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Microwave Engg

L-1 (1-4/215)
31 Jul 06

Microwave Engg
• Gen Structure
• Introduction to Microwaves
• Electromagnetic Waves
Book References
 Electronic Communication Systems - G Kennedy & Davis (CE-22)
 EM Waves & Radiating Systems - Jordan & Balmain (L-88)
 Elements of Electromagnetics – MNO Sadiku (L-290)
 Transmission Lines & Networks – Umesh Sinha (L-20)
 Introduction to Microwave Theory – H A Atwater (R-47)
 Fundamentals of Microwave Engg – RE Collins (R-53)
 Fields & Waves in Comn Electronics – Ramo, Whinnery & Duzer (CE-3
 Electronic & Radio Engineering - FE Terman (Ro-26)
 Microwave Devices & Circuits - SY Liao (R-70)
 Introduction to Microwaves - A H Wheeler

Sep 5, 2019 4
Guidelines
 Ask questions as they get formed in your mind – do not
wait to clear queries!
 Aim to clear concepts
 Give continuous feedback
 Observe decorum

Sep 5, 2019 5
Introduction to
Microwaves
EM Spectrum in Wavelengths

Sep 5, 2019 7
Electromagnetic Spectrum

•RADAR •Microwave

•Electro-Optic
•Communications
Sep 5, 2019 8
Communication Bands

VLF: LF: MF: HF:


(3kHz-30kHz) (30kHz-300kHz) (300kHz-3MHz) (3MHz-30MHz)

Sep 5, 2019 9
Comn Bands (Contd)

VHF: UHF: SHF: EHF:


(30MHz-300MHz) (300MHz-3GHz) (3GHz-30GHz) (30GHz-300GHz)

Sep 5, 2019 10
Electromagnectic Spectrum

FM Broadcast Infra red W ireless Lan


Short wave Radio
EXTREMELY AM Broadcast Television
LOW Cellular 84O M Hz
Audio

VERY LOW MEDIUM Very ULTRA SUPER INFRA VISIBL ULTRA X


HIGH
LOW HIGH RED E VIOLET RAYS
High HIGH
LIGHT

Sep 5, 2019 11
CL
Classification of EM Waves
FREQUENCY λ PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS USES
RANGE (m)

VLF 3-30 KHz 100-10 km Low attenuation at all times. Characteristics highly Long distance point to point
reliable. communications.

LF 30-300 KHz 10-1 Km Propagation similar to VLF at night but slightly less Long distance point to point
reliable at day due to absorption. communication, marine, navigation and
broadcast.

MF 300-3000 KHz 1000-100 Attenuation low during night time but high in day time. Broadcast, marine, comn, navigation &
meters harbour tele.

HF 3-30 MHz 100-10 Sky wave propagation over considerably long distances Moderate and long range comn of all
meters that vary with time, season and freq of txn. types and broadcast.

VHF 30-300 MHz 10-1 Line of sight propagation similar to light and unaffected Short distance comn, TV & FM
meters by ionsopheric conditions. broadcast, radar, aeronautical and
navigation systems.

UHF 300-3000 MHz 1-0.1 Same as VHF Short distance comn, TV broadcast,
meter radar and micowave relay system.

Sep 5, 2019 12
Classification of EM Waves
CL FREQUENCY λ PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS USES
RANGE (m)

SHF 3-30 GHz 10-1 Same as VHF Radar, microwave relay and navigation
Cms systems.

EHF 30-300 GHz 1-0.1 Same as VHF Same as SHF


Cms

Sep 5, 2019 13
Classification of
CLASS
Microwaves
FREQUENCY RANGE

L 1-2 GHz
S 2-4 GHz
C 4-8 GHz
X 8-12 GHz
Ku 12-18 GHz
K 18-27 GHz
Ka 27-40 GHz

V 40 -75 GHz
W 75 – 110 GHz
mm 110 – 300 GHz

Sep 5, 2019 14
Advantages of Microwaves
 Increased Bandwidth
 Antenna Directivity
 Lesser Attenuation
 Reliability in Comn
 Smaller Components
 Heating of Substances

Sep 5, 2019 15
Microwave Radiation Hazards
 The fact that microwaves can be used for cooking
purposes and in heating applications suggests that
they have the potential for causing biological damage
 An exposure limit of 1 mW/cm2 for a maximum of one
hour duration for frequencies from 10 MHz to 300
GHz is generally considered safe
 Avoid being in the direct path of a microwave beam
coming out of an antenna or waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 16
Electromagnetic Waves
EM Wave Propagation

Sep 5, 2019 18
Recap of Electromagnetism
• A time varying E fd is accompanied by a
magnetic fd & vice versa
• At low frequencies the EM problems get
simplified to circuit problems
• Cct System Governing
Type Variables Equations
 DC Constant Algebraic
 AC Time dependent Diff eqns
 EM Fn of time & space Vector A & C
Sep 5, 2019 19
Vector Calculus
 Dot product
 Cross product
 Del Operator
  
 xˆ  yˆ  zˆ
x y z
 Grad of a scalar fd
 Div of a vector fd
 Curl of a vector fd

Sep 5, 2019 20
Definition: Gradient
Gradient of a scalar field is the vector that represents
both the magnitude and direction of the maximum space
rate of increase of the scalar

V V V
V  xˆ  yˆ  zˆ
B x y z
C
dn
V+dV
dl
A

V
Sep 5, 2019 21
Sep 5, 2019 22
Definition: Divergence
Divergence of a vector field A at a point is the net
outward flux of A per unit volume as the volume around
the point shrinks to zero

Ax Ay Az


. A   
x y z

Sep 5, 2019 23
Definition: Curl
Curl of a vector field A is the rotational vector whose
magnitude is the maximum circulation of A per unit area
as the area tends to zero and whose direction is the
normal to the area when the area is oriented so as to
make the circulation maximum

â x â y â z
  
 A 
x y z
Ax Ay Az
Sep 5, 2019 24
Vector Identities
 A . (BxC) = B . (CxA) = C . (AxB)

 A x (B x C) = B (A . C) – C (A . B)

  x ( x A) = (.A) –  2A

 ∫v(.A)dv = ∮s A.ds - Divergence theorem

 ∫s(xA)ds = ∮l A.dl - Stokes theorem

Sep 5, 2019 25
Vector Identities
 A . (BxC) = B . (CxA) = C . (AxB)

 A x (B x C) = B (A . C) – C (A . B)

  x ( x A) = (.A) –  2A

 ∫v(.A)dv = ∮s A.ds - Divergence theorem

 ∫s(xA)ds = ∮l A.dl - Stokes theorem

Sep 5, 2019 26
Inter Se Relationships

Sep 5, 2019 27
Fundamental Quantities
 Electric fd intensity (E) – V/m
 Electric flux density (D) – C/m2
 Magnetic fd intensity (H) – A/m
 Magnetic flux density (B) – Wb/m2
 Conduction current density (J) – A/m2
 σ
 ε
 μ
 
 Linear, homogeneous, isotropic media

Sep 5, 2019 28
Maxwells Equations
Gauss’s law of electrostatic fds
Total electric flux emanating from a closed surface is
equal to the net charge enclosed by the surface
Gauss’s law of magnetic fds
The total magnetic flux emanating from any closed
surface is zero

Sep 5, 2019 29
Maxwells Equations
Faraday’s law of electrical induction
The EMF induced in a sty closed cct is equal to the negative rate of change
of magnetic flux linking the circuit

Amperes circuit law


The magnetic fd around a closed path is equal to the sum of currents through
any surface bounded by the path

Sep 5, 2019 30
Maxwells Equations

 (1) Electric charges generate electric fields.


 (2) Magnetic field lines are closed loops; there are no
magnetic monopoles.
 (3) Currents and changing electric fields produce
magnetic fields.
 (4) Changing magnetic fields produce electric fields.

Sep 5, 2019 31
Time Harmonic Fields
 Euler’s identity
 Phasors
 Contain amplitude info but remain independent of
time
 Generally complex quantities
 Easier mathematical manipulation
 Representation of fd vectors by phasors

Sep 5, 2019 32
Problem
 If
π
P  2sin(10t  x  )ŷ,
4
& Qs  e jx (x̂  ẑ)sinπ y,
Determine the phasor form of P and the
instantaneous form of Qs

Sep 5, 2019 33
Solution

j(x  )
Ps  2e 4
ŷ,
& Q  cos(ω t  x)(x̂  ẑ)sinπ y

Sep 5, 2019 34
Maxwells Equations in Time
Harmonic Form

.Ds   s
.Bs  0
  Es   jBs
  H s  J s  jDs

Sep 5, 2019 35
Classification of Media
σ ε μ
 Free Space 0 εo μo

 Lossless 0 or εo εr μo μr
Dielectric σ<<ωε

 Lossy >0 εo εr μo μr
Dielectric

 Conductor σ>>ωε εoεr μo μr


or infinity

Sep 5, 2019 36
L-4 (11-13/215)
05 Aug 06

Microwave Engg
 Electromagnetic Waves
 Wave Equations
 TEM Waves
 Characteristic Impedance
Wave Equation
 Free Space (Helmholtz equations)
 Charge free media
 γ, α, β

Sep 5, 2019 38
Wave Equation Aspects
 Const Phase Velocity
 E≠H
 Free space propagation
 Calculation of E or H
 No limits on Frequency

Sep 5, 2019 39
Plane Wave Propagation
 Plane Wave
 A wave for which the equiphase surface is a plane
 It has a single dimensional spatial dependence
 Uniform Plane Wave
 A plane wave whose equi-phase surface is also an
equi-amplitude surface

Sep 5, 2019 40
Point source

 Simplest example of energy transport is a point source.


 Isotropic energy emission.

If a closed surface encloses


the source, the power
transmitted through that
closed surface is the power
emitted by the source.
Sep 5, 2019 41
Plane Wave in Free Space
x

Sep 5, 2019 42
Plane Wave in Free Space
x

Sep 5, 2019 43
Plane Wave in Free Space

Sep 5, 2019 44
Travelling Wave Motion

Sep 5, 2019 45
Travelling Wave Motion

Sep 5, 2019 46
Plane Wave Motion in Free Space

Sep 5, 2019 47
Plane Wave Propagation
 Plane Wave
 A wave for which the equiphase surface is a plane
 It has a single dimensional spatial dependence
 Uniform Plane Wave
 A plane wave whose equi-phase surface is also an
equi-amplitude surface

Sep 5, 2019 48
Plane Wave Propagation

 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves (TEM)

 Characteristic Impedance
 Free Space Value

Sep 5, 2019 49
Propagation of TEM Waves

Sep 5, 2019 50
Propagation of TEM Waves

z
y

Sep 5, 2019 51
Characteristic Impedance

jω
η  η e j n 
σ  jωε
E o αz
H  e cos(ωt  βz  θ n )p̂ A/m
η
σ
It can be shown that tan 2θ n 
ωε
where 0  θ n  45

Sep 5, 2019 52
Electromagnetic Wave
Polarisation

E
Small area on a sphere

H Lines

Direction of
E Lines Propagation

Sep 5, 2019 53
Defining Polarisation

 The polarisation of a uniform plane wave refers to the time-


varying behaviour of the electric field strength vector at
some fixed point in space
 A uniform plane wave travelling in the z direction will have
vectors E and H in the x-y plane
 If Ey = 0 and Ex is present, then the wave is vertically
polarised (horizontal for Ey present and Ex =0)
 If both Ey and Ex are present, the resultant electric field will
have a direction and magnitude dependent on the relative
magnitude and phase of Ey and Ex

Sep 5, 2019 54
Linear Polarisation

E ( z , t )  xˆEo cos( wt  z )

Sep 5, 2019 55
Linear Polarisation
A linearly polarized E-vector at 45 degrees with respect to the x-
axis has its x- and y-linearly polarized components of the same
magnitude and phase.

Sep 5, 2019 56
Linear Polarisation

Sep 5, 2019 57
Linear Polarisation

Both Ey and Ex are present with same phase

Sep 5, 2019 58
Linear Polarisation

Both Ey and Ex are present with same phase

Sep 5, 2019 59
Linear Polarisation

E ( z , t )  xˆEo cos(wt  z )  yˆ E1 cos(wt  z  n )

Sep 5, 2019 60
Elliptical Polarisation

Both Ey and Ex are present out of phase

Sep 5, 2019 61
Elliptical Polarisation

Both Ey and Ex are present out of phase

Sep 5, 2019 62
Elliptical Polarisation

Both Ey and Ex are present out of phase

Sep 5, 2019 63
Circular Polarisation

Both Ey and Ex are present with equal magnitude and 90-degrees


phase difference

Sep 5, 2019 64
Circular Polarisation

Both Ey and Ex are present with equal magnitude and 90-degrees


phase difference

Sep 5, 2019 65
Circular Polarisation
If the two orthogonal linearly polarized components have the same
magnitude and are in phase quadrature, then the resultant time-
dependent E vector rotates in the x-y plane, and its tip follows a
perfect circle.


