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Sep 05, 2019

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37 просмотров555 страницRF & Microwave engg fundamentals.

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 555

L-1 (1-4/215)

31 Jul 06

Microwave Engg

• Gen Structure

• Introduction to Microwaves

• Electromagnetic Waves

Book References

Electronic Communication Systems - G Kennedy & Davis (CE-22)

EM Waves & Radiating Systems - Jordan & Balmain (L-88)

Elements of Electromagnetics – MNO Sadiku (L-290)

Transmission Lines & Networks – Umesh Sinha (L-20)

Introduction to Microwave Theory – H A Atwater (R-47)

Fundamentals of Microwave Engg – RE Collins (R-53)

Fields & Waves in Comn Electronics – Ramo, Whinnery & Duzer (CE-3

Electronic & Radio Engineering - FE Terman (Ro-26)

Microwave Devices & Circuits - SY Liao (R-70)

Introduction to Microwaves - A H Wheeler

Sep 5, 2019 4

Guidelines

Ask questions as they get formed in your mind – do not

wait to clear queries!

Aim to clear concepts

Give continuous feedback

Observe decorum

Sep 5, 2019 5

Introduction to

Microwaves

EM Spectrum in Wavelengths

Sep 5, 2019 7

Electromagnetic Spectrum

•RADAR •Microwave

•Electro-Optic

•Communications

Sep 5, 2019 8

Communication Bands

(3kHz-30kHz) (30kHz-300kHz) (300kHz-3MHz) (3MHz-30MHz)

Sep 5, 2019 9

Comn Bands (Contd)

(30MHz-300MHz) (300MHz-3GHz) (3GHz-30GHz) (30GHz-300GHz)

Sep 5, 2019 10

Electromagnectic Spectrum

Short wave Radio

EXTREMELY AM Broadcast Television

LOW Cellular 84O M Hz

Audio

HIGH

LOW HIGH RED E VIOLET RAYS

High HIGH

LIGHT

Sep 5, 2019 11

CL

Classification of EM Waves

FREQUENCY λ PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS USES

RANGE (m)

VLF 3-30 KHz 100-10 km Low attenuation at all times. Characteristics highly Long distance point to point

reliable. communications.

LF 30-300 KHz 10-1 Km Propagation similar to VLF at night but slightly less Long distance point to point

reliable at day due to absorption. communication, marine, navigation and

broadcast.

MF 300-3000 KHz 1000-100 Attenuation low during night time but high in day time. Broadcast, marine, comn, navigation &

meters harbour tele.

HF 3-30 MHz 100-10 Sky wave propagation over considerably long distances Moderate and long range comn of all

meters that vary with time, season and freq of txn. types and broadcast.

VHF 30-300 MHz 10-1 Line of sight propagation similar to light and unaffected Short distance comn, TV & FM

meters by ionsopheric conditions. broadcast, radar, aeronautical and

navigation systems.

UHF 300-3000 MHz 1-0.1 Same as VHF Short distance comn, TV broadcast,

meter radar and micowave relay system.

Sep 5, 2019 12

Classification of EM Waves

CL FREQUENCY λ PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS USES

RANGE (m)

SHF 3-30 GHz 10-1 Same as VHF Radar, microwave relay and navigation

Cms systems.

Cms

Sep 5, 2019 13

Classification of

CLASS

Microwaves

FREQUENCY RANGE

L 1-2 GHz

S 2-4 GHz

C 4-8 GHz

X 8-12 GHz

Ku 12-18 GHz

K 18-27 GHz

Ka 27-40 GHz

V 40 -75 GHz

W 75 – 110 GHz

mm 110 – 300 GHz

Sep 5, 2019 14

Advantages of Microwaves

Increased Bandwidth

Antenna Directivity

Lesser Attenuation

Reliability in Comn

Smaller Components

Heating of Substances

Sep 5, 2019 15

Microwave Radiation Hazards

The fact that microwaves can be used for cooking

purposes and in heating applications suggests that

they have the potential for causing biological damage

An exposure limit of 1 mW/cm2 for a maximum of one

hour duration for frequencies from 10 MHz to 300

GHz is generally considered safe

Avoid being in the direct path of a microwave beam

coming out of an antenna or waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 16

Electromagnetic Waves

EM Wave Propagation

Sep 5, 2019 18

Recap of Electromagnetism

• A time varying E fd is accompanied by a

magnetic fd & vice versa

• At low frequencies the EM problems get

simplified to circuit problems

• Cct System Governing

Type Variables Equations

DC Constant Algebraic

AC Time dependent Diff eqns

EM Fn of time & space Vector A & C

Sep 5, 2019 19

Vector Calculus

Dot product

Cross product

Del Operator

xˆ yˆ zˆ

x y z

Grad of a scalar fd

Div of a vector fd

Curl of a vector fd

Sep 5, 2019 20

Definition: Gradient

Gradient of a scalar field is the vector that represents

both the magnitude and direction of the maximum space

rate of increase of the scalar

V V V

V xˆ yˆ zˆ

B x y z

C

dn

V+dV

dl

A

V

Sep 5, 2019 21

Sep 5, 2019 22

Definition: Divergence

Divergence of a vector field A at a point is the net

outward flux of A per unit volume as the volume around

the point shrinks to zero

. A

x y z

Sep 5, 2019 23

Definition: Curl

Curl of a vector field A is the rotational vector whose

magnitude is the maximum circulation of A per unit area

as the area tends to zero and whose direction is the

normal to the area when the area is oriented so as to

make the circulation maximum

â x â y â z

A

x y z

Ax Ay Az

Sep 5, 2019 24

Vector Identities

A . (BxC) = B . (CxA) = C . (AxB)

