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FOOD

BREAD ACTIVITY
Activity
1. Take a bite of crackers/ biscuits and swallow it
immediately without chewing.
2. Take a bite of crackers/ biscuits, chew it properly and
swallow.

Question: What is the difference between swallowing


unchewed food and properly chewed food?
Activity
3. Have a bite of muffin and leave it to your mouth without
chewing it.

4. Have bite of banana and leave it to your mouth without


chewing it.

Questions:
- What happened to the muffin and banana in just leaving it
to your mouth?
- What is the difference between muffin and banana that
stayed in your mouth?
Activity
5. Have a bite of mamon and swallow it immediately
without chewing it.

6. Have bite of mamon and swallow it with water.

7. Have a bite of biscuits, muffin, banana and drink water


after.
Questions:
- What is the difference between eating food with water,
and eating food without the water?
The Digestive
System
The Digestive
1. Ingestion
System
2. Digestion
3. Absorption
4. Excretion
Digestion
Mecha Che
1. break down food into molecules (digestion)

nical
• Tearing, grinding and
mical
• conversion of food particles
chewing of food into into molecules
smaller pieces
Enzymes
– are proteins/ catalysts (speed up chemical
reaction) (break down/put together)
List in Order the
1. The Mouth
Pathways of Food
2. Pharynx
3.Through
Esophagus the Digestive
4. Stomach System.
5. Small
Intestine
6. Large
Intestine
7. Rectum
8. Anus
Oral Cavity
1. Hard and soft
palates - form
roof of mouth
2. Tongue -
skeletal muscle
3. Salivary glands
- three pairs
4. Teeth
Three pairs of
Salivary Glands
1. Parotid – near to ear
2. Submandibular – near the
mandible(jaw)
3. Sublingual – beneath the
mouth - drain near frenulum
– taste
Oral Cavity
- manipulates
(Mouth)
food
- prepares food
for swallowing
by forming into
a ball (bolus)
secreted
Oral Cavity
- Moistens
- Protects mouth
(Mouth)
from abrasion
- Buffer against
acids
- Kills some
bacteria
Bolus

-mass/ball of chewed food


-partially digested food
Chyme

-thick semi-fluid mass


-digested food
Oral Cavity
(Mouth)
What type of digestion
occurs in the mouth?
Both physical and chemical
digestion takes place
What enzyme is
secreted in
saliva??
Salivary Amylase
Enzyme that begins
digestion of carbohydrates
- Intersection of
Pharynx
Glottis and opening
of the esophagus
(gullet) is found here
-Epiglottis - is a flap
that closes the glottis
when the act of
swallowing occurs
(Closes the Trachea)
contractions of
Esophagus
smooth muscles that
push food down
toward the stomach
Esophageal/ Cardiac
Sphincter – it
connects the
esophagus and
stomach
Stores and digests
food.
Stomach
It is highly folded
allowing it to expand.
Gastric juices - pH of
1-2
HCl- kills bacteria and
converts bolus into
chyme
inner lining to prevent
Stomach
the acid from self
digestion.
The Pyloric sphincter
or pylorus connects
the stomach to the
small intestine and
closes off the stomach
at its posterior end.
Stomach
Small
intestine
large intestine

Stomach
Divided into 3 sections:
Duodenum – receives
bolus from the stomach,
bile, & pancreatic juice
Jejunum – chemical
breakdown of chyme is
completed
Ileum – absorption of
nutrients in the
bloodstream
Absorption and
Distribution of
Villi – small finger-like projections
Nutrients
that increase the surface area
Microvilli – even smaller finger-like
projections on the villi
Capillaries – small blood vessels
found on each villus (Absorbs all
nutrients EXCEPT Fat)
enzymes, juices,
Accessory Organs
and hormones to
the small
intestine
These chemicals
help break down
protein, fat and
carbohydrates
the bile.
Pancreas
Liver, Pancreas,
(Endocrine and
and
Exocrine Gall Bladder
function)
produces enzymes
need to finish
digesting the main
organic foods. It
also produces
insulin.
Pancreas and
Gall Bladder
Large intestine
the small intestinal material.
Large Intestine
Cecum – T junction that
(Colon)
connects the colon to the
small intestine
Appendix– attached at the
end of the cecum.
Stores solid waste in the area
called the rectum.
Large Intestine
w/Small
Type of Digestion Secretion or Function
Enzyme
Organ
Mouth Chemical  Salivary Breaks starch into glucose
http://hopkins-
gi.org/multimedia/dat Mechanical  amylase
abase/intro_250_Swa
llow.swf
Teeth, tongue, Breaks food into smaller
saliva pieces, moistens it
Esophagus Mechanical None To move bolus (partially
digested food) from mouth
to stomach by peristalsis
(wavelike contractions)
Stomach Mechanical  Churning Mixes food (turns bolus into
chyme)
Chemical  Pepsin, HCl, Digests proteins into amino
mucus acids
Small Mechanical  Peristalsis  Moves food from stomach to SI
Intestine Chemical  Digests proteins
*primary Digests lipids
organ of Digests carbs (starch)
digestion* *digestion finished in first 30cm
of S.I. – called duodenum
*absorption of nutrients thru villi
Secretion or
Organ Type of Digestion Enzyme Function

Liver None Bile – which is Emulsifies fat – breaks fat


(accessory stored in the into smaller droplets, is
organ) gall bladder released into SI from gall
bladder
Pancreas None Trypsin Aids in digestion of nutrients
(accessory Lipases
organ) Amylase
Sodium Neutralizes stomach acid in
bicarbonate chyme as it goes into SI
Large None None Excess water is reabsorbed
Intestine Bacteria produces vitamins
A&K
@ end – elimination of
waste
Whole process takes 24-30
hours
Elaborate

Tommy the Goldfish Swallowing


• You will write a creative story describing what
happens to a goldfish in three distinct parts.
Part 1: As it passes your mouth to the cardiac
sphincter. Part 2: As it passes through the
cardiac sphincter until it reaches the place
where the duodenum becomes the jejunum.
Part 3: From the jejunum until it exits the
body.
“Annabelle Asparagus,”

As a creative way to trace digestion, have the students


design a prom invitation with specific travel direction. The
“belle of the ball is “Annabelle Asparagus,” and the prom is
being held at “Club Rec.” The students must include
specific directions on how to get to the prom. They need
to caution Annabelle if there is a chance she could take a
wrong turn or come upon dangers such as acid or
turbulence. Be sure and remind Annabelle how long to
plan for the trip. These invitations should be colorful and
creative.