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The Education System Before Independence (1400-1956)

During British
Before British Colonization (1786-
Colonization (1400- Before World War II
1786) 1956)

Islamic After World War II

Education -Primary &
Education -Cheeseman Plan (1946)
-National Teacher -Barnes Report (1951)
- Teacher’s Training -Fenn-Wu Report (1952)
house -Vocational & -Education Ordinance
-Mosque, surau, Technical Education
-Razak Report (1956)
& madrasah -Higher Education -National Teachers
-Higher Education
3 phases of Colonial period:

•[Divide and Rule]

•[Japanese occupation]

•[After Japanese occupation]
There were 4 types of
school during British
Education After World War II
• The Cheeseman Plan.
• The Barnes Report.
• The Fenn-Wu Report.
• The Education Ordinance.
• The Razak Report.
• The Rahman Talib Report.
• The Education Act 1961.
• Free basic education for all.
• Medium of instruction in secondary school:
• English language
• Malay language
• Mandarin
• Tamil
• English language compulsory for all vernacular
• The Cheeseman proposal was
abandoned in 1949 with the demise of
the Malayan Union.
• The Barnes Committee was set up in
1950 to look into reforming and
integrating the educational system.
• Proposed all primary vernacular
schools maintained one single
standard & become national school
using the same syllabus with bilingual
languages; Malay & English.
• Secondary schools had to maintain
English as medium of instruction.
• Replacement of Jawi script with
Islamic education.
• Medium of instruction for vernacular
schools are English, Mandarin and
• Argument: Country still can achieve
unity though there was diversity in the
medium of instructions.

• Based on Barnes Report.