A x (B x C) = B (A . C) – C (A . B)

x ( x A) = (.A) – 2A

Sep 5, 2019 25

Vector Identities

A . (BxC) = B . (CxA) = C . (AxB)

A x (B x C) = B (A . C) – C (A . B)

x ( x A) = (.A) – 2A

Sep 5, 2019 26

Inter Se Relationships

Sep 5, 2019 27

Fundamental Quantities

Electric fd intensity (E) – V/m

Electric flux density (D) – C/m2

Magnetic fd intensity (H) – A/m

Magnetic flux density (B) – Wb/m2

Conduction current density (J) – A/m2

σ

ε

μ

Linear, homogeneous, isotropic media

Sep 5, 2019 28

Maxwells Equations

Gauss’s law of electrostatic fds

Total electric flux emanating from a closed surface is

equal to the net charge enclosed by the surface

Gauss’s law of magnetic fds

The total magnetic flux emanating from any closed

surface is zero

Sep 5, 2019 29

Maxwells Equations

Faraday’s law of electrical induction

The EMF induced in a sty closed cct is equal to the negative rate of change

of magnetic flux linking the circuit

The magnetic fd around a closed path is equal to the sum of currents through

any surface bounded by the path

Sep 5, 2019 30

Maxwells Equations

(2) Magnetic field lines are closed loops; there are no

magnetic monopoles.

(3) Currents and changing electric fields produce

magnetic fields.

(4) Changing magnetic fields produce electric fields.

Sep 5, 2019 31

Time Harmonic Fields

Euler’s identity

Phasors

Contain amplitude info but remain independent of

time

Generally complex quantities

Easier mathematical manipulation

Representation of fd vectors by phasors

Sep 5, 2019 32

Problem

If

π

P 2sin(10t x )ŷ,

4

& Qs e jx (x̂ ẑ)sinπ y,

Determine the phasor form of P and the

instantaneous form of Qs

Sep 5, 2019 33

Solution

3π

j(x )

Ps 2e 4

ŷ,

& Q cos(ω t x)(x̂ ẑ)sinπ y

Sep 5, 2019 34

Maxwells Equations in Time

Harmonic Form

.Ds s

.Bs 0

Es jBs

H s J s jDs

Sep 5, 2019 35

Classification of Media

σ ε μ

Free Space 0 εo μo

Lossless 0 or εo εr μo μr

Dielectric σ<<ωε

Lossy >0 εo εr μo μr

Dielectric

or infinity

Sep 5, 2019 36

L-4 (11-13/215)

05 Aug 06

Microwave Engg

Electromagnetic Waves

Wave Equations

TEM Waves

Characteristic Impedance

Wave Equation

Free Space (Helmholtz equations)

Charge free media

γ, α, β

Sep 5, 2019 38

Wave Equation Aspects

Const Phase Velocity

E≠H

Free space propagation

Calculation of E or H

No limits on Frequency

Sep 5, 2019 39

Plane Wave Propagation

Plane Wave

A wave for which the equiphase surface is a plane

It has a single dimensional spatial dependence

Uniform Plane Wave

A plane wave whose equi-phase surface is also an

equi-amplitude surface

Sep 5, 2019 40

Point source

Isotropic energy emission.

the source, the power

transmitted through that

closed surface is the power

emitted by the source.

Sep 5, 2019 41

Plane Wave in Free Space

x

Sep 5, 2019 42

Plane Wave in Free Space

x

Sep 5, 2019 43

Plane Wave in Free Space

Sep 5, 2019 44

Travelling Wave Motion

Sep 5, 2019 45

Travelling Wave Motion

Sep 5, 2019 46

Plane Wave Motion in Free Space

Sep 5, 2019 47

Plane Wave Propagation

Plane Wave

A wave for which the equiphase surface is a plane

It has a single dimensional spatial dependence

Uniform Plane Wave

A plane wave whose equi-phase surface is also an

equi-amplitude surface

Sep 5, 2019 48

Plane Wave Propagation

Characteristic Impedance

Free Space Value

Sep 5, 2019 49

Propagation of TEM Waves

Sep 5, 2019 50

Propagation of TEM Waves

z

y

Sep 5, 2019 51

Characteristic Impedance

jω

η η e j n

σ jωε

E o αz

H e cos(ωt βz θ n )p̂ A/m

η

σ

It can be shown that tan 2θ n

ωε

where 0 θ n 45

Sep 5, 2019 52

Electromagnetic Wave

Polarisation

E

Small area on a sphere

H Lines

Direction of

E Lines Propagation

Sep 5, 2019 53

Defining Polarisation

varying behaviour of the electric field strength vector at

some fixed point in space

A uniform plane wave travelling in the z direction will have

vectors E and H in the x-y plane

If Ey = 0 and Ex is present, then the wave is vertically

polarised (horizontal for Ey present and Ex =0)

If both Ey and Ex are present, the resultant electric field will

have a direction and magnitude dependent on the relative

magnitude and phase of Ey and Ex

Sep 5, 2019 54

Linear Polarisation

E ( z , t ) xˆEo cos( wt z )

Sep 5, 2019 55

Linear Polarisation

A linearly polarized E-vector at 45 degrees with respect to the x-

axis has its x- and y-linearly polarized components of the same

magnitude and phase.

