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Pilot SCR Test at NTPC Sipat

K.K. Sharma, DGM(BMD)
R.K. Dubey, Sr.Manager(BMD)
A.D. Agrawal, Manager(BMD)
New Pollution Norms
 MoEF&CC has given a tight albeit achievable deadline to meet the new standards
on December 2015. Existing plants were given two years (December 2017); plants
commissioned after 1 January 2017 will have to comply from the start of their
 Standards (in mg/Nm3)

PM SO2 NOx Mercury

Current standards 150–350 none none none

New standards

Units installed till <500 MW—600

2003 100 >=500 MW—200 600 >=500 MW—0.03

Units installed
between 2004 and <500 MW—600
2016 50 >=500 MW—200 300 0.03

Units installed
after Jan 2017 30 100 100 0.03
Nox Control Technologies
•SCR Technology (Selective Catalytic Reduction)

•SNCR Technology (Selective non-catalytic reduction)

SCR Technology for Nox control
 Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as NOx with the
aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen (N2) , and water(H2O). A gaseous reductant, typically anhydrous
ammonia, aqueous ammonia or urea , is added to a stream of flue or exhaust gas and is adsorbed.

 Chemistry
 The NOx reduction reaction takes place as the gases pass through the catalyst chamber. Before entering the
catalyst chamber the ammonia, or other reductant (such as urea), is injected and mixed with the gases. The
chemical equation for a stoichiometric reaction using either anhydrous or aqueous ammonia for a selective
catalytic reduction process is:
 4NO + 4NH3 + O2 → 4N2 + 6H2O
 2NO2 + 4NH3 + O2 → 3N2 + 6H2O
 NO + NO2 + 2NH3 → 2N2 + 3H2O

 With several secondary reactions:

 2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3
 2NH3 + SO3 + H2O → (NH4)2SO4
 4NH3 + SO3 + H2O → NH4HSO4

 The ideal reaction has an optimal temperature range between 357 and 447 deg C, but can operate from 227 to
447 K with longer residence times. The minimum effective temperature depends on the various fuels, gas
constituents, and catalyst geometry. Other possible reductants include cyanuric acid and ammonium sulfate.
SNCR Technology for Nox control
Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) is a method to lessen nitrogen oxide emissions in
conventional power plants that burn biomass, waste and coal.

The process involves

Injecting either ammonia or urea into the firebox of the boiler at a location where the flue gas is between
1,400 and 2,000 °F (760 and 1,090 °C) to react with the nitrogen oxides formed in the combustion
process. The resulting product of the chemical redox reaction is molecular nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide
(CO2), and water (H2O). Urea (NH2CONH2) is easier to handle and store than the more dangerous ammonia
(NH3). In the process it reacts like ammonia:

NH2CONH2 + H2O -> 2NH3 + CO2

The reduction happens according to (simplified)

4 NO + 4 NH3 + O2 -> 4 N2 + 6 H2O

•The reaction requires a sufficient reaction time within a certain temperature range, typically 1,400 and
2,000 °F (760 and 1,090 °C), to be effective. At lower temperatures the NO and the ammonia do not react.
Ammonia that has not reacted is called ammonia slip and is undesirable, as the ammonia can react with
other combustion species, such as sulfur trioxide (SO3), to form ammonium salts.[2]
At temperatures above 1093 °C ammonia decomposes:

4 NH3 + 5 O2 -> 4 NO + 6 H2O

In that case NO is created instead of removed.

Design Criteria SNCR SCR
NOx Reduction Efficiency 40-75% 60-90%
870°-1200°C 165°-600°C
Temperature Window
(1600°-2200°F) (325°-1100°F)
Reactant Ammonia or Urea Ammonia or Urea
Reactor None Catalytic
Waste Disposal None Spent catalyst
Thermal Efficiency Debit 0 – 0.3% 0%
Energy Consumption Low High I.D. fan
Capital Investment Costs Low High
Plot Requirements Minor Major
3 to 5 years
Maintenance Low
(typical catalyst life)
Ammonia/NOx (Molar Ratio) 1.0 – 1.5 0.8 to 1.2
Urea/NOx (Molar Ratio) 0.5 – 0.75 Not Applicable
Ammonia Slip 5 to 20 ppmvd 5 to 10 ppmvd
Retrofit Easy Difficult
Mechanical Draft Not Required Required
Pilot SCR Test at NTPC Sipat
 To control Nox level under new norms issued by MOEF, an IOM dt.
21.07.2016 from GM(PE-P&EE) was issued stating Pilot SCR would be
installed by different suppliers to different locations of NTPC
stations to test its suitability to high ash content Indian coal. As
this technology is not proven for high ash content coal.