E ( z, t )  xˆEo cos(wt  z )  yˆ Eo cos(wt  z  (2n  1) )
2

Sep 5, 2019 66
Electric Fd Circular Polarisation

RHCP LHCP

Sep 5, 2019 67
Loss Tangent
J σ
  tanθ
Jd ωε
This is known as the loss tangent for a medium
For any conducting medium, Jd = jωεE
σ
  H  (σ  jωε )E  jωε [1  j ] E  jω  c E
ω
σ
or ε c  ε [1  j ]
ωε θ
ie ε c  ε ' j ' ' J = σE
 '' σ
For any medium,   tanθ  tan2θ n
 ' ωε
Sep 5, 2019 68
Special Cases of Wave
Propagation
Characteristics of any EM wave are
α, β, v p , η
 Lossless Dielectric
 Free Space
 Good Conductor

Sep 5, 2019 69
Wave Propagation: Lossless
Dielectric
(  ,    o r ,    o  r )
 0
   
 1 E & H are in
vp   phase
 



Sep 5, 2019 70
Wave Propagation: Free Space
(  0,    o ,    o )
 0
    o o
 1 E & H are in
vp   phase
  o o
o

o
Sep 5, 2019 71
Wave Propagation: Good
Conductor
(  ,    o r ,    o  r )

 
2
 2 E leads H by 45o
vp  
 
j 
  45 

 
Sep 5, 2019 72
Skin Depth
• Skin depth is a measure of the depth to
which an EM wave can penetrate the given
medium
• It is defined as the depth from the surface
of the medium at which the amplitude gets
reduced by a factor of e-1

1
δ
α

Sep 5, 2019 73
Poyntings Vector
  H  J  D
 E .(  H )  E .J  E .D
 .( H  E )  H .(  E )  E .J   E .E
  ( H  E )  E  (  H )-H  (  E )
  2   2
 .( E  H )   E .J  H  E
t 2 t 2
  2  2
  ( E  H ).ds     H  E dv   ( E .J )dv
S t v  2 2  v
Power leaving Rate of decrease of Ohmic power
the vol through energy stored in Electric dissipated in the
the surface & Magnetic Fields volume
Sep 5, 2019 74
Poyntings Theorem
 The net power flowing out of a given volume ‘v’ is
equal to the time rate of decrease in the energy
stored within ‘v’ less the conduction losses
P is the Poynting vector and it represents the
instantaneous power density vector (Time varying)
associated with the EM field at a given point
 Special Case: σ=0
 Poynting vector has the same direction as that of
propagation

Sep 5, 2019 75
Instantaneous Power Densities

P (z, t)  E ( z , t )  H ( z , t )
 Re[ E ( z )e jt ]  Re[ H ( z )e jt ]
Eo αz
 Eo e cos(t  z ) xˆ  e cos(t  z   n )] yˆ
αz


2
Eo  2αz
 P (z, t)  e [cos n  cos(2t  2 z   n )]zˆ W/m 2
2

Sep 5, 2019 76
Average Power Density

1 T 2
Eo 2z
Pav ( z )   P ( z , t )dt  e cos n W/m 2
T0 2
1
Pav  Re[Es  H* ]
2 s
Total time average power crossing a surface is
Pav   P .dS
s av

Sep 5, 2019 77
Boundary Conditions
 Tangential components of E & H fields are continuous at
the interface between the two lossless dielectric media
i.e. Et1 = Et2 & Ht1 = Ht2

Sep 5, 2019 78
Boundary Conditions

To derive the magnetic field boundary condition, we us Ampere’s Law:

      
c H  d l  
t s
D  d s  s
J  d s

Sep 5, 2019 79
Magnetic Fd Boundary Conditions

From Ampere’s Law,
c H  dl  t s D  ds  s J  ds

dl 1
Applying it to a material interface
ŝ 
with surface area ‘S’, s 2

H1, 1,

H2, 2, 2


As the surface ‘S’, shrinks to zero,
t  D  ds  0
s

Sep 5, 2019 80
Now, apply this to a material interface:


dl 1
ŝ 
s 2

H1, 1,

H2, 2, 2


 D  ds  0
If we allow the surface, S, to shrink to zero:

t s

Sep 5, 2019 81
This results because D is everywhere finite with S.

However,
 J  ds  0
s
because we can represent a current

localization in space.

 0
J  sK
0
interface

Sep 5, 2019 82
Then we have: n
Ht1 dl1
   
 H1  dl   H 2  dl   J s  dl
  
S

dl2 Ht 2
̂
 
As  0 we get
 H1  H 2   ˆ  J s  Sˆ
ˆ  Sˆ  nˆ  nˆ   H  H   J
1 2 s

or
Ht1  Ht2  J s

Sep 5, 2019 83
So, we have the following scenarios:

1) Perfect Conductor  PEC   Ht1  J


2) Perfect Dielectric
Ht1  Ht 2 ( J  0)

3) Partially Conducting Surface Ht1  Ht 2  J


For the electric field, we use Faraday’s law:
  2  
c E  d l 
2t s
B  d s

Sep 5, 2019 84
E1

 
E2 as   0  B  ds  0
 E  dl  0 , as   0
c

nˆ   E1  E2   0  Et1  Et 2  0
1) PEC  Et  0
2) Dielectric Et1  Et 2
PEC
Sep 5, 2019 85
 
 D  ds    ev dv
For normal field components, we use
Gauss’s law:

1
 0
Ŝ  2

 ŝ

   
In the limit  0  D1  ds   D2  ds    s ds
s s2

 0
      
s
s1 s2 s

Sep 5, 2019 86
D
s
1  ds   D2  ds 
s
 s ds

?n
ˆ ˆ
n

Noting that

ds  nˆ ds we get:
ˆ   D1  D2    s
n
or

Dn1  Dn2   s

 1 En   2 En   s
1 2

Sep 5, 2019 87
Similarly, for the magnetic field:

 B  ds  0
s

 ms  0

Bn1  Bn2  0  Bn1  Bn2

Sep 5, 2019 88
Boundary Conditions: E Field
x

Electric Field Intensity  E  dl     B  ds


Ez1 Ez2   
z/2 z/2 l t s

E1 =Ex1+Ez1
x Ex2
Ex1 -Ex2x - Ez3z/2 – Ez4z/2 + Ex1x + Ez1z/2
E1
Et
Ez4 E
z3 + Ez2z/2 = -(∂B/∂t) z x
z
En
As z 0,
μ1 μ2
σ1 Ex2 = Ex1 , for finite fields
σ2
1 2 Tangential component of E is
continuous!

Sep 5, 2019 89
Boundary Conditions: H Field
x
Hz1 Hz2       
z/2 c H  dl  t s D  ds  s J  ds
Hx1
z/2 Hx2 Magnetic Field Intensity
x
-Hx2x – Hz3z/2 – Hz4z/2 + Hx1x + Hz1z/2
H1 Hz4 H
z3 + Hz2z/2 = (∂D/∂t +J) z x
z
μ1 As z 0,
μ2
σ1 Hx2 = Hx1 , for finite fields
σ2
1 2 Tangential component of H is
continuous for finite fields!

Sep 5, 2019 90
Boundary Conditions: H Field
y
(Perfect Conductor)
Hz1 Hz2       
z/2 
Magnetic Field Intensity c
H  dl   D  ds   J  ds
t s s
Hx1
z/2 Hx2 -Hx2x – Hz3z/2 – Hz4z/2 + Hx1x + Hz1z/2
x
+ Hz2z/2 = (∂D/∂t +J) z x
Hz4 H
z3
z As z 0,
μ1 0 + Js= Hx1 , for infinite current density Jsz
μ2
σ1 σ2 H x n = Js
1 2
Tangential component of H is
discontinuous across an interface where
Sep 5, 2019 a free surface current exists ! 91
Boundary Conditions
 Tangential components of E & H fields are continuous at
the interface between the two media
i.e. Et1 = Et2 & Ht1 = Ht2 (Assuming finite current
densities)

Sep 5, 2019 92
Boundary Conditions
 Tangential components of E & H fields are continuous at
the interface between the two media
i.e. Et1 = Et2 & Ht1 = Ht2

Sep 5, 2019 93
Reflection at Normal Incidence
x
Ei Et

Hi yt
H
z
Er

Hr

Sep 5, 2019 94
Value of Reflection Coefficient
At the boundary interface, z=0,

E1 (0)  E 2 (0)  E i (0)  E r (0)  E t (0)


 Ei  Er  E t
1 Et
H i (0)  H r (0)  H t (0)  (E i  E r ) 
η1 η2

Sep 5, 2019 95
Normal Incidence Relations

Sep 5, 2019 96
Normal Incidence: Special Cases

Sep 5, 2019 97
Spl Case: Reflection at Normal
Incidence on Perfect Conductor
σ 1  0; σ 2  ; η 2  0, Γ  1, τ  0
E1 (z)  E i (z)  E r (z)  (E i e -γ 1z  E r e γ 1z ) xˆ
 [2jE i sinβ 1z]x̂;
jt π
E1 (z, t)  Re[E1 ( z ).e ]  [2E i sinβ 1z.cos(ω t  )]x̂
Et
Ei 2
 2 Ei [ sin(β 1 z ).sin(ωt ) ]xˆ
Ei Ht
H1 (z)  [2 cosβ 1z]ŷ Hi
η1 Er y
Ei
H1(z,t)  [ 2 cos(β 1 z ). cos(ωt ) ]yˆ
η1 Hr

Sep 5, 2019 98
Phase States as Signal Moves
Along Z Axis (Time Frozen)
x3
Etc.
x1 x2
Amplitude
1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x7
Distance Along Z Axis

Sep 5, 2019 99
Standing Waves: E Field

Rotation of
Phasor for
increasing
time

t = 3/2 Envelope
Generated in
t = 0 Time

t = /2

Sep 5, 2019 100


Standing Waves

Sep 5, 2019 101


Travelling Wave

Sep 5, 2019 102


Standing Wave

Sep 5, 2019 103


Spl Case (Reflection at Normal
Incidence)

 1  0;  2  ; 2  0,   1,   0
E1 ( z )  [2 jEi sin 1 z ]xˆ;

E1 ( z , t )  [2 Ei sin 1 z. cos(t  )]xˆ  2 Ei [sin 1 z. sin t ]xˆ
2
Ei
H1 ( z )  [2 cos 1 z ] yˆ
1
Ei
H1 ( z , t )  [2 cos 1 z. cos t ] yˆ
1

Sep 5, 2019 104


Standing Wave: Maxima & Minima

For 2  0,1  0,   1,   0


Zeros of E1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z   n ,

Maxima of H1 (z, t) or z  -n
2

Zeros of H1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z  (2n  1) ,
2

Maxima of E1 (z, t) or z  -(2n  1)
4

Sep 5, 2019 105


Standing Waves: E Field
x
1=0 2
t = /2
t = /2 2Ei
t = 0

z
-3/2 - -/2
t = 3/2 -2Ei
t = 3/2

Sep 5, 2019 106


Standing Waves: H Field

1=0 2
t = 0

t = /2

-5/4 -/4
-3/4
t = 

Sep 5, 2019 107


Standing Wave: Maxima & Minima

Case I : For 2  1 ,   0,   0
Minima of E1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z  n ,

Maxima of H1 (z, t) or z  -n
2

Minima of H1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z  (2n  1) ,
2

Maxima of E1 (z, t) or z  -(2n  1)
4

Sep 5, 2019 110


Standing Wave: Maxima & Minima

Case II : For 2  1 , & 2  0  1 ,   0,   0


Minima of H1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z  n ,

Maxima of E1 (z, t) or z  -n
2

Minima of E1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z  (2n  1) ,
2

Maxima of H1 (z, t) or z  -(2n  1)
4

Sep 5, 2019 111


Standing Wave Ratio
Ratio of |E1|max to |E2|max or |H1|max to |H2|max is called the standing
wave ratio
E  Ei  Er
max

E  Ei  Er
min

E Ei  Er 1 
s max
 
E Ei  Er 1 
min

Sep 5, 2019 112


Multiple Reflections: Normal
Incidence

1 2 3

1

3
Incident 2
Energy
 in

Region 1 Region 2 Region 3


Sep 5, 2019 113
Wave Impedance
 The wave impedance w is defined as the z dependent
ratio of the total electric field to the magnetic field
 In region 2, w(z) = Ex (z)/Hy (z)   3
1 2

E2 e  j 2 z xˆ  E2 e  j 2 z xˆ 1
 w ( z )    j 2 z
H2 e yˆ  H 2 e  j 2 z yˆ
3
2
 e  j 2 z  2 e  j 2 z 
  2   j 2 z  j 2 z 
e  2 e 
3  j2 tan  2 z 
w ( z )  2  
2  j3 tan  2 z  -l 0 z
Sep 5, 2019 114
Input Impedance of Two Interface
Combination
 e  j 2 z  2 e  j 2 z 
 w ( z )  2   j 2 z  j 2 z 
e  2 e 
3  j2 tan  2 z 
 2  
2  j3 tan  2 z  1 2 3
1
For the interface between region 1 & 2,
3
3  j2 tan  2l  2
in   w (l )  2  