Sep 5, 2019 56

Linear Polarisation

Sep 5, 2019 57

Linear Polarisation

Sep 5, 2019 58

Linear Polarisation

Sep 5, 2019 59

Linear Polarisation

Sep 5, 2019 60

Elliptical Polarisation

Sep 5, 2019 61

Elliptical Polarisation

Sep 5, 2019 62

Elliptical Polarisation

Sep 5, 2019 63

Circular Polarisation

phase difference

Sep 5, 2019 64

Circular Polarisation

phase difference

Sep 5, 2019 65

Circular Polarisation

If the two orthogonal linearly polarized components have the same

magnitude and are in phase quadrature, then the resultant time-

dependent E vector rotates in the x-y plane, and its tip follows a

perfect circle.

E ( z, t ) xˆEo cos(wt z ) yˆ Eo cos(wt z (2n 1) )

2

Sep 5, 2019 66

Electric Fd Circular Polarisation

RHCP LHCP

Sep 5, 2019 67

Loss Tangent

J σ

tanθ

Jd ωε

This is known as the loss tangent for a medium

For any conducting medium, Jd = jωεE

σ

H (σ jωε )E jωε [1 j ] E jω c E

ω

σ

or ε c ε [1 j ]

ωε θ

ie ε c ε ' j ' ' J = σE

'' σ

For any medium, tanθ tan2θ n

' ωε

Sep 5, 2019 68

Special Cases of Wave

Propagation

Characteristics of any EM wave are

α, β, v p , η

Lossless Dielectric

Free Space

Good Conductor

Sep 5, 2019 69

Wave Propagation: Lossless

Dielectric

( , o r , o r )

0

1 E & H are in

vp phase

Sep 5, 2019 70

Wave Propagation: Free Space

( 0, o , o )

0

o o

1 E & H are in

vp phase

o o

o

o

Sep 5, 2019 71

Wave Propagation: Good

Conductor

( , o r , o r )

2

2 E leads H by 45o

vp

j

45

Sep 5, 2019 72

Skin Depth

• Skin depth is a measure of the depth to

which an EM wave can penetrate the given

medium

• It is defined as the depth from the surface

of the medium at which the amplitude gets

reduced by a factor of e-1

1

δ

α

Sep 5, 2019 73

Poyntings Vector

H J D

E .( H ) E .J E .D

.( H E ) H .( E ) E .J E .E

( H E ) E ( H )-H ( E )

2 2

.( E H ) E .J H E

t 2 t 2

2 2

( E H ).ds H E dv ( E .J )dv

S t v 2 2 v

Power leaving Rate of decrease of Ohmic power

the vol through energy stored in Electric dissipated in the

the surface & Magnetic Fields volume

Sep 5, 2019 74

Poyntings Theorem

The net power flowing out of a given volume ‘v’ is

equal to the time rate of decrease in the energy

stored within ‘v’ less the conduction losses

P is the Poynting vector and it represents the

instantaneous power density vector (Time varying)

associated with the EM field at a given point

Special Case: σ=0

Poynting vector has the same direction as that of

propagation

Sep 5, 2019 75

Instantaneous Power Densities

P (z, t) E ( z , t ) H ( z , t )

Re[ E ( z )e jt ] Re[ H ( z )e jt ]

Eo αz

Eo e cos(t z ) xˆ e cos(t z n )] yˆ

αz

2

Eo 2αz

P (z, t) e [cos n cos(2t 2 z n )]zˆ W/m 2

2

Sep 5, 2019 76

Average Power Density

1 T 2

Eo 2z

Pav ( z ) P ( z , t )dt e cos n W/m 2

T0 2

1

Pav Re[Es H* ]

2 s

Total time average power crossing a surface is

Pav P .dS

s av

Sep 5, 2019 77

Boundary Conditions

Tangential components of E & H fields are continuous at

the interface between the two lossless dielectric media

i.e. Et1 = Et2 & Ht1 = Ht2

Sep 5, 2019 78

Boundary Conditions

c H d l

t s

D d s s

J d s

Sep 5, 2019 79

Magnetic Fd Boundary Conditions

From Ampere’s Law,

c H dl t s D ds s J ds

n̂

dl 1

Applying it to a material interface

ŝ

with surface area ‘S’, s 2

H1, 1,

H2, 2, 2

As the surface ‘S’, shrinks to zero,

t D ds 0

s

Sep 5, 2019 80

Now, apply this to a material interface:

n̂

dl 1

ŝ

s 2

H1, 1,

H2, 2, 2

D ds 0

If we allow the surface, S, to shrink to zero:

t s

Sep 5, 2019 81

This results because D is everywhere finite with S.

However,

J ds 0

s

because we can represent a current

localization in space.