 Accordingly M/s Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems were allotted

NTPC-Sipat Site for conducting SCR Pilot test/SCR Slip stream test by
Project Engineering department in discussion with CC-OS. (A
tapping of around 300 mm dia pipe approximatly 1500 Nm3/H will be
taken from Eco outlet and after slip stream it will be connected to
APH outlet)

 A common test procedure was also made separately for SCR and
SCNR pilot test/slip stream test. (Kindly refer diagram for Pilot SCR
Tapping from ECO Outlet
Anhydrous ammonia Spray

TiO2 Catalyst

Anhydrous ammonia Cylinders

Anhydrous Ammonia Cylinders

Economiser Outlet Duct

Temperature Transmitter
Pressure Transmitter
Temperature Element
Gas Analyser(Including Ammonia)

Catalyst dedusting system Airhorns,Compressed air, Sonic Soot Blowers

Catalyst bed Three Layers

Flow Meter
Temperature Transmitter
Pressure Transmitter
Temperature Element

Airpreheater Outlet Duct Gas Analyser(Including Ammonia)

Sampling Point
Different Test to be performed during test
NOx concentration at pilot SCR Inlet/ Outlet:
After measuring NOx concentration at inlet & Outlet on dry basis, using following formula NOx concentration
shall be corrected for 6% O2.

NOx concentration (mg/Nm³, 6% O2) = Actual NOx concentration (mg/Nm³) X (21-6) /(21-Actual O2

Overall NOx. Removal Efficiency

NOx Removal Efficiency (%) = 100 X 1-(NOx concentration at reactor outlet) / (NOx concentration at
reactor inlet)

Ammonia Slip (NH3 Slip) at Reactor outlet

NH3 slip (ppm, 6% O2) = Actual NH3 concentration (ppm) X (21-6) /(21-Actual O2 concentration)

Pressure Drop across SCR System

Pressure Drop = Reactor Inlet Pressure ‐ Reactor Outlet Pressure

Pressure Drop across pilot APH

Pressure Drop = APH Inlet Pressure ‐ APH Outlet Pressure

Catalytic activity and SO2 to SO3 conversion rate

Catalytic activity (K) and SO2 to SO3 conversion factor (K23) shall be calculated as per VGB-R
302, 3rd revised edition / EPRI / Applicant’s standard.

Surface area of catalyst and catalyst carriers

Surface area of catalyst and catalyst carriers shall be calculated according to ASTM D3663 or
Ratio of Specific Surface Area with respect to initial value shall be determined.

Catalyst material composition

Catalyst material composition shall be determined by XRF test.

Loss of catalyst material (%)

Loss of catalyst material = (Initial weight of catalyst - Actual weight of catalyst) X 100/
(Initial weight of catalyst)
After completion of main test ,Slip stream SCR pilot test shall be considered
successful only for the type of SCR system being tested (including catalyst type,
geometry, mechanical & chemical composition etc.) which shall meet the following
criteria at the end of the test period of 4400 hrs:

Description Criteria
Catalytic Activity Ratio (k/k0) ≥ 0.85
DeNOx efficiency (%) ≥ 80.0
NH3 slip (ppmvd,6%O2 on dry basis) ≤ 2.0
SO2 to SO3 conversion rate (%) ≤ 1.0
Catalyst Plugging (%) < 10.0
Loss of catalyst material (%) <5.0
Reduction in catalyst height for < 5.0
honeycomb type catalyst (%)
Total increase in Pressure drop across ≤ 20.0
catalyst wrt initial value (new
catalyst) (%)
Typical Layout with full fledged retrofitted SCR and FGD