 2  j  3 tan  l
2 

in  1  in
o 
in  1
-l 0 z
Sep 5, 2019 115
Multiple Reflections: Txn Line
Analogy
[ Z l  jZ o tan l ]
Z in  Z o 
[ Z o  jZ l tan l ]

[3  j2 tan l ] l


in  2 
[2  j3 tan l ]

1 2 3
 in
Sep 5, 2019 116
Total Transmission
[3  j2 tan l ]
Occurs at  =0 or when 1= inin  2 
[2  j3 tan l ]
Half Wave Matching For
1 = 3 , l
Total transmission occurs for l =
(n2)/2
Quarter Wave Impedance
Transformer For 1  3,
Total transmission occurs for
2 = [1.3]½ and l = [(2n+1)2]/4

1 2 3
 in
Sep 5, 2019 -l 0 117z
Propagation Vector
 Propagation factor e -j.r x
 Wave Number

 r = zcos +xsin  (x, y)

 Direction of propagation is x r
=tan-1 x/ z 
 =xx+yy+zz z
z

 E(x,y,z) = Eoe-j.r = Eoe-j( x +  y+  z)


x y z

 E(x,y,z,t) = Re{Eoej(wt-.r)} = Eocos[wt-(xx + yy+ zz)]

Sep 5, 2019 118


Gen Wave Equations at Oblique
Incidence
 Ei =Eio cos (ωit - ix x- iy y - izz )
 Er =Ero cos (ωrt - rx x- ry y - rzz )
 Et =Eto cos (ωtt - tx x- ty y - tzz )

 Frequency remains unchanged for all three cases


 Gen Cases:-
 Perpendicular Polarization
 Parallel Polarization

Sep 5, 2019 119


Uniform Plane Wave Incident
Obliquely
x

r
t
z
i

Sep 5, 2019 120


Uniform Plane Wave Incident
Obliquely
O’
r t
r = i
A’
Snell’s Law of 90o -  i
Reflection
B
OB/vp2 =O’A/vp1
(sint)/(sini) = vp2/vp1

A r = 1/ 2 = n1/n2 = 2/1


t z
O Snell’s Law of Refraction
i i
n1sin i =n2sin t
Sep 5, 2019 121
Perpendicular Polarisation

r
E xi  E xr  E xt & H xi  H xr  H xt Hr x
Ei  Er  Et & - H i cos i  H r cos i   H t cos t Er Et
Ei E E
cos i  r cos i  t cos t t
1 1 2 r t Ht
Er 2 cos i  1 cos t i z
  
Ei 2 cos i  1 cos t
22 cos i Ei Hi
 
2 cos i  1 cos t i

Sep 5, 2019 122


Parallel Polarisation

Er Hr x Ht
E xi  E xr  E xt & H xi  H xr  H xt r
Et
Hi  Hr  Ht & Ei cos i  Er cos i  Et cos t t
Ei E E r t
cos i  r cos i  t cos t
1 1 2 i z
Er 2 cos t  1 cos i
||  
Ei 2 cos t  1 cos i Hi Ei
22 cos i i
 || 
2 cos t  1 cos i

Sep 5, 2019 123


Brewster Angle

 The angle of incidence at which there is no reflection


on oblique incidence of the plane waves is known as
Brewsters angle B  2 cos  i  1 cos  t
 Polarising angle
 2 
 Perpendicular Polarisation 
 2   ( )

1
1 
 sin  B 
2
2
 2 1
2 2

 Parallel Polarisation  2 cos  t  1 cos  i


[( 2
1 ) 1   2 ]
 sin 2  B   2
 12   22
Sep 5, 2019 124
Transmission Lines
Basic Transmission Line
Terminology

Sep 5, 2019 126


Types of Transmission Lines

Parallel Two Wire Line Two Wire Ribbon Type Line

Twisted Pair Shielded Pair


Sep 5, 2019 127
Coaxial Line

Air Coaxial Line Flexible Coaxial Line

Sep 5, 2019 128


Waveguides

Sep 5, 2019 129


Transmission Line Lengths
 Any conductor behaves as a Transmission line if the travel time of the
electrical signal is significant (Electrically Long)
 > 1/10th the time period of a sinewave signal
 > the transition time of a voltage pulse or a spike
 Any pair of conductors can behave as a transmission line if their dimensions
are constant for the length of the line

Sep 5, 2019 130


Example
 What is the wavelength of a 30 kHz signal?
 10,000 m
 What is the wavelength of a 30 GHz signal?
 1 mm
 So, a 3 m line is electrically very short for 30 kHz frequency but
electrically very long for 30 GHz frequency

Sep 5, 2019 131


Types of Losses
 Radiation & Induction Losses
 Dielectric Losses
 Copper Losses
 I2R Losses
 In rf lines the resistance of the conductors is never equal to
zero
 Whenever current flows through one of these conductors,
some energy is dissipated in the form of heat
 Skin Effect

Sep 5, 2019 132


Skin Effect
 When dc flows through a conductor, the movement of
electrons through the conductor's cross section is uniform
 Self induction, retards the movement of ac current
 The flux density at the center is so great that electron
movement at this point is reduced (As frequency is
increased, the opposition to the flow of current in the
center of the wire increases)
 Current in the center of the wire becomes smaller and
most of the electron flow is on the wire surface
 When the frequency applied is 100 MHz or higher, the
electron movement in the center is so small that the center
of the wire could be removed without any noticeable effect
on current
 This phenonmenon is called skin effect
Sep 5, 2019 133
Fields Between Transmission Lines

Sep 5, 2019 134


Distributed Parameters
 Lumped values may be used for transmission line
calculations if the physical length of the line is very short
compared to the wavelength of energy being transmitted
 A transmission line is a distributed parameter network
(Unlike the case for circuit elements) and must be
represented by circuit parameters that are distributed
throughout its length

Sep 5, 2019 135


Characteristics of a Transmission
Line
 Any transmission line has
 Series Resistance
 Series Inductance
 Shunt Capacitance
 Shunt Conductance

 The amount of inductance, capacitance, and


resistance depends on the length of the line, the size
of the conducting wires, the spacing between the
wires, and the dielectric (Air or insulating medium)
between the wires

Sep 5, 2019 136


Primary Constants of a
Transmission Line
 Characteristics of a line is determined by its primary
electrical constants or distributed parameters:
 R (/m)
 L (H/m)
 C (F/m)
 G (S/m)

Sep 5, 2019 137


Distributed Resistances

Sep 5, 2019 138


Distributed Inductances

Sep 5, 2019 139


Distributed Capacitances

Sep 5, 2019 140


Leakage in a Transmission Line

Sep 5, 2019 141


Equivalent Circuit of a Two Wire
Transmission Line

Sep 5, 2019 142


Characteristic Impedance
 Every transmission line possesses a certain Characteristic Impedance,
usually designated as Zo
 Zo is the ratio of V to I at every point along the line
 The characteristic impedance determines the amount of current that can
flow when a given voltage is applied to an infinitely long line (Input
impedance of an infinite line is the characteristic impedance of that line)
 Characteristic impedance is comparable to the resistance that determines
the amount of current that flows in a dc circuit.
 If a load equal to the characteristic impedance is placed at the output end of
any length of line, the same impedance will appear at the input terminals of
the line (The characteristic impedance is the only value of impedance for
any given type and size of line that acts in this way)

Sep 5, 2019 143


Infinite Length Txn Line
Is

Vs
Zo=Vs/Is
Also, x=0 x
I  ce x  de  x
At x  0, I  I s , As x   , I   0 Zo
 I s  c  d & I   cx  dx0  c  0
So, I s  d
 I  I s e  x
Similarly , V  Vse  x

Sep 5, 2019 144


Finite Length Txn Line Terminated
with Characteristic Impedance
VL Is
Zo  IL
IL
VL
V  Vs cosh x  I s .Z o sinh x Vs Zo

Vs
& I  I s cosh x  sinh x x=0
Zo
Vs cosh x  I s .Z o sinh x
Zo  Zin
V
I s cosh x  s sinh x
Zo
Vs
 Zo   Z in
Is
Hence, the input impedance of a finite line terminated in its
characteristic impedance Zo is the characteristic impedance of the
line
Sep 5, 2019 145
Expression for Characteristic
Impedance
For an infinitely long line, we know that,
 dV
 I( R  jL )
dx
I  I se  x & V  Vse  x
 d( Vse  x )
 I se  x ( R  jL )
dx
 Vse  x  ( R  jL )I se  x
Vs ( R  jL )
 Zo  
Is ( R  jL )(G  jC)
( R  jL )
 Zo 
(G  jC)

Sep 5, 2019 146


Propagation Constant
  ( R  jL )(G  jC)
 Governs the manner in which V & I vary with
length of txn line
 Current at any point l from origin is
Il=Ise-γl => e-γl =Il/Is => eγl = Is/Il

γ =ln [Is/Il] for unit length


 Attenuation & Phase constants
 Total Attenuation, αl
 Electrical length, βl
Sep 5, 2019 147
Secondary Constants of Txn Lines
• Characteristic Impedance
( R  jL )
Zo 
(G  jC)

• Propagation Constant
  ( R  jL )(G  jC)

Sep 5, 2019 148


Txn Line Equations
I P R L Q I+ V  ae  x  be   x e  x  cosh  x  sinh  x
I  ce  x  de   x e   x  cosh  x  sinh  x
dI
 V  A cosh  x  B sinh  x
V C G V+ & I  C cosh  x  D sinh  x
dV dV
  I( R  jL )    ( A sinh x  B cosh x )
x=l dx
dx
1
V - (V  dV)  I(R  jL)dx - (I) I ( A sinh x  B cosh x )
Zo
d 2 V dI Determining constants
 2  (R  jL) - (II)
dx dx V  A cosh x  B sinh x
Similarly, I - (I  dI)  V(G  jC)dx - (III) At source, x  0  V  Vs  A
d 2 I dV B
 2  (G  jC) - (IV) & I  Is    B   I s .Z o
dx dx Zo
d 2I d2V  V  Vs cosh x  I s .Z o sinh x
 2  I - (V) &
2
2
 V 2 - (VI)
dx dx Vs
& I  I s cosh x  sinh x
For ,   (R  jL)(G  jC) Zo

Sep 5, 2019 149


Transmission Line Equivalent
Circuit

R L R L L L

Zo Zo
C G C G C C

“Lossy” Line Lossless Line

R  j L L
Zo  Zo 
G  j C C

Sep 5, 2019 150


Formulas for Common Cables

For parallel two-wire line:


 2D  120 2 D
D L  ln ; C ; Zo  ln
 d ln
2D r d
d
d
 = or;  = or; o = 4x10-7 H/m; o = 8.854 pF/m

For co-axial cable:


D
 D 2 60 D
L ln ; C  ; Zo  ln
2 d ln
D r d
d
d
Sep 5, 2019 151
Wavelength
 A wavelength is defined as the distance travelled by the EM
wave along a line to have a total phase shift of 2π radians
 βλ =2 π
 For transmission lines having dielectric constant Єr,
λm=λ/(Єr)1/2

Sep 5, 2019 152


Wavelength Measurement
Amplitude

Time

2π 3π
π

Sep 5, 2019 153


Velocity of Propagation
 It is the velocity with which a signal of a single frequency
propagates along a line
 vp=f λ
 For dielectric media having dielectric constant Єr,
vp=f λ/(Єr)1/2

Sep 5, 2019 154


Transmission-Line Wave Propagation

Electromagnetic waves travel at < c in a transmission


line because of the dielectric separating the conductors.
The velocity of propagation is given by:
1 1 c
v   m/s
LC  r

Velocity factor, VF, is defined as: VF  v  1


c r

Sep 5, 2019 155


Transmission-Line Input
Impedance
• The input impedance is the impedance at
which the source must operate when
connected
• Zin =Vs/Is
• The input impedance of a lossy transmission
line at a distance l from the load is:-

Z L  Z o tanh( l )
Z in  Z o
Z o  Z L tanh( l )

Sep 5, 2019 156


Transmission-Line Input
Impedance: Lossless Line
• The input impedance for a lossless txn line at a distance
l from the load is:-
Z L  jZ o tan(  l )
Z in  Z o
Z o  jZ L tan(  l )

Sep 5, 2019 157


Transmission-Line Input
Impedance: SC

• When the load is a short circuit, Zin = jZo tan (l)


• For 0 < βl < /4, shorted line is inductive
• For βl = /4, shorted line = a parallel resonant circuit
• For /4 < βl </2, shorted line is capacitive

Sep 5, 2019 158


Transmission-Line Input
Impedance: OC

• When the load is an open circuit, Zin = -jZo cot (l)


• For 0 < βl < /4, open circuited line is capacitive
• For βl = /4, open-line is eqvlt to a series resonant
circuit.
• For /4 < βl < /2, open-line is inductive

Sep 5, 2019 159


Transmission-Line Input Impedance:
Quarter Wave Transformer
 For l= /4 , Zin = [Zo2/Zl ]
=> Zo=[Zin.Zl]1/2
 A /4 line with characteristic impedance, Zo’, can be used as a
matching transformer between a resistive load, ZL, and a line with
characteristic impedance, Zo, by choosing:-

'
Zo  ZoZ L

Sep 5, 2019 160


Transmission Line Summary

or is equivalent to:
βl < /4 βl > /4

or is equivalent to:
βl > /4 βl < /4
/4
= Zo ZL
βl = /4 Zo’
/4-section Matching
=
Transformer

Sep 5, 2019 161


Standing Waves
Incident & Reflected Waves
 For an infinitely long line or a line terminated with a
matched load, no incident power is reflected. The line is
called a flat or nonresonant line.
 For a finite line with no matching termination, part or all
of the incident voltage and current will be reflected.