0

J sK

0

interface

Sep 5, 2019 82

Then we have: n

Ht1 dl1

H1 dl H 2 dl J s dl

S

dl2 Ht 2

̂

As 0 we get

H1 H 2 ˆ J s Sˆ

ˆ Sˆ nˆ nˆ H H J

1 2 s

or

Ht1 Ht2 J s

Sep 5, 2019 83

So, we have the following scenarios:

2) Perfect Dielectric

Ht1 Ht 2 ( J 0)

For the electric field, we use Faraday’s law:

2

c E d l

2t s

B d s

Sep 5, 2019 84

E1

E2 as 0 B ds 0

E dl 0 , as 0

c

nˆ E1 E2 0 Et1 Et 2 0

1) PEC Et 0

2) Dielectric Et1 Et 2

PEC

Sep 5, 2019 85

D ds ev dv

For normal field components, we use

Gauss’s law:

ŝ

1

0

Ŝ 2

ŝ

In the limit 0 D1 ds D2 ds s ds

s s2

0

s

s1 s2 s

Sep 5, 2019 86

D

s

1 ds D2 ds

s

s ds

?n

ˆ ˆ

n

Noting that

ds nˆ ds we get:

ˆ D1 D2 s

n

or

Dn1 Dn2 s

1 En 2 En s

1 2

Sep 5, 2019 87

Similarly, for the magnetic field:

B ds 0

s

ms 0

Sep 5, 2019 88

Boundary Conditions: E Field

x

Ez1 Ez2

z/2 z/2 l t s

E1 =Ex1+Ez1

x Ex2

Ex1 -Ex2x - Ez3z/2 – Ez4z/2 + Ex1x + Ez1z/2

E1

Et

Ez4 E

z3 + Ez2z/2 = -(∂B/∂t) z x

z

En

As z 0,

μ1 μ2

σ1 Ex2 = Ex1 , for finite fields

σ2

1 2 Tangential component of E is

continuous!

Sep 5, 2019 89

Boundary Conditions: H Field

x

Hz1 Hz2

z/2 c H dl t s D ds s J ds

Hx1

z/2 Hx2 Magnetic Field Intensity

x

-Hx2x – Hz3z/2 – Hz4z/2 + Hx1x + Hz1z/2

H1 Hz4 H

z3 + Hz2z/2 = (∂D/∂t +J) z x

z

μ1 As z 0,

μ2

σ1 Hx2 = Hx1 , for finite fields

σ2

1 2 Tangential component of H is

continuous for finite fields!

Sep 5, 2019 90

Boundary Conditions: H Field

y

(Perfect Conductor)

Hz1 Hz2

z/2

Magnetic Field Intensity c

H dl D ds J ds

t s s

Hx1

z/2 Hx2 -Hx2x – Hz3z/2 – Hz4z/2 + Hx1x + Hz1z/2

x

+ Hz2z/2 = (∂D/∂t +J) z x

Hz4 H

z3

z As z 0,

μ1 0 + Js= Hx1 , for infinite current density Jsz

μ2

σ1 σ2 H x n = Js

1 2

Tangential component of H is

discontinuous across an interface where

Sep 5, 2019 a free surface current exists ! 91

Boundary Conditions

Tangential components of E & H fields are continuous at

the interface between the two media

i.e. Et1 = Et2 & Ht1 = Ht2 (Assuming finite current

densities)

Sep 5, 2019 92

Boundary Conditions

Tangential components of E & H fields are continuous at

the interface between the two media

i.e. Et1 = Et2 & Ht1 = Ht2

Sep 5, 2019 93

Reflection at Normal Incidence

x

Ei Et

Hi yt

H

z

Er

Hr

Sep 5, 2019 94

Value of Reflection Coefficient

At the boundary interface, z=0,

Ei Er E t

1 Et

H i (0) H r (0) H t (0) (E i E r )

η1 η2

Sep 5, 2019 95

Normal Incidence Relations

Sep 5, 2019 96

Normal Incidence: Special Cases

Sep 5, 2019 97

Spl Case: Reflection at Normal

Incidence on Perfect Conductor

σ 1 0; σ 2 ; η 2 0, Γ 1, τ 0

E1 (z) E i (z) E r (z) (E i e -γ 1z E r e γ 1z ) xˆ

[2jE i sinβ 1z]x̂;

jt π

E1 (z, t) Re[E1 ( z ).e ] [2E i sinβ 1z.cos(ω t )]x̂

Et

Ei 2

2 Ei [ sin(β 1 z ).sin(ωt ) ]xˆ

Ei Ht

H1 (z) [2 cosβ 1z]ŷ Hi

η1 Er y

Ei

H1(z,t) [ 2 cos(β 1 z ). cos(ωt ) ]yˆ

η1 Hr

Sep 5, 2019 98

Phase States as Signal Moves

Along Z Axis (Time Frozen)

x3

Etc.

x1 x2

Amplitude

1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x7

Distance Along Z Axis

Sep 5, 2019 99

Standing Waves: E Field

Rotation of

Phasor for

increasing

time

t = 3/2 Envelope

Generated in

t = 0 Time

t = /2

Standing Waves

Travelling Wave

Standing Wave

Spl Case (Reflection at Normal

Incidence)

1 0; 2 ; 2 0, 1, 0

E1 ( z ) [2 jEi sin 1 z ]xˆ;

E1 ( z , t ) [2 Ei sin 1 z. cos(t )]xˆ 2 Ei [sin 1 z. sin t ]xˆ

2

Ei

H1 ( z ) [2 cos 1 z ] yˆ

1

Ei

H1 ( z , t ) [2 cos 1 z. cos t ] yˆ

1

Standing Wave: Maxima & Minima

Zeros of E1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z n ,

Maxima of H1 (z, t) or z -n

2

Zeros of H1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z (2n 1) ,

2

Maxima of E1 (z, t) or z -(2n 1)

