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“Teach a child WHAT to THINK and you

make him a slave of knowledge;


But, teach a child HOW to THINK and
you make knowledge his slave.”

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Module 3a: REASONING AND
INFERENCE

Prepared by Mr. Roland Lorenzo M. Ruben


Philosophy section, SSD Page 2
De La Salle University - Dasmariñas
OVERVIEW
1. General Notion of Inference
2. Kinds of Inference
a. Immediate
b. Mediate

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1. General Notion of Inference
• The study of Logic is very formative.
• Module 1 deals with ideas and terms which are the
basic elements of which judgments and propositions
are composed.
• Module 2 studies judgments and propositions, the
consistent arrangements of which constitute reasoning
or inference.

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1. General Notion of Inference
• These studies are pre-requisites and preparation
to the understanding of reasoning or inference –
the 3rd division of Logic. At this stage, we enter
logic proper.
• Logic is the study of reasoning characterized
by producing reasons as evidence for a certain
conclusion which we wish to establish.

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• Reasoning is closely connected with inference.
The reasons we provide allows us to infer a
conclusion. Reasoning is inference.
• Inference – is a process in which from a
sequence of propositions we infer a conclusion,
which is marked off as following from the former
propositions.
• The things we do with reasoning,
as a form of communication, are:
o Arguing
o Explaining
o Making decisions
o Predicting the future
o Exploring issues
o Finding answers
o Justifying actions
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• Suppose one wishes to establish the truth that “Pedro
San Juan is a lawyer.” Although there are many ways
of arriving at this truth, one way of providing evidence
for this conclusion is:
– (1) to assert that “All bar passers are lawyers.” and,
– (2) “Pedro San Juan is a bar passer.”
• If both of these propositions are true, then it follows that
“Pedro San Juan is a lawyer.”
• It is impossible to assert that “Pedro San Juan is a
lawyer” is false, if propositions (1) and (2) are true:
Thus:
1. All bar passers are lawyers.
2. Pedro San Juan is a bar passer.
3. Therefore, Pedro San Juan is a
lawyer.

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2. KINDS OF INFERENCE
• There is a variety of ways in which man
reasons out.
• Traditionally, these manners of reasoning
are divided into 2 kinds:
1. Immediate Inference
2. Mediate Inference

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KINDS OF INFERENCE
• Immediate Inference – a process of
reasoning which consists in passing directly
from one proposition, without the aid of a
second proposition or a third term, called
medium, to a new proposition but not to a
new truth.
– e.g. No vices are moral acts.
Therefore, no moral acts are
vices.

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KINDS OF INFERENCE
• Mediate Inference – a process of
reasoning in which from one proposition,
with the aid of another proposition or a third
term, called medium, we infer not only a new
proposition but also a new truth.
– e.g. All bar passers are lawyers.
Peter St. John is a bar
passer.
Therefore, Peter St. John is
a lawyer.

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summary
IMMEDIATE
MEDIATE
• The mind =
• The mind =
1. passes from one
proposition, 1. passes from two
propositions,
2. without a medium,
2. with a medium,
3. to a new proposition
but not to a new truth. 3. to a new proposition
and at the same time
to a new truth.

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Module 3a: REASONING AND INFERENCE

Next topic: Immediate Inference Page 12