Sep 5, 2019 163


AC Voltage Applied to a Line

Sep 5, 2019 164


AC Voltage Applied to an
Equivalent Transmission Line

Sep 5, 2019 165


AC Voltage Changes Along the
Transmission Line
 All instantaneous voltages of the sine wave produced
by the generator travel down the line in the order they
are produced
 At any point, a sine wave can be obtained if all the
instantaneous voltages passing the point are plotted
 The instantaneous voltages are the same in all cases
except that a phase difference exists at different points
along the line
 All parts of a sine wave pass every point along the line
 Since the line is terminated with a resistance equal to
Zo, the energy arriving at the end of the line is
absorbed by the resistance

Sep 5, 2019 166


Phase Relationship Between Incident &
Reflected Voltage: 36o from OC

Sep 5, 2019 168


Phase Relationship Between Incident &
Reflected Voltage: 90o from OC

Sep 5, 2019 169


Phase Relationship Between Incident &
Reflected Voltage: 180o from OC

Sep 5, 2019 170


Phase Relationship Between Incident &
Reflected Voltage: 180o from OC

Sep 5, 2019 171


Phase Relationship Between Incident &
Reflected Voltage: 270o from OC

Sep 5, 2019 172


Peak Voltage of Standing Wave for
OC Termination

Sep 5, 2019 173


Conventional Picture of a Standing
Wave

Sep 5, 2019 174


Phase Relationship Between
Incident & Reflected Voltage: SC

Sep 5, 2019 176


Peak Voltage of Standing Wave for
SC Termination

Sep 5, 2019 177


Standing Wave for SC Termination

Sep 5, 2019 178


Peak Voltage of Standing Wave for
Non Zo Termination

Sep 5, 2019 179


Standing Waves
Voltage

Vmax = Vi + Vr
Vmin = Vi - Vr


With a mismatched line, the incident and reflected
waves set up an interference pattern on the line
known as a standing wave. Vmax 1  
The standing wave ratio is : SWR  V  1  
min

Sep 5, 2019 181


Standing Wave Ratio
Emax
 SWR  s
Emin
VL Vi  Vr Vi  Vr
ZL   
I L Ii  I r Vi Vr

Zo Zo
Vr
(1  )
Vi [1  ]
 Zo  Zo
Vr [1  ]
(1  )
Vi
Z L  Zo
  
Z L  Zo
Here  |  | 
Sep 5, 2019 182
Reflection Coefficient

The reflection coefficient is defined as:


Er Ir
 or
Ei Ii

Z L  Zo
&    
Z L  Zo

Note that when ZL = Zo,  = 0; when ZL = 0,  = -1;


and when ZL = open circuit,  = 1.

Sep 5, 2019 183


Other Formulas

When the load is purely resistive: RL Zo


SWR  or
(whichever gives an SWR > 1) Zo RL

Return Loss, RL = Fraction of power reflected


= ||2, or -20 log || dB
So, Pr = ||2Pi
Mismatched Loss, ML = Fraction of power
transmitted/absorbed = 1 - ||2 or -10 log(1-||2) dB
So, Pt = Pi (1 - ||2) = Pi - Pr

Sep 5, 2019 184


Types of Transmission Lines
 Differential or balanced lines (where neither conductor is
grounded): e.g. twin lead, twisted-cable pair, and shielded-cable
pair.
 Single-ended or unbalanced lines (where one conductor is
grounded): e.g. concentric or coaxial cable.
 Transmission lines for microwave use: e.g. striplines,
microstrips, and waveguides.

Sep 5, 2019 185


Intro to Smith Chart

 The Smith Chart was developed in 1939 by Philip Smith


at the Bell Telephone Laboratories.
 A microwave engineer can develop intuition about
transmission line and impedance-matching problems by
learning to think in terms of the Smith Chart.
 The Smith Chart is essentially a plot of the voltage
reflection coefficient, Γ , in the complex plane.
 It can be used to convert voltage reflection
coefficients (Γ ) to normalized impedances (z=Z/Zo )
and admittances (y=Y/Yo ), and vice versa.

Sep 5, 2019 196


Complex Γ Plane With Z Circles

Sep 5, 2019 197


The rL Circles

All resistance circles have centers on the horizontal Γ i =0


axis, and pass through the point Γ =1

Sep 5, 2019 198


The xL Circles

The reactance circles have centers on the vertical Γ r =1 line,


and pass through the point Γ =1
Sep 5, 2019 199
The xL Circles

The reactance circles have centers on the vertical Γ r =1 line,


and pass through the point Γ =1
Sep 5, 2019 200
The Two Circles Comprising Smith
Chart

Sep 5, 2019 201


The rL & xL Circles

Sep 5, 2019 202


Smith Chart

Sep 5, 2019 203


Features of the Smith Chart
 The resistance and reactance circles are orthogonal.

 Smith Chart can be used to compute the normalized input impedance at a


distance l away from the load.

 Plot the reflection coefficient (Γ ) at the load.

 One full rotation (360) around the center of the Smith chart corresponds to a
phase shift of 0.5λ . A 180o rotation corresponds to a λ /4 transformation; this
facilitates the impedance circles to be used as admittance circles.

Sep 5, 2019 204


Z Smith Chart

Sep 5, 2019 205


The ZY Smith Chart

Sep 5, 2019 206


Application of Smith Chart
 Calculate the reflection coefficient from the Smith Chart for:-
ZL Zo
a) 137.5 + j87.5 Ω 50 Ω
b) 100 + j50 Ω 50 Ω
c) 75 - j150 Ω 50 Ω
d) 275 + j175 Ω 100 Ω
e) 150 - j80 Ω 800 Ω

Sep 5, 2019 207


Lossless Matching Network

Sep 5, 2019 208


Reasons for Impedance
Transformation
 Maximum power is delivered when the load and generator are
matched to the line.
 Proper input impedance transformation of sensitive receiver
components (Antenna, LNA,
etc) improves the S/N ratio of the system.
 Impedance matching in a power distribution network (Such as
antenna array feed network) will reduce amplitude and phase errors.

Sep 5, 2019 209


Problems of Matching with Lumped
Elements
 Lumped element impedance matching is not
always possible or easily realisable.
Solution:
 A section of open-circuited or short-circuited
transmission line (A “stub”) connected in parallel
or in series with the feed line at a distance from the load
can be used.
 The tuning parameters are the distance from the load
(d) and the length of the stub (l).

Sep 5, 2019 211


Shunt Stub Matching

Sep 5, 2019 212


Shunt Stub Matching Procedure
• Enter pt representing normalised load admittance yL
• Draw SWR circle to intersect g=1 circle at two points
• Possible solutions are yB1 = 1 + jbB1 & yB2 = 1+jbB2

• Determine load section lengths d1 & d2 from angles


between points representing yL & points representing yB1 & yB2

• Determine stub lengths lB1 & lB2 from angles between the
short cct point to the points representing -jbB1 and –jbB2

Sep 5, 2019 213


Effects of Frequency Variation

 Stub matching is a function of frequency


 If stub matching was carried out at frequency f’’ and the new
frequency is f’, calculate:-
 Load impedance ZL’ for new frequency [ZL’ =R - jXL.(f’/f”)] and
zL& find yL’
 Distance to the stub & length of stub at new frequency [d 1’ =
d1(f’/f”)] determine the yline at this pt; & [l1’ = l1(f’/f”)] &
susceptance of the short cct line to find ystub
 yt = yline + ystub; Plot yt on the chart & determine its SWR

Sep 5, 2019 214


Effects of Frequency Variation

 Stub matching is a function of frequency


 If stub matching was carried out at frequency f’’ and the new frequency is f’,
calculate:-
 Load impedance ZL’ for new frequency [ZL’ =R + jXL.(f”/f’)] and zL& find yL’
 Distance to the stub & length of stub at new frequency [d1’ = d1(f”/f’)]
determine the yline at this pt; & [l1’ = l1(f”/f’)] & susceptance of the short cct
line to find ystub
 yt = yline + ystub; Plot yt on the chart & determine its SWR

Sep 5, 2019 215


Electromagnetic Wave

Tx
Tx Z

H
Waveguide Cross-section
Vertically Polarised Antenna

E: Electrical Component
H: Magnetic Component
Z: Direction of Propagation

Sep 5, 2019 216


Waveguides
Types of Waveguides

Sep 5, 2019 218


Types of Waveguides

The WAVEGUIDE is a hollow metal tube or a dielectric


transmission line. However, the method by which it
transmits energy down its length differs from the
conventional methods.
Sep 5, 2019 219
Waveguides Components

Sep 5, 2019 220


Waveguides
 Reasons for using waveguide rather than coaxial cable at
microwave frequency:
 easier to fabricate
 no solid dielectric and I2R losses
 Waveguides do not support TEM waves inside because of
boundary conditions.
 Waves travel zig-zag down the waveguide by bouncing from
one side wall to the other.

Sep 5, 2019 221


Intro to Modes in Waveguides
Gen plane waves (TEM mode) are considered for txn lines (Rt hand
screw rule applies)

Sep 5, 2019 222


Intro to Modes in Waveguides
 Conducting walls of a waveguide confine the EM fds
 Wall to wall reflection occurs
 Input wave ceases to be a TEM wave

Sep 5, 2019 223


E fd in a Capacitor

Sep 5, 2019 224


E Fd in a 2 Wire Txn Line

Sep 5, 2019 225


E Fd on a 2 Wire Txn Line With
Half Wave Frames

Sep 5, 2019 226


Magnetic Fd on a Single Conductor

Sep 5, 2019 227


Magnetic Fd on a Coil

Sep 5, 2019 228


Advantages of Waveguides

 No Radiation Loss
 Efficient Energy Transmission
 Reduced Copper Losses
 Less Dielectric Losses
 Higher Power Handling Capability
 High Pass Filters
 Higher Operating Frequencies
 Propagation of Different Modes is Possible
 Simple Manufacturing

Sep 5, 2019 229


Limitations of Waveguides
 Low Frequency limitations
 Complicated Plumbing
 Expensive Construction

Sep 5, 2019 230


Boundary Conditions for EM Wave
Propagation Inside Waveguides
 E fields must terminate normally on the conductor
 H fields must be entirely tangential along the wall surface
(Since magnetic fields can never end)
 E fd lines may form continuous closed paths surrounding a
changing magnetic field
 H fds must always form continuous closed paths surrounding
either a conduction current or a changing electric field
(Displacement Current)

Sep 5, 2019 231


E FD BOUNDARY
CONDITIONS

Sep 5, 2019 232


H FD BOUNDARY
CONDITIONS

Sep 5, 2019 233


Wavefronts in Space

Sep 5, 2019 234


Plane Waves at Conducting
Surface

Trough

Trough

Trough
Peak Peak Peak
Peak

Trough
λp vg
θ
θ
λ vn vc
vn = vccosθ
λn vg = vcsinθ

λp= λ/(sinθ)
λn= λ/(cosθ)
θ

Sep 5, 2019 235
Plane Waves at Conducting Surface
:θ= 90o

Trough

Trough

Trough
Peak Peak Peak
Peak

Trough
λ = λp vg
θ= 90o
θ
vn vc
vn = vccosθ
vg = vcsinθ

λp= λ/(sinθ)
λn= λ/(cosθ)
λn θ

Sep 5, 2019 236
Plane Waves at Conducting Surface
:θ= 0o

Trough

Trough

Trough
Peak Peak Peak
Peak

Trough
vg
θ
vn vc
θ = 0o vn = vccosθ
λn = λ = λp vg = vcsinθ

λp= λ/(sinθ)
λn= λ/(cosθ)
θ

Sep 5, 2019 237
Types of Velocities
 An EM wave has two velocities:
Velocity of propagation (vg)
Velocity of change in phase (vp)

 vc =λf =3x108 m/s


 λ – Distance between two peaks
f - No of peaks /s
 For a frequency f, the velocity with which the wave changes
phase in a direction || to the conducting surface is-
vp=f λp =f λ/(sinθ)
 vg.vp=vc. (sinθ).vc/(sinθ) = vc2

Sep 5, 2019 238


Radiation From Probe in a
Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 239


WAVE FRONT REFLECTIONS

Sep 5, 2019 240


Wavefronts in a Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 241


Combined Wavefronts

Sep 5, 2019 242


Plane Waves at Conducting
Surface

3λn/2

4λn/2
2λn/2

λn/2

Sep 5, 2019 243


Parallel Plane Waveguide

4λn/2

3λn/2

2λn/2

λn/2

Sep 5, 2019 244


Labelling Waveguide
Dimensions

Sep 5, 2019 245


Cut Off Wavelength
 To avoid disturbing the existing wave pattern it is essential that
the two side walls be placed at a location that is a multiple of
half wavelength from each other
 Since the wavelength normal to the walls is λn, the distance
between the two sidewalls is mathematically given by :-
a = (m λn)/2 = m(λ/cosθ)/2 =mλ/(2cos θ)
cos θ = mλ/2a = λ/ λo (Where λo is the cut off
wavelength for the distance between two sidewalls)