4

Standing Waves: E Field

x

1=0 2

t = /2

t = /2 2Ei

t = 0

z

-3/2 - -/2

t = 3/2 -2Ei

t = 3/2

Standing Waves: H Field

1=0 2

t = 0

t = /2

-5/4 -/4

-3/4

t =

Standing Wave: Maxima & Minima

Case I : For 2 1 , 0, 0

Minima of E1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z n ,

Maxima of H1 (z, t) or z -n

2

Minima of H1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z (2n 1) ,

2

Maxima of E1 (z, t) or z -(2n 1)

4

Standing Wave: Maxima & Minima

Minima of H1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z n ,

Maxima of E1 (z, t) or z -n

2

Minima of E1 ( z , t ) Occur at 1 z (2n 1) ,

2

Maxima of H1 (z, t) or z -(2n 1)

4

Standing Wave Ratio

Ratio of |E1|max to |E2|max or |H1|max to |H2|max is called the standing

wave ratio

E Ei Er

max

E Ei Er

min

E Ei Er 1

s max

E Ei Er 1

min

Multiple Reflections: Normal

Incidence

1 2 3

1

3

Incident 2

Energy

in

Sep 5, 2019 113

Wave Impedance

The wave impedance w is defined as the z dependent

ratio of the total electric field to the magnetic field

In region 2, w(z) = Ex (z)/Hy (z) 3

1 2

E2 e j 2 z xˆ E2 e j 2 z xˆ 1

w ( z ) j 2 z

H2 e yˆ H 2 e j 2 z yˆ

3

2

e j 2 z 2 e j 2 z

2 j 2 z j 2 z

e 2 e

3 j2 tan 2 z

w ( z ) 2

2 j3 tan 2 z -l 0 z

Sep 5, 2019 114

Input Impedance of Two Interface

Combination

e j 2 z 2 e j 2 z

w ( z ) 2 j 2 z j 2 z

e 2 e

3 j2 tan 2 z

2

2 j3 tan 2 z 1 2 3

1

For the interface between region 1 & 2,

3

3 j2 tan 2l 2

in w (l ) 2

2 j 3 tan l

2

in 1 in

o

in 1

-l 0 z

Sep 5, 2019 115

Multiple Reflections: Txn Line

Analogy

[ Z l jZ o tan l ]

Z in Z o

[ Z o jZ l tan l ]

in 2

[2 j3 tan l ]

1 2 3

in

Sep 5, 2019 116

Total Transmission

[3 j2 tan l ]

Occurs at =0 or when 1= inin 2

[2 j3 tan l ]

Half Wave Matching For

1 = 3 , l

Total transmission occurs for l =

(n2)/2

Quarter Wave Impedance

Transformer For 1 3,

Total transmission occurs for

2 = [1.3]½ and l = [(2n+1)2]/4

1 2 3

in

Sep 5, 2019 -l 0 117z

Propagation Vector

Propagation factor e -j.r x

Wave Number

r = zcos +xsin (x, y)

Direction of propagation is x r

=tan-1 x/ z

=xx+yy+zz z

z

x y z

Gen Wave Equations at Oblique

Incidence

Ei =Eio cos (ωit - ix x- iy y - izz )

Er =Ero cos (ωrt - rx x- ry y - rzz )

Et =Eto cos (ωtt - tx x- ty y - tzz )

Gen Cases:-

Perpendicular Polarization

Parallel Polarization

Uniform Plane Wave Incident

Obliquely

x

r

t

z

i

Uniform Plane Wave Incident

Obliquely

O’

r t

r = i

A’

Snell’s Law of 90o - i

Reflection

B

OB/vp2 =O’A/vp1

(sint)/(sini) = vp2/vp1

t z

O Snell’s Law of Refraction

i i

n1sin i =n2sin t

Sep 5, 2019 121

Perpendicular Polarisation

r

E xi E xr E xt & H xi H xr H xt Hr x

Ei Er Et & - H i cos i H r cos i H t cos t Er Et

Ei E E

cos i r cos i t cos t t

1 1 2 r t Ht

Er 2 cos i 1 cos t i z

Ei 2 cos i 1 cos t

22 cos i Ei Hi

2 cos i 1 cos t i

Parallel Polarisation

Er Hr x Ht

E xi E xr E xt & H xi H xr H xt r

Et

Hi Hr Ht & Ei cos i Er cos i Et cos t t

Ei E E r t

cos i r cos i t cos t

1 1 2 i z

Er 2 cos t 1 cos i

||

Ei 2 cos t 1 cos i Hi Ei

22 cos i i

||

2 cos t 1 cos i

Brewster Angle

on oblique incidence of the plane waves is known as

Brewsters angle B 2 cos i 1 cos t

Polarising angle

2

Perpendicular Polarisation

2 ( )

1

1

sin B

2

2

2 1

2 2

[( 2

1 ) 1 2 ]

sin 2 B 2

12 22

Sep 5, 2019 124

Transmission Lines

Basic Transmission Line

Terminology

Types of Transmission Lines

Sep 5, 2019 127

Coaxial Line

Waveguides

Transmission Line Lengths

Any conductor behaves as a Transmission line if the travel time of the

electrical signal is significant (Electrically Long)

> 1/10th the time period of a sinewave signal

> the transition time of a voltage pulse or a spike

Any pair of conductors can behave as a transmission line if their dimensions

are constant for the length of the line

Example

What is the wavelength of a 30 kHz signal?

