one of the prime considerations
for the manufacturing engineer or process planner is the shapes or
features required.

Evaluation should focus on three main areas

• Shape or geometry considerations;

• Material property requirements;

• Manufacturing considerations.

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Shape or geometry considerations
1. What is the relative size of the component?

2. How complex is the shape? Is it symmetrical at all?


Uniform cross sections? Will it be more than one piece?

3. Are there enough dimensions to enable manufacture?

4. Are there any dimensional tolerances outside the general


tolerance requirements?

5. How does this part mate in a sub-assembly or assembly?

6. What are the surface finish requirements?


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Material property requirements
• Mechanical properties.
1. Are there any static loading needs with regards to particular
processes?
2. Is failure likely during manufacture and, if so, how?
• Physical properties.
1. Will processing affect electrical property requirements?
2. Will processing affect magnetic property requirements?
• Service environment.
1.What is the range of operating temperatures and rate of
temperature Change?
2.What is the desired service lifetime of the product?
3.What is the anticipated maintenance for this component?
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Manufacturing considerations
1. Have standard components and parts been specified wherever
possible?

2. Has the ease of manufacture of the design been considered?

3. How many components have to be made and at what rate?

4. What is the minimum and maximum section thickness?

5. What is the desired level of quality compared to similar


products on the market?

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Process selection
• In material selection process ,the result will be
the selection of a suitable material or
materials.
• The material itself will limit the manufacturing
processes that can be used, as not all
materials are suitable for all processes.
• For example, when considering joining
processes, cast iron cannot be used for
resistance welding.
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• The workability will also have a significant
influence on the quality of the part, where
quality is defined by three factors (Dieter,
1988):
• freedom from defects;
• surface finish;
• dimensional accuracy and tolerances.

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factors common to both the material
and Process selection decisions:
• material form
• component size and weight
• economic considerations
• dimensional and geometric accuracy
• surface finish specification
• batch size and production rate

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Material
and
process
selection
factors

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General guidelines for process selection
1. Select a process capable of providing the
specified dimensional/ geometric accuracy and
surface finish.

2. Specify the widest possible tolerances and


surface finish variation for products to allow the
widest possible choice of manufacturing processes.

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General guidelines for process selection
3. Use prototypes as much as possible, taking into
consideration the variation in performance of
methods used to manufacture a one-off compared
with volume manufacturing.

4. Carry out a detailed comparison of candidate


processes early in the design process, paying
particular attention to the variation in assembly
costs for different processes. 26
Process selection method
Two basic assumptions.

• The material has been selected first, as opposed to


manufacturing processes first, and specified at the design
stage.
• All the information contained within the design documents,
that is, drawings, parts lists, etc. is comprehensive and that
all information required for manufacturing can be derived
during the drawing interpretation.

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Four stages of process selection method
 Drawing interpretation
 Critical processing factors
 Consult process tables
 Identifying a process

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Steps in
process
selection
methods

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Step:1 or stage 1
Drawing interpretation
1.Geometry analysis.

2. Manufacturing Information in the design document.

3.Material Evaluation and output from Drawing


interpretation

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Step:1 or stage 1
Drawing interpretation
Analysis in Drawing Interpretation.
1.Geometry analysis.
Using the geometry classification matrix in
Fig. , a number of candidate processes can be
identified based on the complexity of shape required.
The size of the part will also be considered.

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Geometry classification matrix

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Step:1 or stage 1
Drawing interpretation
2. Manufacturing Information in the design
document.
This includes information such process
parameters as the
surface finish,
dimensional and geometric tolerances,
limits and fits, special treatments,
gauge references and tooling references.

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Step:1 or stage 1
Drawing interpretation
3.Material Evaluation and output from Drawing
interpretation
This considers the material in terms of the
desired geometry, the material properties and the
manufacturing considerations

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Stage 2
Critical
processing
factors

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Critical processing factors
• The combined output from the first stage
must be correlated to identify the critical
processing factors.

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Stage 3: Consult Process Tables
• Using the correlated data from the previous
stage, the candidate processes are compared by
using the appropriate process selection table.

• In most cases, this approach will enable a clear


cut decision to be made using all the information
gathered.

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Consult Process Tables
• However, in a case where more than one
process can meet all the requirements,
economic data such as labour,
equipment and tooling costs,
batch size and production rate,
may provide further clarification.
• In some instances,A detailed cost comparison
may have to be made between processes to help
make a decision.

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Consult Process Tables
• Finally, in some instances the decision being
made maybe whether to make or buy in a
part/product where the process expertise is not
available in-house. Some of the methods
associated with making decisions based on
economic factors .
• It should be noted that the use of costing
methods should be incorporated as early as
possible in the design and manufacture
process.
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Stage 4: Identifying a process
• Using the data from the second stage, and if required a
detailed economic analysis, a suitable process should be
selected.
• If it is the case that one process is all that is
required to make the part, then the process selection
is complete.
• However, except in the case of the use of some
primary processes, secondary processing is usually
required.
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Identifying a process

• Therefore, in cases where further processing


is required, the critical processing factors
should be reconsidered and stage 3 repeated.

• Once all the required processes have been


identified, the process selection is complete.

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