• 5 types of schooling systems:
• English schools with English as medium of instruction.
• Malays schools with Malay as medium of instruction.
• Chinese schools.
• Tamil schools.
• Religious schools.
• Curriculum according to individual school system.
• Chaired by Dato’ Abdul Razak Hussein.
• Received 151 memorandums.
• The report proposed:
• One common school system for all:
• Malay language as the medium of instruction for
all stages of schooling.
• Centralized curriculum & school examination.
• Both types of primary school should
enforce Malay as a compulsory
• All national secondary schools should
use a common syllabus & examination
& enforce Malay & English as their
compulsory subjects.
• All teachers should be trained with a
common syllabus in teachers’ training
• Malay language as main language in
• Free secondary school education.
• Automatic promotion until form 3.
• Establishment of technical &
vocational schools.
• Emphasis on religious & moral
Aspect Elaboration
Levels of education i. Primary school education.
ii. Lower secondary school education.
iii. Upper secondary school education.
iv. Education in other educational institutions; eg:
colleges, teacher training colleges, etc.
Primary education i. Compulsory for all children of school-going age
ii. Free for all.
iii. Offered in national schools & national-type schools.
Secondary education i. Normal lower secondary
ii. Normal upper secondary
iii. Trade
iv. Technical (upper secondary)
v. Vocational (upper secondary)
vi. Secondary (approval from Ministry of Education
Islamic Education i. Only offered if there were more than 15 Muslim pupils.
ii. Taught by trained Agama teachers.
iii. Two periods a week during school hours.
• Provide a basic education for all children of school-going
• Acknowledge the Malay language as the main medium of
• Maintain the status of English language as second
• Time allocated for teaching of English language will be
increased & teachers given the necessary training.
• Chaired by Dr. Mahathir bin Mohammad.
• Main objective:
“…to review the goals and effectiveness of the present education
system for the purpose of meeting the manpower needs of the
country both for the short and long terms. Besides this, to also
ensure that the education system meets the country’s goals of
producing a united, disciplined and skilled society.”
• Recommendations:
• Focus on the 3 basic skills; reading, writing & arithmetic.
• Teaching of English language as a second language.
• Emphasis given for a sound spiritual education & other
disciplines, wherever appropriate.
• Secondary education to be divided into two streams;
academic & vocational.
• Extension of educational opportunities from 9 to 11
• Emphasis on curriculum ala Malaysia.
• Review of Bahasa Malaysia in-service courses.
Education act 1996
• Aims:
• To further consolidate the national education system for the young
generation in accordance with the country’s aspirations of making
Malaysia a center of excellence for education.
• To outline the legislation related to education.
• 3 general legislative provisions:
• The National Philosophy of Education which was proclaimed in 1988
& forms the underlying basis;
• The consolidation of the national education system to include
the following:
• All levels of schooling, from pre-school until tertiary education;
• Allcategories of schools, for example, government schools,
government-aided schools & private schools;
• The National Language became the main medium of
instruction under the national education system, besides
being a compulsory subject for all schools & educational
National Philosophy of Education
• "Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards
further developing the potential of individuals in a
holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce
individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,
emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious,
based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such
an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens
who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess
high moral standards, and who are responsible and
capable of achieving high level of personal well-being
as well as being able to contribute to the harmony
and betterment of the family, the society and the
nation at large."
National Education Policy
• Goals:
• To produce a united bangsa Malaysia;
• To produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable, God-
fearing, well-behaved, competent & harmonious.
• To provide a competent work force to meet the needs of a growing
• To offer equal educational opportunities for all Malaysian citizens.
• Teaching of Mathematics & Science in English (ETeMS)
began in 2002.
• Aim to ensure that our country would not be left out in the
globalisation era.
• Complete abolishment of ETeMS on the year of 2012
Compulsory Education
• Compulsory for parents to send children to
• Duration of compulsory schooling is 6 years.
• Failure for parents to register their children to
school will be fined by the law with RM5000 or
prison sentence not more than 6 months or both.
• Reasons:
• Various ethnic groups to have equal access to
• Rights of children with poverty are uphold.
Elective Subjects
• Rationale:
• An inadequate number of pupils in Government schools.
• An increase in the number of non-Chinese pupils in Chinese
vernacular schools.
• Examples of elective subjects in school:
• Chinese
• Tamil
• Kadazandusun
• Iban etc.
Smart School
• Rationale:
• To achieve Vision 2020 & to keep pace with rapid development in
the era of science & technology.
• The establishment is supported with technology initiative.
• Promote the development of a work force prepared to meet
challenges of the next century.
• Concept:
• A change in the learning culture based on memory & examination-
orientation to creative thinking & problem-solving.
• Goals:
• To produce a knowledge-based work force who will navigate
our country towards an information-based economy.
• Students will be absorbed into the workforce for the Multimedia
Super Corridor.
• Assist in the transformation of technology ultimately leading to
a highly technology-based local industry.
• Implementation:
• Production of a computer-savvy workforce equipped with
• Democratisation of education.
• Increment of stakeholders’ involvement.
• Holistic development with due consideration to individual
• Emphasis on physical, emotional, spiritual & intellectual
• Strategies:
• A multi-perspective curriculum which encompasses elective
• Vertical, horizontal & multi-disciplinary integration.
• Reasoning, values, creativity & language across the
• Use of technology in teaching & learning.
• Care & concern for diversity in learning abilities & styles.
• Levels of Technology:
• Level A: 9 new school equipped with modern technology.
• Level B+: 2 Smart Schools equipped with computers in 15
science laboratories, classrooms & office.
• Level B: 79 Smart Schools equipped with a laboratory &
computers in the Resource Center & computers for teachers.
Vision Schools
• Aims:
• Initiative to produce a Malaysian race (bangsa Malaysia) built on love
for the country & abolition of ethnic differences amongst its citizens.
• The importance of fostering racial unity early in an individual’s life.
• Concept:
• Nation Primary School, Chinese National-type Primary School & Tamil
National-type Primary School will have their students to study in a
common area.
• Rationale:
• Pupils from diversified races interact with one another from an early
thus ensuring that our country is moving towards national unity.
• Issues:
• Inculcation of ethnic & cultural diversity through printed & non-printed
materials, co-curricular activities & celebration of festivals.
• Equality in the implementation of school rules in accordance to the
culture & beliefs of each ethnic group.
• Academic & non-academic staff of all races to enhance social
interaction with the pupils.
• Fostering of positive ethnic identity awareness & the absence of
superiority or inferiority complex founded on ethnicity.
• Open communication across ethnic groups through interaction during
recess & co-curricular activities.
• Considerations:
• Inadequate practice of collaborative teaching for pupils to be
exposed to & comprehend different cultural & social viewpoints.
• Inadequate specialized training for Vision Schools teachers in
areas such as cross-cultural communication skills, cultural
• Balance between teachers’ & pupils’ background so as to bridge
the social gap & enhance mutual understanding.
• Challenges:
• Encounter stiff challenges from the private sector & community.
• Eg: Chinese schools were reluctant to get themselves involved will
probably lead to a loss of the Chinese identity & culture.
Basic Reading & Writing Classroom
Intervention Program (KIA2M)
• Why?
• The problem of pupils’ failure to master basic reading and writing
skills was a huge concern & given serious attention.
• Goals:
• To assist Year 1 pupils to master the basic reading & writing skills in
the Malay language.
• To provide opportunities for pupils to learn according to their
individual ability levels.
• To enhance pupils’ self-confidence
• To nurture an interest for learning.
• KIA2M is compulsory for all national schools whereas
national-type schools are given option.
Target Those who
Group- need to be
sent to a
Year 1 special
pupil remedial class

The slow
learners who
Those who have yet to
need master the basic
remediation in reading and
class writing skills



6 Steps of
Teaching &

5 3
Evaluation Planning

Steps Details
Nomination & Based on the number of Year 1 pupils.
Screening Test No addition to the number of classes or
Students initially undergo a nomination
process and screening test before get
Pupils are classified into test scores:
0-9: Referred to medical practitioner
10-44: Undergo KIA2M program
45-60: Continue with teaching and
learning in a normal class.
Planning Teachers plan their teaching using
teaching module provided as a guide and
Teachers are given autonomy to modify
the activities and exercises in the module
Suggested Strategies
• Planning and implementation of teaching is carried
out by the teacher on an individual basis.
Teacher- • Pupils are required to follow the teacher’s
centered instructions and learn what has been taught.

