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*PLANNING APPROACH

PLANNING TOOLS
 IS TO “DEVISE DETAILED METHODS FOR DOING ,
ARRANGING AND MAKING SOMETHING”

TYPES
 TOP DOWN
 BOTTOM UP
 COLLABORATIVE (MIXED)

TOP- DOWN APPROACH

 MEANS THAT ALL THE DIRECTIONS COME FROM THE TOP


 PROJECT OBJECTIVES ARE ESTABLISHED BY THE TOP MANAGEMENT
 TOP MANAGERS PROVIDE GUIDELINES, INFORMATION, PLANS AND
FUND PROCESSES
BOTTOM – UP APPROACH

 IMPLIES PROACTIVE TEAM INPUT IN THE PROJECT EXECUTING


PROCESS
 TEAM MEMBERS ARE INVITED TO PARTICIPATE IN EVERY STEP OF
THE MANAGEMENT
 THE ADVANTAGE OF THIS APPROACH IS THAT IT EMPOWERS
TEAM MEMBERS TO THINK MORE CREATIVELY.
 THEY FEEL INVOLVED INTO THE PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND
KNOW THEIR INITIATIVES ARE APPRECIATED

MIXED APPROACH

 ACCORDING TO MANY EXPERTS, THE BOTTOM-UP APPROACH IS


NOT THE PERFECT SOLUTION NEITHER TOP-DOWN, AS
SOMETIMES IT LACKS CLARITY AND CONTROL.
 THE WAY IS TO FIND A BALANCE BETWEEN THE TWO OPPOSITE
APPROACHES AND TAKE THE BEST PRACTICES FROM BOTH OF
THEM.
WHAT IS A SWOT ANALYSIS,AND HOW DO IT RIGHT

A SWOT ANALYSIS IS AN INCREDIBLY SIMPLE, YET POWERFUL TOOL TO HELP YOU


DEVELOP YOUR BUSINESS STRATEGY, WHETHER YOU’RE BUILDING A STARTUP OR
GUIDING AN EXISTING COMPANY

SWOT STANDS FOR STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND THREATS

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES ARE INTERNAL TO YOUR COMPANY


• THINGS THAT YOU HAVE SOME CONTROL OVER AND CAN CHANGE
• EXAMPLES INCLUDE WHO IS INYOUR TEAM, YOUR PATENTS AND INTELLECTUAL
PROPERTY, AND YOUR LOCATION

OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ARE EXTERNAL


• THINGS THAT ARE GOING ON OUTSIDE YOUR COMPANY, IN THE LARGER MARKET.
• YOU CAN TAKE ADVANTAGE OF OPPORTUNITIES AND PROTECT AGAINST THREATS,
BUT YOU CAN’T CHANGE THEM.
• EXAMPLES INCLUDE COMPETITORS, PRICES OF RAW MATERIALS, AND COSTUMER
SHOPPING TRENDS.
WHO SHOULD DO A SWOT ANALYSIS?
FOR A SWOT ANALYSIS TO BE EFFECTIVE , COMPANY FOUNDERS AND
LEADERS ARE NEED TO BE DEEPLY INVOLVED.

QUESTIONS THAT CAN HELP INSPIRE YOUR ANALYSIS


Strengths
• What business processes are successful?
• What assets do you have in your team, such as knowledge, education,
network, skills, and reputation?
• What physical assets do you have, such as customers, equipment,
technology, cash and patents?
• What competitive advantages do you have over your competition?
Weaknesses
• Are there things that your business needs to be competitive?
• What business processes need improvement?
• Are there tangible assets that your company needs, such as money
or equipment?
• Are there gaps on your team?
• Is your location ideal for success?

Opportunities
• Is your market growing and are there trends that will encourage
people to buy more of what you are selling?
• Are there upcoming events that your company may be able to take
advantage of to grow the business?
• Are there upcoming changes to regulations that might impact your
company positively?
• If your business is up and running, do customers think highly of you?
Threats
• Do you have potential competitors who may enter your market?
• Will suppliers always be able to supply the raw materials you
need at the prices you need?
• Could future developments in technology change how you do
business?
• Is consumer behavior changing in a way that could negatively
impact your business?
• Are there market trends that could become a threat?
Project Evaluation and Review meaning
Critical path Method is a Project
Technique is a technique used to plan Management Techniques which plans and
and control large scale projects controls complex but routine projects

Event-oriented orientation Activity-oriented

Probabilistic activities Deterministic

Time focus Time and Cost trade off

Three times estimates estimates One time estimate

High precision time estimates suitable for Reasonable time estimates

Non –repetitive activities nature of job Repetitive activities

Research & Development Projects usage Construction Projects


Activity to tp tm D V

0-1 3 5 1 2 0.11

2-3 2 4 3 3 0.11

3-4 1 4 2 3 0.11

4-6 5 6 1 2.16 0.25

0-2 4 7 3 2.5 0.02

2-5 6 1 2 3.83 0.02

5-6 3 5 2 3.83 0.25

2-3 2 4 3 2.66 0.11


3 2.16
1 3 4
2
2.5
0

6
3.83
2 5 2.66
3.83
Gannt Chart
a simple tool for helping us with planning scheduling of projects

Activity Predecessor Duration (days)


A - 2
B A 3
C B 4
D C 3

A
B
C
D
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12