10,000 m

What is the wavelength of a 30 GHz signal?

1 mm

So, a 3 m line is electrically very short for 30 kHz frequency but

electrically very long for 30 GHz frequency

Types of Losses

Radiation & Induction Losses

Dielectric Losses

Copper Losses

I2R Losses

In rf lines the resistance of the conductors is never equal to

zero

Whenever current flows through one of these conductors,

some energy is dissipated in the form of heat

Skin Effect

Skin Effect

When dc flows through a conductor, the movement of

electrons through the conductor's cross section is uniform

Self induction, retards the movement of ac current

The flux density at the center is so great that electron

movement at this point is reduced (As frequency is

increased, the opposition to the flow of current in the

center of the wire increases)

Current in the center of the wire becomes smaller and

most of the electron flow is on the wire surface

When the frequency applied is 100 MHz or higher, the

electron movement in the center is so small that the center

of the wire could be removed without any noticeable effect

on current

This phenonmenon is called skin effect

Sep 5, 2019 133

Fields Between Transmission Lines

Distributed Parameters

Lumped values may be used for transmission line

calculations if the physical length of the line is very short

compared to the wavelength of energy being transmitted

A transmission line is a distributed parameter network

(Unlike the case for circuit elements) and must be

represented by circuit parameters that are distributed

throughout its length

Characteristics of a Transmission

Line

Any transmission line has

Series Resistance

Series Inductance

Shunt Capacitance

Shunt Conductance

resistance depends on the length of the line, the size

of the conducting wires, the spacing between the

wires, and the dielectric (Air or insulating medium)

between the wires

Primary Constants of a

Transmission Line

Characteristics of a line is determined by its primary

electrical constants or distributed parameters:

R (/m)

L (H/m)

C (F/m)

G (S/m)

Distributed Resistances

Distributed Inductances

Distributed Capacitances

Leakage in a Transmission Line

Equivalent Circuit of a Two Wire

Transmission Line

Characteristic Impedance

Every transmission line possesses a certain Characteristic Impedance,

usually designated as Zo

Zo is the ratio of V to I at every point along the line

The characteristic impedance determines the amount of current that can

flow when a given voltage is applied to an infinitely long line (Input

impedance of an infinite line is the characteristic impedance of that line)

Characteristic impedance is comparable to the resistance that determines

the amount of current that flows in a dc circuit.

If a load equal to the characteristic impedance is placed at the output end of

any length of line, the same impedance will appear at the input terminals of

the line (The characteristic impedance is the only value of impedance for

any given type and size of line that acts in this way)

Infinite Length Txn Line

Is

Vs

Zo=Vs/Is

Also, x=0 x

I ce x de x

At x 0, I I s , As x , I 0 Zo

I s c d & I cx dx0 c 0

So, I s d

I I s e x

Similarly , V Vse x

Finite Length Txn Line Terminated

with Characteristic Impedance

VL Is

Zo IL

IL

VL

V Vs cosh x I s .Z o sinh x Vs Zo

Vs

& I I s cosh x sinh x x=0

Zo

Vs cosh x I s .Z o sinh x

Zo Zin

V

I s cosh x s sinh x

Zo

Vs

Zo Z in

Is

Hence, the input impedance of a finite line terminated in its

characteristic impedance Zo is the characteristic impedance of the

line

Sep 5, 2019 145

Expression for Characteristic

Impedance

For an infinitely long line, we know that,

dV

I( R jL )

dx

I I se x & V Vse x

d( Vse x )

I se x ( R jL )

dx

Vse x ( R jL )I se x

Vs ( R jL )

Zo

Is ( R jL )(G jC)

( R jL )

Zo

(G jC)

Propagation Constant

( R jL )(G jC)

Governs the manner in which V & I vary with

length of txn line

Current at any point l from origin is

Il=Ise-γl => e-γl =Il/Is => eγl = Is/Il

Attenuation & Phase constants

Total Attenuation, αl

Electrical length, βl

Sep 5, 2019 147

Secondary Constants of Txn Lines

• Characteristic Impedance

( R jL )

Zo

(G jC)

• Propagation Constant

( R jL )(G jC)

Txn Line Equations

I P R L Q I+ V ae x be x e x cosh x sinh x

I ce x de x e x cosh x sinh x

dI

V A cosh x B sinh x

V C G V+ & I C cosh x D sinh x

dV dV

I( R jL ) ( A sinh x B cosh x )

x=l dx

dx

1

V - (V dV) I(R jL)dx - (I) I ( A sinh x B cosh x )