Sep 5, 2019 246


Guide Wavelength
 λp= λ/(sinθ) = λ/(1-cos2θ)½
= λ/[1-(mλ/2a)2]½
= λ
[1- (λ/ λo)2]½

Sep 5, 2019 247


Cut Off Wavelength

 As the free space wavelength increases beyond a certain point,


for a fixed ‘a’ dimension, at λ =2a/m, λp →∞
 This is the cut off wavelength λo
∴ λo=2a/m
 The largest cut off wavelength is achieved for m = 1 where
λo=2a
 This is how the waveguide acts as a high pass filter

Sep 5, 2019 248


E Fd in a Rect Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 249


Modes of Operation
 TE mode
 TM mode
 Each mode of operation is further divided into submodes
as :-
 TEm,n
 TMm,n
m – No of half wavelengths across the waveguide width
‘a’ dimension
n - No of half wavelengths across the waveguide height
‘b’ dimension

Sep 5, 2019 250


TE and TM Modes
 TEmn mode has the E-field entirely transverse, i.e. perpendicular,
to the direction of propagation
 TMmn mode has the H-field entirely transverse to the direction of
propagation
 All TEmn and TMmn modes are theoretically permissible except, in
a rectangular waveguide, TMmo or TMon modes are not possible
since the magnetic field must form a closed loop
 Usually, only the dominant mode, (TE10 for rectangular
waveguides) is used

Sep 5, 2019 251


TEm,0 Modes
 TEm,0 modes do not use the ‘b’ dimension wall of the
waveguide for any purpose other than reflection
 All equations of parallel plate waveguide are applicable

Sep 5, 2019 252


Dominant Mode
 It is the method of propagation that yields the longest
cutoff wavelength of the guide

Sep 5, 2019 253


E-Field Pattern of TE1 0 Mode

a g/2
End View Side View
TEmn means there are m number of half-wave variations
of the transverse E-field along the “a” side and n number
of half-wave variations along the “b” side.
The magnetic field (not shown) forms closed loops
horizontally around the E-field

Sep 5, 2019 254


H FD in a Rect Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 255


H Fd in a Rect Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 256


Fd Distr in Waveguides

Sep 5, 2019 257


Modes in Waveguides

Sep 5, 2019 258


Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 259


Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 260


Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 261


Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 262


Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 263


Wavelength for TE & TM
Modes
2
Cutoff wavelength: λ o
 m/a  2   n/b  2
 Any signal with  > c will not propagate down
the waveguide
 For air-filled waveguide, cutoff freq, fc = vc/o
 TE10 is called the dominant mode since o = 2a

is the longest wavelength of any mode


λ λ
Guide wavelength: λ p  or

1  λ /λ o
2

1  f c /f   2

Sep 5, 2019 264


Other Formulas for TE & TM
Modes
λ
or v c 1   λ/λ  2
Group velocity: v g  v c o
λg
λ p vc
Phase velocity: v p  v c or
λ 1   λ/λ  2
o

Zo
Wave impedance: ZTE 
1   λ/λ o 
2

Zo = 377  for air-filled


ZTM  Z o 1   λ/λ o 
2
waveguide
Sep 5, 2019 265
Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 266


Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 267


Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 268


Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 269


Cylindrical Waveguides

Sep 5, 2019 270


TE and TM Modes in Cylindrical
Waveguides
 TEmn mode has the E-field entirely transverse, i.e. perpendicular, to the
direction of propagation.
 TMmn mode has the H-field entirely transverse to the direction of
propagation.
 m – No of full wave intensity variations around the circumference
 n – No of half wave intensity changes radially out from the center to the
circumference
 TMmo or TMon modes are possible since the magnetic field must form a
closed loop.
 The dominant mode, TE11 is used most often

Sep 5, 2019 271


Circular/Cylindrical Waveguides

 Differences versus rectangular waveguides :


 c = 2r/Bmn where r = waveguide radius, and Bmn is obtained
from table of Bessel functions.
 All TEmn and TMmn modes are supported since m and n
subscripts are defined differently.
 Dominant mode is TE11.
 Advantages: higher power-handling capacity, lower attenuation for a
given cutoff wavelength.
 Disadvantages: larger and heavier.

Sep 5, 2019 272


EM Field in TE20 Mode

Sep 5, 2019 273


Fd Patterns for TE10

Sep 5, 2019 275


Fd Patterns for TM11

Sep 5, 2019 276


Waveguide Plumbing

Sep 5, 2019 277


Intro to Waveguide Components

 Waveguides
 E & H Plane Tees
 Magic Tee
 Directional Couplers
 Attenuators
 Waveguide Terminators
 Dummy Load
 Cavity Resonators
Waveguide Excitation
Methods Used for Excitation and
Coupling
 Three methods
 Probes
 Loops
 Slots
 Depth of insertion of probe/loop, shape and size of the slot & its
orientation decides the power it couples and the impedance it
encounters
 Extrication of energy from a waveguide is simply a reversal of the
injection process using the same type of probe/loop/slot coupling

Sep 5, 2019 280


Methods Used for Excitation:
Probes
 When a small probe is inserted into a waveguide and supplied with microwave
energy, it acts as a quarter-wave antenna and sets up an E field
 The E lines detach themselves from the probe & flow in the waveguide
 When the probe is located at the point of highest efficiency, the E lines set up an
E field of considerable intensity.
 The most efficient place to locate the probe is in the center of the "a" wall,
parallel to the "b" wall, and one quarter-wavelength from the shorted end of the
waveguide (This is the point at which the E field is maximum in the dominant
mode & therefore, energy transfer /coupling is maximum at this point)

Sep 5, 2019 281


Probe Coupling in a Rectangular
Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 282


Methods Used for Excitation: Loops
 Energy insertion into a waveguide can also be accomplished by inserting a
small loop which carries a high current into the waveguide
 A magnetic field builds up around the loop and expands to fit the waveguide
 If the frequency of the current in the loop is within the bandwidth of the
waveguide, energy will be transferred to the waveguide.
 For the most efficient coupling to the waveguide, the loop is inserted at one
of several points where the magnetic field will be of greatest strength.

Sep 5, 2019 283


Positions for Loop Coupling in a
Rectangular Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 284


Methods Used for Excitation: Slots
 Slots or apertures are sometimes used when very loose (Inefficient)
coupling is desired
 In this method energy enters through a small slot in the waveguide and the
E field expands into the waveguide. The E lines expand first across the slot
and then across the interior of the waveguide.
 Minimum reflections occur when energy is injected or removed if the size of
the slot is properly proportioned to the frequency of the energy.

Sep 5, 2019 285


Slot Coupling in a Waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 286


Coupling Fds to Excite Modes

Sep 5, 2019 287


Waveguide Excitation

Sep 5, 2019 288


Waveguide Joints &
Bends
Waveguide Joints
 Flanges
 Choke Joint
 Rotary Joint

Sep 5, 2019 290


Waveguide connectors

Sep 5, 2019 291


Choke Joint

Sep 5, 2019 292


Choke Joint

Sep 5, 2019 293


Rotary Joints

Sep 5, 2019 294


Rotary Joints

Sep 5, 2019 295


Waveguide Bends

 Ridged Waveguides
 Flexible Waveguides
 Waveguide Bends

Sep 5, 2019 296


Waveguide Bends & Corners

E Plane Bend H Plane Bend

E/ H Plane Mitered Corner Waveguide Twist


Sep 5, 2019 297
Waveguide Junctions
Passive Components
 Bends
 Called E-plane or H-Plane bends depending on the
direction of bending
 Tees
 Also have E and H-plane varieties
 Hybrid or magic tee combines both and can be used
for isolation

Sep 5, 2019 299


Waveguide Bends

Sep 5, 2019 300


Tee Junctions

Sep 5, 2019 301


Wave guide T-Junctions
2
3 3

1 2
1
E-Plane Junction H-Plane Junction

Input power at port 2 will split equally between ports 1 and


3 but the outputs will be anti-phase for E-plane T and in-phase
for H-plane T. Input power at ports 1 & 3 will combine and
exit from port 1 provided the correct phasing is used.
Sep 5, 2019 302
E Plane Tee

Sep 5, 2019 303


H Plane Tee

Sep 5, 2019 304


Electrical Equivalents

E Plane Tee- Voltage Junction


H Plane Tee- Current Junction

Sep 5, 2019 305


Magic Tee

Sep 5, 2019 306


Hybrid Tee

Sep 5, 2019 307


The Hybrid Tee

Sep 5, 2019 308


Folded Magic Tee

Sep 5, 2019 309


Magic Tee With Input to E Plane
Arm

Sep 5, 2019 310


Magic Tee With Input to H Plane
Arm

Sep 5, 2019 311


Magic Tee With Input to Collinear
Arm

Sep 5, 2019 312


Hybrid-T Junction (Contd)

 If input power of the same phase is applied simultaneously at ports 1 and 2,


the combined power exits from port 4. If the input is out-of-phase, the output
is at port 3.
Applications:
 Isolator/Duplexer (Tx and a Rx sharing a common antenna)
 Phase Shifter
 Balanced Mixer ((Low noise mixer circuit)
 Combining power from two transmitters (Power combiner)

Sep 5, 2019 313


Magic T Jn : Isolator
Ae

Matched
Load Mixer

LO

Sep 5, 2019 314


Magic T Junction:Duplexer
To RX
To antenna
2
3
1 4

Termination From TX
Load

Sep 5, 2019 315


Magic T Jn : Phase Shifter
O/P

λ/4
SC Plunger SC Plunger
x x

I/P

Sep 5, 2019 316


Magic T Junction:Power
Combiner
TX 1
To antenna
2
3

1 4

Termination TX 2
Load

Sep 5, 2019 317


Balanced Mixer Using A Magic Tee
IF +
LOnoise -IF
+LOnoise

Sep 5, 2019 318


Hybrid Ring

Sep 5, 2019 319


Hybrid Ring

Sep 5, 2019 320


Application of Magic Tee
 Suggest a possible permutation of stick figures of
four Magic Tees to manipulate the four input
signals A, B, C and D to generate the following
three signals:-
 A+B+C+D.
 (A+B)-(C+D).
 (A+C)-(B+D).

Sep 5, 2019 322


Magic Tee As Monopulse
Comparator
A C
H Plane Arm
H Plane Arm

A-B C+D C-D


A+B

E Plane Arm E Plane Arm


A+B
A-B D
H Plane Arm B
H Plane Arm

A+B –
A+B + A+C – A+D –
(C+D)
(C+D) (B+D) (B+C)
E Plane Arm E Plane Arm
C+D C-D

Sep 5, 2019 323


Impedance Matching
Effects of Mismatched Terminations
 Power loss due to reflections
 Standing Waves (Internal arcing)
 Reduced power handling capability

Sep 5, 2019 325


Iris Impedance Matching
In waveguides, iris matching instead of stubs

= Inductive iris; vanes are vertical

Capacitive iris; vanes are


= horizontal

Irises can be used as reactance


= elements, filters or impedance
matching devices

Sep 5, 2019 326


Waveguide Irises

Sep 5, 2019 327


Tuning Screws
Tuning Screws Post

A post or screw can also serve as a reactive element.


When the screw is advanced partway into the wave-
guide, it acts capacitive. When the screw is advanced
all the way into the wave guide, it acts inductive. In
between the two positions, one can get a resonant LC
circuit.
Sep 5, 2019 328
Conducting Posts & Screws

Sep 5, 2019 329


Impedance Matching of Magic
Tee

Sep 5, 2019 330


Waveguide Terminations &
Attenuation
Waveguide Terminations
g/2 Dissipative Vane Short-circuit

Side View End View Sliding Short-Circuit

Dissipative vane is coated with a thin film of metal


which in turn has a thin dielectric coating for
protection. Its impedance is made equal to the
wave impedance. The taper minimizes reflection.
Sliding short-circuit functions like a shorted stub
for impedance matching purpose.
Sep 5, 2019 332
Attenuators
Max attenuation when
Resistive Flap flap is fully inside. Slot
for flap is chosen to be at
Pi Po a non-radiating position.
Atten (dB) = 10 log (Pi/Po)
Rotary-vane Type
= Pi (dB)-Po(dB)

Max attenuation when


Pi Po vane is at centre of
guide and min at the
Sliding-vane Type side-wall.