• Active pupil involvement in all the activities planned

Pupil- by the teacher, on an individual, group or class.

• Learning materials are prepared and arranged to be

used by pupils after they have been given clear
Resource- explanations by the teacher.

Individual Approach

• Focus on one student only.

• Peer assistance can be sought (if necessary).

Group Approach

• Pupil-centered.
• Pupils who are facing the same or almost the
common learning problems.
• Teacher teaches using the module provided.

Class Approach

• Pupils involve themselves in group activities to help

foster their self-confidence.


Quizzes Drills

Techniques Demons
Suggested trations

Songs n-and-
• KIA2M pupils are allowed to go back to mainstream
if they passed:
• Ujian Pelepasan 1
• Ujian Pelepasan 2
• Observation & monitoring:
• Curriculum Development Center & other interested
divisions in the Ministry of Education
• School Inspectorate
• State Education Departments
• District Education Offices
• School heads (Headmasters @ headmistress)
Education Development Master Plan (EDMP) 2006-2010

• Goals: To produce quality education

for all through the following 2 main
• 1st Approach:
• Ensure equity & equality.
• Strategies:
• Given fair & just educational opportunities.
• Given the opportunities to master 3R: Reading,
Writing, Arithmetic.
• Improvement of ICT access.
• 2nd Approach:
• Fully develop the potential of all schools.
• To fall within the excellence cluster.
• Achieve measurable success to chart our country & the education system on
the world map.
• Strategies:
• Identify cluster schools from the following types of schools:
• National
• National-type
• Boarding
• Premier
• Secondary technical
• National religious secondary
• Centennial
• Smart Schools
• Schools situated in Putrajaya & Cyberjaya.
• Introduce various programs to enhance the strengths & competitiveness of schools
in the education cluster.

T1: Nation-

T2: Developing
Excellence of
Human Capital

T5: Enhancing
the Teaching

T4: Bridging
the Education
Education And Vision 2020
• Aim: To gain the status of "a fully developed country"
for Malaysia by the year 2020.
• "By the year 2020, Malaysia can be a united nation,
with a confident Malaysian society, infused by strong
moral and ethical values, living in a society that is
democratic, liberal and tolerant, caring, economically
just and equitable, progressive and prosperous, and in
full possession of an economy that is competitive,
dynamic, robust and resilient."
9 challenges as stated in Vision
• 1) The challenge of establishing a united Malaysian nation with a
sense of common and shared destiny. This must be a nation at
peace with itself, territorially and ethnically integrated, living in
harmony, full and fair partnership, made up of one "Bangsa
Malaysia" with political loyalty and dedication to the nation.

• 2) The challenge of creating a psychologically liberated, secure

and developed Malaysian Society with faith and confidence in
itself, justifiably proud of what it is, of what it has accomplished,
robust enough to face all manner of diversity. This Malaysian
Society must be distinguished by the pursuit of excellence, fully
aware of all its potentials, psychologically subservient to none, and
respected by people of other nations.

• 3) The challenge of fostering and developing a mature,

democratic society, practicing a form of mature consensual,
community-oriented Malaysian democracy that can be a model
for many developing countries.
• 4) The challenge of establishing a fully moral and
ethnic society, whose citizens are strong in religious
and spiritual values and imbued with the highest of
ethical standards.

• 5) The challenge of establishing a matured, liberal

and tolerant society in which Malaysians of all colours
and creeds are free to practice and profess their
custom, cultures and religious beliefs, yet feeling that
they belong to one nation.

• 6) The challenge of establishing a scientific and

progressive society, a society that is innovative and
forward-looking, one that is not only a consumer of
technology but also a contributor to the scientific and
technological civilization of the future.
• 7) The challenge of establishing a fully caring society
and a caring culture, a social system in which society
will come before self, in which the welfare of the
people will revolve not around the state or the
individual but around a strong and resilient family

• 8) The challenge of ensuring an economically just

society in which there is fair and equitable distribution
of the wealth of the nation, and there is full partnership
in economic progress. Such a society cannot be in
place so long as there is the identification of race with
economic function, and the identification of economic
backwardness with race.

• 9) The challenge of establishing a prosperous society,

with an economy that is fully competitive, dynamic,
Strategies to achieve VISION 2020
• Vision 2020 emphasizes Malaysia as “a fully developed
country, which is developed in every aspect -
economically, politically, socially, spiritually,
psychologically and culturally.”
• The National Philosophy of Education calls for
"developing the potential of individuals in a holistic
and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals
who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and
physically balanced and harmonious".
• Introduce the subjects of Islamic Studies and Moral, which
are compulsory for students.
• Increasing the intake of Science students.
• Encouraging the use of computers and multimedia
technology in educational institutions and providing
courses in Information Technology.
• The government is already in the process of setting up 90
pilot Smart Schools.
• These schools are one of the 7 flagships of the Multimedia
Super Corridor (MSC) project and aim at transforming the
education system from memory-based learning into
simulative thinking and creativity, through access to
modern technology.