Zo

d 2 V dI Determining constants

2 (R jL) - (II)

dx dx V A cosh x B sinh x

Similarly, I - (I dI) V(G jC)dx - (III) At source, x 0 V Vs A

d 2 I dV B

2 (G jC) - (IV) & I Is B I s .Z o

dx dx Zo

d 2I d2V V Vs cosh x I s .Z o sinh x

2 I - (V) &

2

2

V 2 - (VI)

dx dx Vs

& I I s cosh x sinh x

For , (R jL)(G jC) Zo

Transmission Line Equivalent

Circuit

R L R L L L

Zo Zo

C G C G C C

R j L L

Zo Zo

G j C C

Formulas for Common Cables

2D 120 2 D

D L ln ; C ; Zo ln

d ln

2D r d

d

d

= or; = or; o = 4x10-7 H/m; o = 8.854 pF/m

D

D 2 60 D

L ln ; C ; Zo ln

2 d ln

D r d

d

d

Sep 5, 2019 151

Wavelength

A wavelength is defined as the distance travelled by the EM

wave along a line to have a total phase shift of 2π radians

βλ =2 π

For transmission lines having dielectric constant Єr,

λm=λ/(Єr)1/2

Wavelength Measurement

Amplitude

Time

2π 3π

π

Velocity of Propagation

It is the velocity with which a signal of a single frequency

propagates along a line

vp=f λ

For dielectric media having dielectric constant Єr,

vp=f λ/(Єr)1/2

Transmission-Line Wave Propagation

line because of the dielectric separating the conductors.

The velocity of propagation is given by:

1 1 c

v m/s

LC r

c r

Transmission-Line Input

Impedance

• The input impedance is the impedance at

which the source must operate when

connected

• Zin =Vs/Is

• The input impedance of a lossy transmission

line at a distance l from the load is:-

Z L Z o tanh( l )

Z in Z o

Z o Z L tanh( l )

Transmission-Line Input

Impedance: Lossless Line

• The input impedance for a lossless txn line at a distance

l from the load is:-

Z L jZ o tan( l )

Z in Z o

Z o jZ L tan( l )

Transmission-Line Input

Impedance: SC

• For 0 < βl < /4, shorted line is inductive

• For βl = /4, shorted line = a parallel resonant circuit

• For /4 < βl </2, shorted line is capacitive

Transmission-Line Input

Impedance: OC

• For 0 < βl < /4, open circuited line is capacitive

• For βl = /4, open-line is eqvlt to a series resonant

circuit.

• For /4 < βl < /2, open-line is inductive

Transmission-Line Input Impedance:

Quarter Wave Transformer

For l= /4 , Zin = [Zo2/Zl ]

=> Zo=[Zin.Zl]1/2

A /4 line with characteristic impedance, Zo’, can be used as a

matching transformer between a resistive load, ZL, and a line with

characteristic impedance, Zo, by choosing:-

'

Zo ZoZ L

Transmission Line Summary

or is equivalent to:

βl < /4 βl > /4

or is equivalent to:

βl > /4 βl < /4

/4

= Zo ZL

βl = /4 Zo’

/4-section Matching

=

Transformer

Standing Waves

Incident & Reflected Waves

For an infinitely long line or a line terminated with a

matched load, no incident power is reflected. The line is

called a flat or nonresonant line.

For a finite line with no matching termination, part or all

of the incident voltage and current will be reflected.

AC Voltage Applied to a Line

AC Voltage Applied to an

Equivalent Transmission Line

AC Voltage Changes Along the

Transmission Line

All instantaneous voltages of the sine wave produced

by the generator travel down the line in the order they

are produced

At any point, a sine wave can be obtained if all the

instantaneous voltages passing the point are plotted

The instantaneous voltages are the same in all cases

except that a phase difference exists at different points

along the line

All parts of a sine wave pass every point along the line

Since the line is terminated with a resistance equal to

Zo, the energy arriving at the end of the line is

absorbed by the resistance

Phase Relationship Between Incident &

Reflected Voltage: 36o from OC

Phase Relationship Between Incident &

Reflected Voltage: 90o from OC

Phase Relationship Between Incident &

Reflected Voltage: 180o from OC

Phase Relationship Between Incident &

Reflected Voltage: 180o from OC

Phase Relationship Between Incident &

Reflected Voltage: 270o from OC

Peak Voltage of Standing Wave for

OC Termination

Conventional Picture of a Standing

Wave

Phase Relationship Between

Incident & Reflected Voltage: SC

Peak Voltage of Standing Wave for

SC Termination

Standing Wave for SC Termination

Peak Voltage of Standing Wave for

Non Zo Termination

Standing Waves

Voltage

Vmax = Vi + Vr

Vmin = Vi - Vr

With a mismatched line, the incident and reflected

waves set up an interference pattern on the line

known as a standing wave. Vmax 1

The standing wave ratio is : SWR V 1

min

Standing Wave Ratio

Emax

SWR s

Emin

VL Vi Vr Vi Vr

ZL

I L Ii I r Vi Vr

Zo Zo

Vr

(1 )

Vi [1 ]

Zo Zo

Vr [1 ]

(1 )

Vi

Z L Zo

Z L Zo

Here | |

Sep 5, 2019 182

Reflection Coefficient

Er Ir

or

Ei Ii

Z L Zo

&

Z L Zo

and when ZL = open circuit, = 1.

Other Formulas

SWR or

(whichever gives an SWR > 1) Zo RL

= ||2, or -20 log || dB

So, Pr = ||2Pi

Mismatched Loss, ML = Fraction of power

transmitted/absorbed = 1 - ||2 or -10 log(1-||2) dB

So, Pt = Pi (1 - ||2) = Pi - Pr

Types of Transmission Lines

Differential or balanced lines (where neither conductor is

grounded): e.g. twin lead, twisted-cable pair, and shielded-cable

pair.

Single-ended or unbalanced lines (where one conductor is

grounded): e.g. concentric or coaxial cable.

Transmission lines for microwave use: e.g. striplines,

microstrips, and waveguides.