Sep 5, 2019 333


Attenuation in Waveguides
 Waveguides operating above cutoff frequency have
attenuation for any or all of the following reasons:-
 Reflections due to impedance mismatches
 Losses due to flow of current in walls
 Losses in the dielectric filling of waveguides

Sep 5, 2019 334


Attenuation Factor
For waveguides operating below cutoff frequency, attenuation is given
by:-
A = eαz , where,
 e - Base of natural Logarithm
 α = 2π/ λo – Attenuation factor in Np/m,
 z - Length of waveguide
 λo - Cutoff wavelength
AdB = 20 log10(eαz)

Sep 5, 2019 335


Relation Between Np & dB
 Attenuation of a wave is a measure of the spatial decay
of the wave
 Attenuation of 1 Np denotes a reduction to e-1 of the
original value
 So, 1 Np = e
 In terms of dB, 1 Np = 20 log10(e)
= 20 x 0.434 = 8.686 dB

Sep 5, 2019 336


Cavity Resonators
Cavity Resonators:Definition
• A resonant cavity is any space completely
enclosed by conducting walls that can contain
oscillating electromagnetic fields and
possesses resonant properties
• Theoretically a resonator has an infinite
number of resonating modes, each mode
corresponding to a definite resonant frequency
• The mode having lowest resonant
frequency is known as dominant mode
• Whenever two or more modes have the
same cut-off/resonant frequency they are said
to be degenerate modes
Sep 5, 2019 338
Quality Factor
 The high Quality Factor (Q) gives these devices
a narrow bandpass and allows very accurate tuning.
Simple, rugged construction is an additional
advantage.

Sep 5, 2019 339


Cavity Resonators Coupling
 Energy is coupled into the cavity either through a small opening, by
a coupling loop or a coupling probe. These methods of coupling
also apply for wave guides

 Applications of resonators:
 Microwave tubes
 Oscillators
 Tuned Amplifiers
 Frequency Filters

Sep 5, 2019 340


Coupling Power to Waveguides

Sep 5, 2019 341


Cavity Resonators Fd
Patterns

Sep 5, 2019 342


Dimensions of a Resonant
Cavity

Sep 5, 2019 343


Cylindrical Cavity Resonator
2r

Cylindrical Resonant Cavity


Sep 5, 2019 344
Cavity Resonators Formulae
Resonant wavelength for a
rectangular cavity:
2
r  b L
( m / a )  ( n / b)  ( p / L )
2 2 2
a

For a cylindrical resonator:


r
2
r  L
2 2
 Bmn   p 
   
 r   L 
Sep 5, 2019 345
Types of Cavity Resonators
(Shape/Size)

Sep 5, 2019 346


Cavity Tuning By Volume

Sep 5, 2019 347


Changing Cavity Capacitance

Sep 5, 2019 348


Changing Cavity Inductance

Sep 5, 2019 349


Directional Couplers
Directional Coupler

P3 g/4
Termination

P1 P4 P2 P1 P2

2-hole Coupler

• Holes spaced g/4 allow waves travelling toward


port 3 to combine. Waves travelling toward port 4,
however, will cancel. Therefore, ideally P4 = 0.

• To broaden frequency response bandwidth, practical


couplers would usually have multi holes.
Sep 5, 2019 352
Directional Coupler (Contd)

Sep 5, 2019 353


Propagation of Signal in Directional
Coupler

Sep 5, 2019 354


Coupling Parameters
 Coupling
 C = 10log10[Pi/Pf] dB
 Directivity
 D = 10log10[Pf/Pb] dB
 Insertion Loss
 L = 10log10[Pi/Pt] dB
 Isolation
 I = 10log10[Pi/Pb] dB

Practical couplers have D & I of 30 to 40


dB
Sep 5, 2019 355
Bi-Directional Coupler

Sep 5, 2019 356


Ferrites
Ferrite Components
 Ferrites are non metallic materials (Usually compounds of metallic
oxides such as those of Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, Co, Al, and Ni – like MnFe2O3,
Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 etc
 They have magnetic properties similar to ferromagnetic metals and at
the same time have high resistivity (Sp resistivity 1014 times, εr 10 to
15 & μr of several thousand times) associated with dielectrics.
 Their magnetic properties can be controlled by means of an external
magnetic field.
 They can be transparent, reflective, absorptive, or cause wave rotation
depending on the H field.

Sep 5, 2019 358


Faradays Rotation
 Underlying principle for use of ferrites
 If a polarised wave is made to pass through a ferrite rod under the
influence of a magnetic field B, its axis of polarisation gets tilted by
an amount dependent upon the strength of the magnetic fd and
geometry of ferrite
 Direction of rotation depends on the value of DC magnetic fd

Sep 5, 2019 359


Examples of Ferrite Devices

Attenuator Isolator
2


1 3
Differential
Phase Shifter 4-port
Circulator
4

Sep 5, 2019 360


Notes On Ferrite Devices
 Differential phase shifter -  is the phase shift between the two directions
of propagation.
 Isolator - permits power flow in one direction only.
 Circulator - power entering port 1 will go to port 2 only; power entering
port 2 will go to port 3 only; etc.
 Most of the above are based on Faraday rotation.
 Other usage: filters, resonators, and substrates.

Sep 5, 2019 361


Ferrite Isolator

Sep 5, 2019 362


Constraints on Ferrites
 Line Width. The rg of fd strengths over which absorption will take place. It
is defined between half power points for absorption
 Curie Temp. The temp at which a magnetic material loses its magnetic
properties. This places a limitation on max temp at which ferrites may be
operated & therefore on the power dissipated
 Max Frequency of Op. For devices utilising resonance absorption, this is
dependent on the max mag fd strength that can be generated. It is offset
by the gen reduction in the size of the waveguide as the frequency is
increased

Sep 5, 2019 363


Ferrite Isolator (One Way)

Sep 5, 2019 364


Ferrite Circulator

3 2

1 4

Sep 5, 2019 365


Components
Chebyschev 3 dB Coupler

N S

S N Side View of Circulator


Sep 5, 2019 366
4 Port Waveguide Based Ferrite
Circulator

3 2

1 4

λg/8

Sep 5, 2019 367


Duplexers & TR Cells
Duplexers: Basics
 Requirements of an effective duplexing System
 During txn connect Ae to txr & disconnect from rxr
 Isolate rxr from txrduring txn
 After txn, rapidly connect rxr to Ae
 Absorb min power during txn & rxn

Sep 5, 2019 369


Types of Duplexers
 Magic Tee (6 dB Loss)
 Circulators (Isolation, Insertion Loss)
 Gas tubes (Pulsed Systems)
 Branched Duplexer
 Parallel
 Series
 Balanced Duplexer

Sep 5, 2019 370


Branch Type Duplexers

Parallel Series

Sep 5, 2019 371


Parallel Branch Type
Duplexer: Construction

Sep 5, 2019 372


Parallel Duplexer : Transmission

Sep 5, 2019 373


Parallel Duplexer : Reception

Sep 5, 2019 374


Series Branch Type
Duplexer: Construction

Sep 5, 2019 375


Series Duplexer : Transmission

Sep 5, 2019 376


Series Duplexer : Reception

Sep 5, 2019 377


Balanced Duplexer

Ae TR Cell

TR Cell
Txr Rxr

Sep 5, 2019 378


Balanced Duplexer:Txn

 270o

Ae TR Cell


TR Cell
Txr Rxr

0o

Sep 5, 2019 379


Balanced Duplexer:Reception

 0o

Ae TR Cell

TR Cell
Txr Rxr
 90o

Sep 5, 2019 380


TR & ATR
TR Tube
 Primary Fn- Disconnect Rx
 The requirements of a spark gap are:-
 High Impedance prior to arc
 Low impedance during arcing
 Arc should get extinguished at earliest (Recovery
time)

Sep 5, 2019 382


TR Tube: Construction
Waveguide filled with a gas mixture and sealed
at either end by glass windows
 Low pressure (Ionisation)
 Electrode Pair
 Keep Alive Electrode
 Glass Windows
 Glass Sheath
 Gas Reservoir

SIMPLIFIED CROSS- SECTION


OF TR TUBE
Sep 5, 2019 383
TR Tube with Keep Alive
Electrode

Sep 5, 2019 384


TR Tube: Gas Mixture
 Noble Gases like Argon
 Low breakdown V
 Offer good rx protection
 Longer life
 Long deionisation time
 Addition of Water Vapour/Halogens
 Speeds up deionisation
 Reduced tube lifetimes
 Radioactive Isotopes
 Alternative to keep alive voltages

Sep 5, 2019 385


Merits & Demerits of Radioactive
Isotopes
Merits Demerits

 Active V not reqd  Careful handling & disposal


 Rx wideband noise V  Comparatively more leakage
unaffected energy passed
 Requires passive TR limiter
 Longer life
stages

Sep 5, 2019 386


Leakage Pulse & Arc Loss
 Leakage pulse
 Large amplitude spike is result of finite ionisation time
 Arc Loss. The fraction of the power absorbed by TR tube
discharge
 0.5 dB
 60 dB
 Life of TR Tube Is determined by:-
 Amt of leakage power
 Excessive recovery time

Sep 5, 2019 387


Waveguide Duplexer

Sep 5, 2019 388


ATR Tube
 Simpler device
 No keep alive electrode
 Only pure inert gas used

Sep 5, 2019 389


Tube Based Microwave
Generators & Amplifiers

Klystrons
Magnetrons
TWT
Microwave Tubes
 Classical vacuum tubes have several factors which limit their
upper operating frequency:
 Interelectrode capacitance & lead inductance
 Dielectric losses & skin effect
 Transit time

 Microwave tubes utilize resonant cavities and the interaction


between the electric field, magnetic field and the electrons

Sep 5, 2019 391


Frequency Limitation of
Conventional Tubes

Sep 5, 2019 392


Transit Time
 Transit time is the time required for electrons to travel between the
electrodes & depends on electrode spacing
 It is insignificant at low frequencies
 At high frequencies, transit time becomes an appreciable portion of a signal
cycle and begins to hinder efficiency
 Transit times in excess of 0.1 cycle cause a significant decrease in tube
efficiency

Sep 5, 2019 393


Velocity
Modulation
Interaction Between an Electron
& the E Fd

Sep 5, 2019 395


Velocity Modulation
 Velocity modulation is defined as that variation in the
velocity of a beam of electrons caused by the alternate
speeding up and slowing down of the electrons in the
beam
 This variation is usually caused by a voltage signal
applied between the grids through which the beam must
pass

Sep 5, 2019 396


Buncher Cavity Action

Sep 5, 2019 398


Buncher Cavity Action

Sep 5, 2019 399


Buncher Cavity Action

Sep 5, 2019 400


Buncher Cavity Action

Sep 5, 2019 401


Buncher Cavity Action

Sep 5, 2019 402


Buncher Cavity Action

Sep 5, 2019 403


Catcher Cavity
 The net effect of velocity modulation is to form a current-density modulated
beam that varies at the same rate as the grid-signal frequency
 A second cavity, called a CATCHER CAVITY, must be placed at a point of
maximum bunching to take useful energy from the beam
 The physical position of the catcher cavity is determined by the frequency of
the buncher-grid signal because this signal determines the transit time of the
electron bunches
 The electron bunches will induce an rf voltage in the grid gap of the second
cavity causing it to oscillate

Sep 5, 2019 404


Velocity & Current Modulation

Sep 5, 2019 405


Klystron Amplifiers
Klystrons
 Klystrons are linear-beam devices since the E-field is parallel to
the static magnetic field
 Their operation is based on velocity and current modulation with
resonating cavities to create the bunching effect and to tap the
energy of the electron beam
 They can be employed as oscillators or power amplifiers

Sep 5, 2019 407


Klystron Cross-Section

Sep 5, 2019 408


Klystron Operation
 RF signal applied to the buncher cavity sets up an alternating
field across the buncher gap

 This field alternately accelerates and decelerates the electron


beam causing electrons to bunch up in the drift region

 When the electron bunches pass the catcher gap, they excite
the catcher cavity into resonance

 RF power is extracted from the catcher cavity by the coupling


loop

Sep 5, 2019 409


Two Cavity Klystron

Control RF In RF Out
Grid Gap

Filament Collector

Cathode Drift
Buncher Catcher Region
Cavity Cavity
v
Electron
Beam
Effect of velocity modulation
Sep 5, 2019 410
Klystron Amplifier Schematic

SCHEMATIC
DIAGRAM OF 2
CAVITY
KLYSTRON AMP
Sep 5, 2019 411
Klystron Tube Animated

Sep 5, 2019 412


Applegate Diagram
 Each line represents the distance time history of an individual electron
 More the gradient, lower the velocity being represented

Sep 5, 2019 413


Applegate Diagram For Klystron
Amplifier
Catcher Cavity
Grid Voltage

Catcher Grid
(Drift Space)
Distance

Buncher Grid

Time
Buncher Cavity
Grid Voltage
Bunching Limits
Sep 5, 2019 414
Klystron Amplifier

Sep 5, 2019 415


Multicavity Klystrons
 Gain can be increased by inserting intermediate cavities
between the buncher and catcher cavity
 Each additional cavity increases power gain by 15 to 20 db
 Synchronous tuned klystrons have high gain but very narrow
bandwidth, e.g. 0.25 % of fo
 Stagger tuned klystrons have wider bandwidth at the expense
of gain
 Can operate as oscillator by positive feedback

Sep 5, 2019 416


Multi Cavity Klystron

Sep 5, 2019 417


Klystron Oscillator
Reflex Klystron
Output
Anode Cavity
Cathode Repeller
Filament
Electron
Beam
Vr

Condition for oscillation requires electron transit


time to be:
where n = an integer and
 3
T = period of oscillation
t  n  T
 4

Sep 5, 2019 419


Reflex Klystron Operation
 Electron beam is velocity modulated when passing
though gridded gap of the cavity
 Repeller decelerates and turns back electrons thus
causing bunching
 Electrons are collected on the cavity walls and output
power can be extracted
 Repeller voltage, Vr, can be used to vary output
frequency and power.

