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MICROBIOLOGY

Microbiology is the study of all


living organisms that are too small
to be visible with the naked eye.
This includes bacteria, Achaea,
viruses, fungi, prions, protozoa and
algae, collectively known as
'microbes'.
PULMONARY
According TUBERCULOSIS
to mayoclinic.org, Tuberculosis is
defined as a potentially serious infectious disease
that mainly affects the lungs or worst, the rest of the
body.

Bacteria:
Myobacterium tuberculosis
has an unusual, waxy coating on its
cell surface primarily due to the
presence of mycolic acid.
BRIEF HISTORY:
In the 18th and 19th centuries, a tuberculosis epidemic rampaged
throughout Europe and North America, before the German
microbiologist Robert Koch discovered the microbial causes of
tuberculosis in 1882. Tuberculosis infections began increasing in 1985,
partly because of the emergence of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
HIV weakens a person's immune system so it can't fight the TB germs.
In the 20th century, TB was a leading cause of death in the United
States.
PHILIPINES; WHO Report – TB Country Profile
According to World Health Organization (WHO) Report – TB
Country Profile of the Philippines it shows that 98% of the
population were diagnosed of pulmonary tuberculosis and 39%
were bacteriologically confirmed among pulmonary.
TYPES OF CONDITION
Latent PTB Active PTB
• A person has a • Makes a person sick
TB infection, but the • Can spread to others.
bacteria remain in • It can occur in the first
his/her body in an few weeks after
inactive state and infection with the TB
cause no symptoms. bacteria, or it might
• Also called inactive TB occur years later.
or TB infection, isn't
contagious.
• It can turn into active
TB
• An estimated 2 billion
people have latent TB.
SIGNS
&
SYMPTOMS
MEANS OF TRANSMISSION

The bacteria that cause the disease to spread from one


person to another through tiny droplets release into the air
via coughs and sneezes.
TREATMENTS:

The precise type and Antibiotics are TB medication can


length of antibiotic usually required be toxic to the liver.
treatment depend on a to be taken for a Potential side effects
person's age, overall should be reported
relatively long
health, potential to a doctor and
time. The include:
resistance to drugs, standard length
whether the TB is • Dark urine
of time for a • Fever
latent or active, and
the location of course of TB • Jaundice
infection (i.e., the antibiotics is • Loss of appetite
lungs, brain, kidneys). about 6 months. • Nausea and
vomiting

Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) may be recommended. This


involves a healthcare worker administering the TB medication to ensure
that the course of treatment is completed.
PREVENTION RISK ACTORS
• Weak immune
system
• Living or travelling to
areas with high rates
For people with PTB: of TB
• Poverty and
Substance Use
• Workplace and Home
MEASLES
Also called “Rubeola”, an acute contagious disease that
is marked especially by an eruption of distinct red circular
spots. Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. It
remains an important cause of death among young children
globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective
vaccine.

Virus:
Morbillivirus
formerly measles virus (MeV),a single-
stranded, negative–sense, enveloped,
non-segmented RNA virus of the
genus Morbillivirus within the family of
Paramyxoviridae. It is the cause of
measles.
BRIEF HISTORY:
Pre Vaccine Era, in the 9th century, a Persian doctor first published
one of the first written accounts of measles disease.
In 1912, measles became a nationally notifiable disease in the
United States. In the first decade of reporting, an average of 6,000
measles related deaths were reported each year. CDC set a goal to
eliminate measles from the US, although the goal was not met,
widespread use of measles vaccines drastically reduced the disease
rate, reported measles cases was 80% less compared with the
previous year.
Measles Outbreak Declaration
600

500

400

300 Year 2019


Year 2018
200

100

0
N
O PA R
RZ RO NC 1 3
BA A
IO
N
N 6 7
LA IM O N 8
CA M EG GI IO N N 10
R
EG IO 12
RE R EG GI
O N N
R RE G IO IO
RE RE
G
Number of Reported Deaths

REGION 7; 1 REGION 8; 1
CALABARZON; 9
REGION 6; 3

REGION 3; 4
REGION 1; 2

NCR; 5
As of 26 January 2019,

CALABARZON was 575 cases, (2,538% an increase as compared to 21 cases of 2018.


MIMAROPA reported at 70 cases, (3,400% increased compared to 2 cases of 2018.
NCR was 441 cases, (1,1125% increase as compared to 36 cases of 2018.
REGION 1 with 64 cases, (220% increase compared to 20 cases of 2018.
REGION 3 had 192 cases, (500% increase as compared to 32 cases of 2018.
REGION 6 with 104 cases, (550% increase as compared to 16 cases of 2018.
REGION 7 with 71 cases, (3,450% increase as compared to 2 cases of 2018.
REGION 8 with 54 cases, (5,300% increase as compared to 1 case of 2018.
REGION 10 with 60 cases, (4% decrease compared to 63 cases of 2018.
REGION 12 with 43 cases , (34% decrease compared to 66 cases of 2018.
SYMPTOMS
There is often a fever. This can range from mild severe, up
to 40.6 degrees Centigrade. It can last several days, and it may
fall and then rise again when the rash appears.

