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# IMPLEMENTATION OF SQUARE WAVE, SINE

## WAVE, AND TRIANGULAR WAVE

GENERATOR USING OPERATIONAL
AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
INTRODUCTION
What is a function generator?

##  Usually a piece of electronic test equipment or

software.
 Used to generate different types of electrical
waveforms over a wide range of frequencies.
 Sine, square and triangle waves are the most common
waveforms produced by function generator.
What is an Operational Amplifier?

##  Also known as Op-amps

 Voltage amplifying device designed to be used with
components like capacitors and resistors, between
its in/out terminals.
 Linear devices that are ideal for DC amplification.
Used in signal conditioning, filtering or other
mathematical operations .
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

##  To understand the functions and applications of

operational amplifier, especially in accordance with
generating square, triangular and sine waves.

##  To produce alternating current signal wave forms

specifically square, triangular and sine wave .
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

##  To design, analyze and construct the circuit for the

square wave, sine wave, and triangular wave
generator using general purposes operational
amplifier.

##  To test and evaluate the device in its operational

and non-operational conditions.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
STUDY
.
 Created to test the response of circuits to
a known input signal.
 Able to produce waveforms in the specific
range of frequencies.
Scope of the study

##  The study is focused on the application of the

Operational Amplifier in creating square, triangular
and Sinusoidal waves.
 The circuit design is created to produce maximum
24 volts peak to peak square wave, 20 volts peak
to peak triangular wave and 1.5 Volts peak to peak
sine wave with minimum and maximum frequency
of 300 to 1 KHz.
Limitation of the study

##  The study is limited in the design of the square,

triangular and sine wave generator, any other
wave forms is not included in the study.
 LM358 Low Power Dual Operational Amplifier is
the Operational Amplifier used in the study any
other Operational amplifier is not included in the
study.
REVIEW OF
RELATED
LITERATURE
Operational Amplifier

##  Voltage amplifier with a very high gain.

 Size of the gain of operational amplifiers are what
distinguishes from all other voltage amplifiers.
Inverting
Amplifier
 Input signal is applied
to the inverting input.
 Gain of the amplifier
is controlled by the
input resistance and
feedback resistor.
Non-Inverting
Amplifier

##  The input voltage signal is

applied directly to the non-
inverting input terminal.
 The input and feedback
resistor affects the gain of
the amplifier.
POSITIVE
FEEDBACK
 Either voltage or
current is in phase
with the input signal.
 Increases the gain of
the amplifier.
OSCILLATOR
CIRCUITS

 Generates an output
signal without the
necessity of an input
signal.
 Produces a periodic
waveform on its output
with only the dc supply
voltage as an input.
FEEDBACK
OSCILLATOR

##  Returns a fraction of the

output signal to the
input with no net phase
shift.
 Widely used to generate
sinusoidal waveforms.
RELAXATION
OSCILLATOR

##  Uses an RC timing circuit

to generate a waveform
that is generally a square
wave or other non-
sinusoidal waveform.
 Used to produce low
frequency signals.
ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

##  Has no stable states

 Its output oscillates continuously between its two unstable
states without the aid of external triggering.
INTEGRATOR
CIRCUIT

##  Produces an output voltage

that is proportional to the
duration of the input
signal.
 Can cause the output to
respond to changes in the
input voltage over time.
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
PROJECT DETAILS
.

BASIC DESCRIPTION OF
THE PROJECT
MAIN FEATURES

 LM358
 12 volts dual polarity power supply
 Rotary switch control
 Two potentiometer
DETAILS OF OPERATION
Triangular Square Wave
Generator Generator
(Integrator) (Comparator)
Comparator
Vramp

Vsat
Integrator
Vramp Vramp

Vsat Vsat
LM358
P
Sine Wave
Generator
(Active Low Pass
Filter with non
inverting
Amplifier)
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

## Schematic diagram of the square wave,

triangular wave and sinusoidal wave generator using
two (2) LM358AD operational amplifier, resistors,
capacitors and switch.
Schematic diagram of 12V dual polarity power supply:
positive voltage for +Vcc and negative voltage for –Vcc.
DESIGN
 The three-dimensional
view of the Case
 Isometric View of the Casing and internal parts of the project.
Conclusion

##  Instability of output of the Operational amplifier in application of

Oscillation
 LM358, Although ideal for its features of low power consumption
(550mW), Has a slow slew rate that can cause uncertain distortion in
the output.
RECOMMENDATION
THANK YOU
AND GOD
BLESS