Sep 5, 2019 420


Notes On Reflex
 Compact size Klystrons
 Can be used as an oscillator only
 Low output power and low efficiency
 Output frequency can be tuned by Vr , or by changing
the dimensions of the cavity

Sep 5, 2019 421


Reflex Klystron

Sep 5, 2019 422


Electron Bunching Diagram

Sep 5, 2019 423


Bunching Action of Reflex
Klystron

Sep 5, 2019 424


Tuning & O/P Power

Sep 5, 2019 425


Magnetrons
Intro to Magnetrons
 A magnetron is a self contained microwave
oscillator
 It is classified as a diode
 It is a crossed field device
 Radial DC Electric fd
 Axial Magnetic fd
 Lends itself to a variety of types, designs and
arrangements
 Useful for small sized tx

Sep 5, 2019 427


Magnetrons
It consists of a cylindrical cathode surrounded by the
copper anode with a number of resonant cavities.
It’s a crossed-field
Interaction device since the E-field
Waveguide
Space is perpendicular to the
Output
dc magnetic field.
At a critical voltage
Coupling Cavity the electrons from the
Window cathode will just graze
Anode the anode.
Cathode

Sep 5, 2019 428


Magnetron: Cutaway View

Sep 5, 2019 429


Magnetron: Cutaway View II

Sep 5, 2019 431


Theory of Op
 The force exerted by an electric field on an electron is
proportional to the strength of the field
 The force exerted on an electron in a magnetic field is at
right angles to both the field and the path of the electron

Sep 5, 2019 432


Electron Motion in Static E Fd

Sep 5, 2019 433


Magnetron: Effect of H Fd on
Single Electron

Sep 5, 2019 436


Cavity Magnetron

Sep 5, 2019 437


Magnetron Op

Sep 5, 2019 438


EXPLANATION OF MAGNETRON
 The microwave radiation of microwave ovens and some radar
applications is produced by a device called a magnetron.
 The magnetron is called a "crossed-field" device in the industry
because both magnetic and electric fields are employed in its
operation, and they are produced in perpendicular directions
so that they cross. The applied magnetic field is constant and
applied along the axis of the circular device illustrated. The
power to the device is applied to the center cathode which is
heated to supply energetic electrons which would, in the
absence of the magnetic field, tend to move radially outward to
the ring anode which surrounds it.

Sep 5, 2019 439


Op of Cavities

Sep 5, 2019 440


EXPLANATION OF MAGNETRON

 anode which surrounds it.


 Electrons are released at the center hot cathode by the process of
thermionic emission and have an accelerating field which moves them
outward toward the anode. The axial magnetic field exerts a
magnetic force on these charges which is perpendicular to their
initially radial motion, and they tend to be swept around the circle. In
this way, work is done on the charges and therefore energy from the
power supply is given to them. As these electrons sweep toward a
point where there is excess negative charge, that charge tends to be
pushed back around the cavity, imparting energy to the oscillation at
the natural frequency of the cavity. This driven oscillation of the
charges around the cavities leads to radiation of electromagnetic
waves, the output of the magnetron.

Sep 5, 2019 441


Cavity Magnetron

1
2
3
4
5

Sep 5, 2019 442


Cross-section of Magnetron

Sep 5, 2019 443


Sep 5, 2019 444
Magnetron: Electron Paths

Sep 5, 2019 446


Conditions
 Hull Cut Off Condition
Determines the voltage & magnetic fd necessary to
obtain non zero anode current in the absence of the
electromagnetic fds
 Hartee Condition
For sustained rf osc, Hartee condition must be
fulfilled

Sep 5, 2019 447


Magnetron: Rotating Space
Charge Wheel

Sep 5, 2019 448


Magnetron Operation
 When an electron cloud sweeps past a cavity, it excites the
latter to self oscillation which in turn causes the electrons to
bunch up (Phase focusing effect) into a spoked wheel formation
in the interaction space
 Due to change in polarity of the RF fd, the spoked wheel rotates
ACW @ 2 poles per cycle for π mode
 The continuous exchange of energy between the electrons and
the cavities sustains oscillations at microwave frequency

Sep 5, 2019 449


Reqmt of Strapping of Anode
Blocks
 This resonant system possesses a series of resonant freq or modes corresponding to
the number of cavities
 This resonant system possesses a series of possible phase shifts or modes
corresponding to the number of cavities
 Osc possible only if total phase shift around the structure is an integral multiple of 2π
radians
φ = 2πm/N
φ - Phase shift between two adjacent cavities
m – Integer indicating mth mode of op; m= 1,2,3,…N/2
N – No of reentrant cavities
 For sustaining osc, anode DC V must be adjusted so that the average rotational
velocity of e- corresponds to phase velocity of slow wave structure
 Magnetrons are usually op in π mode, ie φ = π
 Strapping is used to avoid mode jumping

Sep 5, 2019 450


Magnetron: Strapping of Anode
Blocks

Sep 5, 2019 451


Magnetron: Common Types of
Anode Blocks

Sep 5, 2019 452


More Notes On Magnetrons
 Alternate cavities are strapped (i.e., shorted) so that adjacent
resonators are 180o out of phase. This enables only the
dominant -mode to operate
 Frequency tuning is possible either mechanically (screw tuner)
or electrically with voltage
 Magnetrons are used as oscillators for radars, beacons,
microwave ovens, etc
 Peak output power is from a few MW at UHF and X-band to 10
kW at 100 GHz

Sep 5, 2019 453


Magnetron: Coupling Methods

Coupling Loop Segment Fed Loop

Coupling Loop Slot Coupling


Sep 5, 2019 454
Forming Up
 Arcing in magnetrons is very common
 It occurs with a new tube or following long periods of idleness
 Prime causes of arcing is the release of gas from tube elements during
idle periods
 Arcing may also be caused by the presence of sharp surfaces within
the tube, mode shifting, and by drawing excessive current
 Continued arcing will shorten the life of the magnetron and may
destroy it entirely
 Forming up is essential

Sep 5, 2019 455


Freq Variations
 Frequency Pushing
 The resonant freq of Magnetrons can be altered by changing
anode V
 This alters the orbital vel of e- cloud & thus changes the
bandwidth
 This change in freq is called Freq Pushing

 Frequency Pulling
 The magnetron is susceptible to freq variations due to change in
load impedance reflected into cavity resonators
 This change in freq is called Freq Pulling

Sep 5, 2019 456


TWT
Intro to TWT
 It’s a linear beam tube used as a microwave amp
 Has continuous interaction between e- beam & RF fd
 Uses slow wave structure
 Capable of enormous bandwidths

Sep 5, 2019 458


Travelling-Wave Tube
Electron Beam RF In Helix Attenuator RF Out Collector

• The TWT is a linear beam device with the magnetic field


running parallel to tube lengthwise.

• The helix is also known as a slow wave structure to slow


down the RF field so that its velocity down the the tube is
close to the velocity of the electron beam.
Sep 5, 2019 459
TWT: Construction

Sep 5, 2019 460


TWT: Construction

Sep 5, 2019 461


TWT Structure & RF fd

15¼”
Russian TWT UV-1B (УВ-1-Б)

Sep 5, 2019 462


TWT: Functional Diagram

Sep 5, 2019 463


TWT Operation
 As the RF wave travels along the helix, its positive and negative oscillations
velocity modulate the electron beam causing the electrons to bunch up
 The prolonged interaction between the RF wave and electron beam along
the TWT results in exponential growth of the RF voltage
 The amplified wave is then extracted at the output
 The attenuator prevents reflected waves that can cause oscillations

Sep 5, 2019 464


TWT: Operation

Sep 5, 2019 465


TWT: Amplified Helix Signal

RF I/P

Bunching
of e- beam

RF O/P

Sep 5, 2019 466


Notes On TWTs
 Since interaction between the RF field and the electron beam is
over the entire length of the tube, the power gain achievable is
very high (> 40 dB)
 As TWTs are nonresonant devices, they have wider bandwidths
and lower NF than klystrons
 TWTs operate from 0.3 to 50 GHz & generally have octave
bandwidths

Sep 5, 2019 467


Antennas
Typical Antennas

Sep 5, 2019 469


Current & Voltage Distribution in an
Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 470


Antenna & RF Source

Sep 5, 2019 471


Voltage & Current Standing Waves
in an Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 472


Reciprocity of Antennas

Sep 5, 2019 473


Isotropic Radiator

Sep 5, 2019 474


Anisotropic Radiator

Sep 5, 2019 475


Polar Coordinate Graph of
Anisotropic Radiator

Sep 5, 2019 476


Radiation Pattern of a Doublet

Sep 5, 2019 477


Radiation Pattern of a Dipole

Sep 5, 2019 478


Standing Waves of Current &
Voltage: Halfwave Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 479


Grounded Quarter Wave
Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 480


Ground Screen & Counterpoise

Sep 5, 2019 481


Folded Dipole Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 482


Phasing of Antenna in Free Space

Sep 5, 2019 483


Phasing of Connected Elements

Sep 5, 2019 484


Single Antenna Vs Array

Sep 5, 2019 485


Single Half Wave Antenna Vs Two Half
Wave Antennas in Phase

Sep 5, 2019 486


Typical Broadside Array

Sep 5, 2019 487


Parallel Elements in Phase

Sep 5, 2019 488


Typical End Fire Array

Sep 5, 2019 489


Parallel Elements 180o Out of Phase

Sep 5, 2019 490


Unidirectional End Fire Arrays

Sep 5, 2019 491


Parasitic Arrays

Sep 5, 2019 492


Yagi Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 493


Rhombic Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 494


Ground Plane Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 495


Parabolic Reflector Antenna

Sep 5, 2019 496


Parabolic Radiation Pattern

Sep 5, 2019 497


Basic Paraboloid Reflector

Sep 5, 2019 498


Truncated Paraboloid Reflector

Sep 5, 2019 499


Orange Peel Paraboloid
Reflector

Sep 5, 2019 500


Cylindrical Paraboloid Reflector

Sep 5, 2019 501


Horn Radiators

Sep 5, 2019 502


Waveguide Lens

Sep 5, 2019 503


Field Pattern of an Antenna Array

Sep 5, 2019 504


Horizontal Array Field Pattern

Sep 5, 2019 505


Microwave Solid State
Devices
Developments in Microwave
Devices & Ccts
 Applications of semiconductor devices have grown rapidly since the invention of the
bipolar transistor
 Devices using pn jn started to be used
 Varactors, Tunnel Diodes, IMPATT, Gunn Diode intro between 1950 -70
 Planar txn lines intro
 MIC (Integrated semiconductor devices with txn lines)
 Hybrid MICs (Soldered / bonded semiconductor devices on planar txn lines)
 MMICs (Active devices grown on a semiconductor substrate)

Sep 5, 2019 507


Adv of Semiconductor Devices
 Greater Flexibility
 Improved Performance
 Improved Reliability
 Compact Integrated Modules
 Reduced Size & Wt
 Reduced Power Reqmts
 Ease of Mass Production
 Low Cost

Sep 5, 2019 508


Planar Txn Lines
Types of Planar Txn Lines
 Strip Lines
 Microstrip lines
 Slot lines
 Coplanar Waveguide
 Coplanar Strips
 Suspended Substrate Lines
 Suspended Strip Lines
 Suspended Microstrip Lines
 Inverted Microstrip Lines
 Parallel Coupled Lines
 Edge Coupled & Broadside Coupled Strip lines
 Edge Coupled & Broadside Coupled Microstrip lines

Sep 5, 2019 510


Tunnel Diodes
Intro to TD
 Normal PN jn are lightly doped – wide depletion regions
 Hy doping – Narrow depletion regions
 Unusual characteristic curve- negative resistance due to tunnelling
 Tunnelling used to offset transit time effects

Sep 5, 2019 512


TD Characteristic Curve

Sep 5, 2019 513


TD Vs PN Jn Characteristic Curves

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TD Energy Diagram without Bias

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TD Energy Diagram With Bias (50
mV)

Sep 5, 2019 516


TD Energy Diagram With Bias (450
mV)

Sep 5, 2019 517


TD Energy Diagram With Bias (600
mV)

Sep 5, 2019 518


TD Schematic Symbols

Sep 5, 2019 519


TD Oscillator

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TD Amplifier

Sep 5, 2019 521


Tunnel Diode
Symbol Equivalent Circuit Characteristic Curve
Ls Ip i

Cj -R A B C
Rs
V
Vp Vv
Heavy doping of the semiconductor material creates a very
thin potential barrier in the depletion zone which leads to
electron tunneling through the barrier.

Note the negative resistance zone between Vp and Vv.