The reddish-brown rash appears around 3 to 4 days after


initial symptoms and even last for over a week. The rash usually
starts behind the ears and spreads over the head and neck. After
a couple of days, it spreads to the rest of the body

Most childhood rashes are not measles, but a child should


see a doctor if:
• A parent suspects the child may have measles
• Symptoms do not improve, or they get worse

• The fever rises to above 38º Centigrade (ºC) or 100.4º


Fahrenheit (ºF)
• Other symptoms resolve, but the fever persists
MEANS OF TRANSMISSION

If other people breathe the contaminated


air or touch the infected surface, then touch
their eyes, noses, or mouths, they can
become infected. Measles is so contagious
that if one person has it, up to 90% of the
people close to that person who are not
immune will also become infected.

Infected people can spread measles to


others from four days before through four
days after the rash appears.
Measles is a disease of humans;
measles virus is not spread by any other
animal species.
TREATMENTS:

A dose of
Rest to help
A measles immune
boost your
vaccine, proteins called
immune system,
given within immunoglobulin
plenty of fluids
72 hours of , taken within 6
and vitamin A
exposure. days of
supplements.
exposure.
PREVENTION
The Department of Health (DOH) highly recommends vaccination and
vitamin A supplementation of nine-month old children and unvaccinated
individuals to best defend against measles. Supportive measures like
building the nutritional status of the sick person and increasing oral
rehydration are also important measures to increase body resistance and
replace lost body fluids caused by coughing, diarrhea, and perspiration
according to the Department of Health.
PNEUMONIA
Pneumonia is a breathing
(respiratory) condition in which there
is an infection of the lung. It causes
inflammation in the alveoli which are
filled with pus, making it difficult to
breathe.

Bacteria:
Streptococcus pneumoniae
is a bacterium that is responsible for
the majority of community-acquired
pneumonia. It is a commensal
organism in the human respiratory
tract.
BRIEF HISTORY:
Discovery of the bacteria streptococcus pneumonia occurred in
1881 when French microbiologist, Louis Pasteur, and American
microbiologist, George Sternberg, each independently identified lancet-
shaped bacteria in saliva.
Each researcher injected the saliva into rabbits and were later able
to isolate elongated diplococci bacteria, that is oval-shaped bacteria
occurring in pairs. Later studies determined the pathogenic potential of
the bacteria, identifying it as the causative agent in pneumonia infection
in humans.
Based on the statistics above, in the year of 2016 pneumonia rank as
2nd or 3rd in the line being the cause of the death according to their sex.

Addition: According to the latest WHO data published in 2017 Influenza and
Pneumonia Deaths in the Philippines reached 75,970 or 12.27% of total of deaths. The
age adjusted Death Rate is 115.96 per 100,000 of population ranks Philippines #24 in
the world.
TYPES OF CONDITION

Lobar pneumonia Bronchial pneumonia


affects one or (also known as
more sections bronchopneumonia)
(lobes) of the affects patches
lungs. throughout both
lungs.
TYPES OF PNEUMONIA
Bacterial pneumonia
This type is caused by various bacteria. It usually
occurs when the body is weakened in some way, such
as by illness, poor nutrition, old age, or impaired
immunity, and the bacteria are able to work their way
into the lungs.
Viral pneumonia
This type is caused by various viruses, including the
flu (influenza), and is responsible for about one-third of all
pneumonia cases.

Mycoplasma pneumonia
It is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
It generally causes a mild, widespread pneumonia that
affects all age groups.
SYMPTOMS

Mycoplasma pneumonia has somewhat different symptoms, which include


a severe cough that may produce mucus.
MEANS OF TRANSMISSION

Pneumonia can be spread in a


number of ways.

 They may spread via air-borne


droplets from a cough or sneeze.
 Pneumonia can also be caused by
bacteria or viruses that are already
in your nose and throat.
TREATMENTS:

Other treatment
may include eating
Most viral well, increasing
Antibiotics pneumonias fluid intake, getting
don’t have rest, oxygen
are used for specific therapy, pain
bacterial treatment. They medicine, fever
control, and maybe
pneumonia. usually get
cough-relief
better on their
medicine if cough
own.
is severe.
PREVENTION

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV)


It will protect you from a common form of bacterial pneumonia.
Children younger than age 5 and adults ages 65 and older should
get this shot.
Getting a flu shot every year can help prevent both the flu and pneumonia.
CONCLUSION
Most of the microbes in humans live a harmonious existence
with human cells but disease and infection can be caused when
this balance is disrupted or when the body or immune system is
weakened. With this, choosing a healthy lifestyle is a must for
everyone to prevent such diseases.

“A clever person solves a problem, a wise


person avoids it.”
- Albert Einstein
BRUTO
CAMARADOR
ROXAS
VITO