Sep 5, 2019 522
More Notes On Tunnel Diode
 Tunnel diodes can be used in monostable (A or C), bistable
(between A and C), or astable (B) modes
 These modes lead to switching, oscillation, and
amplification applications
 However, the power output levels of the tunnel diode are
restricted to a few mW only

Sep 5, 2019 523


Varactor Diode
Varactor Diode

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PN Jn Diode as Varicap

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PN Jn Diode as Varicap

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Varactor Capacitance Vs Bias
Voltage

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Varactor Tuned Resonant Cct

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Voltage Amp from a Varying
Capacitor

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Varactor Diode
Cj
Co

Circuit Symbol
V
Junction Capacitance Characteristic

Varactors operate under reverse-bias conditions.


The junction capacitance is:
Co K
where Vb = barrier potential Cj 
(0.55 to 0.7 for silicon) (Vb  V ) m
and K = constant (often = 1)

Sep 5, 2019 531


Equivalent Circuit for Varactor
The series resistance, Rs, and diode
capacitance, Cj, determine the
cutoff frequency: 1
Cj Rj fc 
2Rs C j
Rs
The diode quality factor for a given
frequency, f, is:
fc
Q 
f

Sep 5, 2019 532


Varactor Applications
 Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) in AFC and
PLL circuits
 Variable phase shifter
 Harmonic generator in frequency multiplier
circuits
 Up or down converter circuits
 Parametric amplifier circuits - low noise

Sep 5, 2019 533


Non Degenerative Parametric Amp
Cct

Sep 5, 2019 534


Parametric Amp

Sep 5, 2019 535


LSB Parametric Downconverter

Sep 5, 2019 536


Schottky Barrier Diode
• It’s based on a simple metal-
Contact Metal semiconductor interface.
Electrode

Semi- SiO2 • There is no p-n junction but


conductor Dielectric a depletion region exists.
Layer
Substrate • Current is by majority
Metal
Electrode carriers; therefore, very low
in capacitance.

Applications: detectors, mixers, and switches.


Sep 5, 2019 537
Parametric Amplifier Circuit
Degenerative Mode: fp = 2fs
Non-degenerative mode:
Pump signal (fp) Up-conversion - fi = fs + fp

Down conversion - fi = fs – fp
L2
C2 Power gain, G = fi /fs
C1
Input Regenerative mode:
C3  negative resistance
signal L3
L1 D1  very low noise
(fs)
 very high gain
Signal Idler
tank (fs) tank (fi) f p = fs + fi
Sep 5, 2019 538
PIN Diode

R S1 RFC
P+ +V
C2
I C1
In
N+ Out
D1
PIN as shunt switch

PIN diode has an intrinsic region between the P+ and N+


materials. It has a very high resistance in the OFF mode
and a very low resistance when forward biased.
Sep 5, 2019 539
PIN Diode Applications

 To switch devices such as attenuators, filters, and amplifiers in


and out of the circuit
 Voltage-variable attenuator
 Amplitude modulator
 Transmit-receive (TR) switch
 Phase shifter (with section of transmission line)

Sep 5, 2019 540


Transferred Electron Devices
 TEDs are made of compound semiconductors such as GaAs
 They exhibit periodic fluctuations of current due to negative
resistance effects when a threshold voltage (about 3.4 V) is
exceeded
 The negative resistance effect is due to electrons being swept
from a lower valley (more mobile) region to an upper valley (less
mobile) region in the conduction band

Sep 5, 2019 541


Gunn Diode
The Gunn diode is a transferred electron device that can be
used in microwave oscillators or one-port reflection
amplifiers. Its basic structure is shown below. N-, the
active region, is sandwiched between two heavily doped
N+ regions. Electrons from the cathode (K) drifts to
the anode (A) in bunched
l
formation called domains.
K N- A Note that there is no p-n
Metallic junction.
Electrode
N+ Metallic
Electrode
Sep 5, 2019 542
Gunn Operating Modes
 Stable Amplification (SA) Mode: diode behaves as an amplifier due to
negative resistance effect
 Transit Time (TT) Mode: operating frequency, fo = vd / l where vd is the
domain velocity, and l is the effective length. Output power < 2 W, and
frequency is between 1 GHz to 18 GHz
 Limited Space-Charge (LSA) Mode: requires a high-Q resonant cavity;
operating frequency up to 100 GHz and pulsed output power > 100 W.

Sep 5, 2019 543


Gunn Diode Circuit and
Applications
The resonant cavity
Resonant Tuning is shocked excited by
Cavity Screw
current pulses from
Iris the Gunn diode and
the RF energy is
coupled via the iris
Diode to the waveguide.
V
Gunn diode applications: microwave source for
receiver local oscillator, police radars, and
microwave communication links.
Sep 5, 2019 544
Avalanche Transit-Time Devices
 If the reverse-bias potential exceeds a certain threshold, the
diode breaks down
 Energetic carriers collide with bound electrons to create more
hole-electron pairs
 This multiplies to cause a rapid increase in reverse current
 The onset of avalanche current and its drift across the diode is
out of phase with the applied voltage thus producing a negative
resistance phenomenon.

Sep 5, 2019 545


IMPATT Diode
A single-drift structure of an IMPATT (impact
avalanche transit time) diode is shown below:

- P+ N N+ +

Avalanche l
Region Drift Region

vd
Operating frequency: f  where vd = drift
2l velocity

Sep 5, 2019 546


Notes On IMPATT Diode
 The current build-up and the transit time for the current pulse to
cross the drift region cause a 180o phase delay between V and
I; Thus, negative R
 IMPATT diodes typically operate in the 3 to 6 GHz region but
higher frequencies are possible
 They must operate in conjunction with an external high-q
resonant circuit
 They have relatively high output power (>100 W pulsed) but are
very noisy and not very efficient

Sep 5, 2019 547


Microwave Transistors
 Silicon BJTs and GaAsFETs are most widely used
 BJT useful for amplification up to about 6 MHz
 MesFET (metal semiconductor FET) and HEMT (high electron
mobility transistor) are operable beyond 60 GHz
 FETs have higher input impedance, better efficiency and more
frequency stable than BJTs.

Sep 5, 2019 548


Electromagnetic
Wave Propagation
Propagation Mechanisms
Schematic

Sep 5, 2019 550


Propagation Mechanisms
 Ground waves (Surface waves)
 Up to 2 MHz
 Beyond horizon propagation
 Sky Waves
 3 MHz to 30 MHz
 Reflections from ionised regions
 Space Waves (Tropospheric Waves)
 VHF & above
 Mode of propagation similar to light
 LOS propagation - extendable

Sep 5, 2019 553


Ground Waves

Sep 5, 2019 554


Ground Waves
 EM waves propagate close to the earths surface
 Rx & Tx both close to ground surface
 Attenuation by earth  freq
 Vertical polarization preferred
 Diffraction phenomenon
 VLF rgs > 1000 km

Sep 5, 2019 555


Effects of Polarisation
 Normally, the plane of polarization of a radio wave is
the plane in which the E field propagates with respect to
the Earth.
 Vertically polarized waves cause a greater signal
strength along the Earth's surface. On the other hand,
antennas high above the ground should be horizontally
polarized to get the greatest possible signal strength to
the Earth's surface.

Sep 5, 2019 556


Effects of Earths Proximity
 Within the atmosphere, EM waves can be reflected, refracted,
and diffracted like light and heat waves.
 The amount of reflection depends on the reflecting material.
The surface of the Earth itself is a fairly good reflector. The
size of the area required for reflection to take place depends
on the wavelength of the radio wave and the angle at which
the wave strikes the reflecting substance.

Sep 5, 2019 557


Ground Waves
Disadvantages
Require relatively high transmission power
They are limited to very low, low and medium frequencies
which require large antennas
Losses on the ground vary considerably with surface material
Advantages
Given enough power they can be used to communicate
between any two points in the world
They are relatively unaffected by changing atmospheric
conditions

Sep 5, 2019 558


Atmospheric Structure
 Troposphere
 0 – 10 km ht
 Temp decreases with ht
 Weather phenomenon
 Stratosphere - Const temp, min effect on propagation
 Ionosphere
 50 km upwards
 Radiant energy – ions
 Stratified due to variation in physical properties

Sep 5, 2019 559


Atmospheric Regions

TROPOSPHERE
STRATOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE

Sep 5, 2019 560


Sky Waves: Atmosphere

Sep 5, 2019 561


Ionosphere
 Upper limits – atm rare- low ionization density
 Decreasing ht – atm pressure increases & ionization
density increase to a max
 Further down ionization density decreases, atm
pressure increases

Sep 5, 2019 562


Ionospheric Layers
 D Layer (Lowest layer, disappears at ni)
 70 km ht, 10 km thickness
 Reflects VLF & LF (Low density)
 Absorbs MF & HF (Deviative absorption)
 E Layer
 100 km ht, 25 km thick
 Reflects HF
 Es persists in ni, has 10 times the ionisation density of E layer

Sep 5, 2019 563


Deviative Absorption
Electron density in the D layer is relatively small, but because of collisions between the molecules of the atmosphere

and free electrons excited by the presence of an electromagnetic wave, pronounced energy loss occurs. This energy

loss, dissipated in the form of thermal energy of the electrons or thermal (electromagnetic) noise, is termed absorption.

Higher in the E and F regions, electron collisions with atmosphere molecules also affect the condition for reflection that

occurs wherever there is a marked bending of the wave.(As the wave nears its reflecting level), there is a slowing down

or retardation effect, which allows additional time for collisions to occur and thus for absorption to take place.

Sep 5, 2019 564


Ionospheric Layers (Contd)

 F1 Layer
 180 km ht in day, 20 km thickness
 Combines with F2 layer at ni
 Absorbs HF
 F2 Layer
 400 km ht, 200 km thick
 Falls to 300 km at ni
 Reflects HF
 Poor recombination
 Highly ionized
 Large molecular free path

Sep 5, 2019 565


Typical Electron Density Profile

Electron Density / CC

Sep 5, 2019 566


Reflection / Refraction
Mechanism of Ionosphere
 Low Freq
 High change in ion density within span of wavelength presents
abrupt discontinuity causes reflection
 Higher Freq
 Short wavelength sees slight changes in ion density leads to
refraction
 The refractive index of the ionosphere is given by
N – No of e-/cc
f – Frequency in kHz

81N
n  1-
f2

Sep 5, 2019 567


Refractive Index & Incidence
Angle
n1sinΦ1 = n2sinΦ2
sinΦ1 = n2sinΦ2, for n1 = 1
So at the point where Φ2=90o,
n2 = sinΦ1 is the condition for reflection
Smaller the angle of incidence, the smaller the refractive
index (Higher the e- density) reqd to return the wave to
earth
For vertical incidence, fv2 =81N

Sep 5, 2019 569


Sky Waves

Sep 5, 2019 570


Sky Wave Propagation in
Ionized Layers: Day
F2
HIGHER FREQUENCIES PROPAGATE BETTER:
F1 RULE = SUN UP, FREQS UP

Sep 5, 2019 571


Sky Wave Propagation in
Ionized Layers: Ni
F

LOWER FREQUENCIES PROPAGATE BETTER:


RULE = SUN DOWN, FREQS DOWN

Sep 5, 2019 572


Concept of Critical Frequency

Sep 5, 2019 573


Critical Frequency & Effects
 For a given layer of ionosphere, the highest frequency returned at
vertical incidence is called critical frequency of that layer
 EM waves transmitted at frequencies higher than the critical frequency
of a given layer will pass through the layer and be lost in space; but if these
same waves enter an upper layer with a higher critical frequency, they will
be refracted back to Earth.
 EM waves of frequencies lower than the critical frequency will also be
refracted back to Earth unless they are absorbed or have been refracted
from a lower layer. The lower the frequency of a radio wave, the more
rapidly the wave is refracted by a given degree of ionization.

Sep 5, 2019 574


Skip Distance

Sep 5, 2019 576


Skip Distance
The skip distance is the distance from the
transmitter to the point where the sky wave is first
returned to Earth. The size of the skip distance depends
on the frequency of the wave, the angle of incidence,
and the degree of ionization present.

Sep 5, 2019 577


Skip Zone

Sep 5, 2019 578


Concept of Critical Angle

Sep 5, 2019 579


Critical Angle
 The rate at which a wave of a given frequency is refracted by an ionized
layer depends on the angle at which the wave enters the layer.
 Critical angle is the max angle at which an EM wave (Of specific frequency)
can be transmitted, for it to be reflected back from ionosphere to the earth.
 Any wave that leaves the antenna at an angle greater than the critical angle
will penetrate the ionospheric layer for that frequency and then be lost in
space.
 Conversely, the frequency which makes a given receiving pt correspond to
the skip distance is called maximum usable frequency.

Sep 5, 2019 580


Critical Angle & Frequency

Sep 5, 2019 581


Space Waves

Sep 5, 2019 582


Attenuation by Atmosphere

15 28
Moisture
3.8
Attenuation dB/km

Oxygen
0.2

22.2 60 118 184

Frequency (GHz)

Sep 5, 2019 583


That’s all on the
Subject!