Intro to Smith Chart

at the Bell Telephone Laboratories.

A microwave engineer can develop intuition about

transmission line and impedance-matching problems by

learning to think in terms of the Smith Chart.

The Smith Chart is essentially a plot of the voltage

reflection coefficient, Γ , in the complex plane.

It can be used to convert voltage reflection

coefficients (Γ ) to normalized impedances (z=Z/Zo )

and admittances (y=Y/Yo ), and vice versa.

Complex Γ Plane With Z Circles

The rL Circles

axis, and pass through the point Γ =1

The xL Circles

and pass through the point Γ =1

Sep 5, 2019 199

The xL Circles

and pass through the point Γ =1

Sep 5, 2019 200

The Two Circles Comprising Smith

Chart

The rL & xL Circles

Smith Chart

Features of the Smith Chart

The resistance and reactance circles are orthogonal.

distance l away from the load.

One full rotation (360) around the center of the Smith chart corresponds to a

phase shift of 0.5λ . A 180o rotation corresponds to a λ /4 transformation; this

facilitates the impedance circles to be used as admittance circles.

Z Smith Chart

The ZY Smith Chart

Application of Smith Chart

Calculate the reflection coefficient from the Smith Chart for:-

ZL Zo

a) 137.5 + j87.5 Ω 50 Ω

b) 100 + j50 Ω 50 Ω

c) 75 - j150 Ω 50 Ω

d) 275 + j175 Ω 100 Ω

e) 150 - j80 Ω 800 Ω

Lossless Matching Network

Reasons for Impedance

Transformation

Maximum power is delivered when the load and generator are

matched to the line.

Proper input impedance transformation of sensitive receiver

components (Antenna, LNA,

etc) improves the S/N ratio of the system.

Impedance matching in a power distribution network (Such as

antenna array feed network) will reduce amplitude and phase errors.

Problems of Matching with Lumped

Elements

Lumped element impedance matching is not

always possible or easily realisable.

Solution:

A section of open-circuited or short-circuited

transmission line (A “stub”) connected in parallel

or in series with the feed line at a distance from the load

can be used.

The tuning parameters are the distance from the load

(d) and the length of the stub (l).

Shunt Stub Matching

Shunt Stub Matching Procedure

• Enter pt representing normalised load admittance yL

• Draw SWR circle to intersect g=1 circle at two points

• Possible solutions are yB1 = 1 + jbB1 & yB2 = 1+jbB2

between points representing yL & points representing yB1 & yB2

• Determine stub lengths lB1 & lB2 from angles between the

short cct point to the points representing -jbB1 and –jbB2

Effects of Frequency Variation

If stub matching was carried out at frequency f’’ and the new

frequency is f’, calculate:-

Load impedance ZL’ for new frequency [ZL’ =R - jXL.(f’/f”)] and

zL& find yL’

Distance to the stub & length of stub at new frequency [d 1’ =

d1(f’/f”)] determine the yline at this pt; & [l1’ = l1(f’/f”)] &

susceptance of the short cct line to find ystub

yt = yline + ystub; Plot yt on the chart & determine its SWR

Effects of Frequency Variation

If stub matching was carried out at frequency f’’ and the new frequency is f’,

calculate:-

Load impedance ZL’ for new frequency [ZL’ =R + jXL.(f”/f’)] and zL& find yL’

Distance to the stub & length of stub at new frequency [d1’ = d1(f”/f’)]

determine the yline at this pt; & [l1’ = l1(f”/f’)] & susceptance of the short cct

line to find ystub

yt = yline + ystub; Plot yt on the chart & determine its SWR

Electromagnetic Wave

Tx

Tx Z

H

Waveguide Cross-section

Vertically Polarised Antenna

E: Electrical Component

H: Magnetic Component

Z: Direction of Propagation

Waveguides

Types of Waveguides

Types of Waveguides

transmission line. However, the method by which it

transmits energy down its length differs from the

conventional methods.

Sep 5, 2019 219

Waveguides Components

Waveguides

Reasons for using waveguide rather than coaxial cable at

microwave frequency:

easier to fabricate

no solid dielectric and I2R losses

Waveguides do not support TEM waves inside because of

boundary conditions.

Waves travel zig-zag down the waveguide by bouncing from

one side wall to the other.

Intro to Modes in Waveguides

Gen plane waves (TEM mode) are considered for txn lines (Rt hand

screw rule applies)

Intro to Modes in Waveguides

Conducting walls of a waveguide confine the EM fds

Wall to wall reflection occurs

Input wave ceases to be a TEM wave

E fd in a Capacitor

E Fd in a 2 Wire Txn Line

E Fd on a 2 Wire Txn Line With

Half Wave Frames

Magnetic Fd on a Single Conductor

Magnetic Fd on a Coil

Advantages of Waveguides

No Radiation Loss

Efficient Energy Transmission

Reduced Copper Losses

Less Dielectric Losses

Higher Power Handling Capability

High Pass Filters

Higher Operating Frequencies

Propagation of Different Modes is Possible

Simple Manufacturing

Limitations of Waveguides

Low Frequency limitations

Complicated Plumbing

Expensive Construction

Boundary Conditions for EM Wave

Propagation Inside Waveguides

E fields must terminate normally on the conductor

H fields must be entirely tangential along the wall surface

(Since magnetic fields can never end)

E fd lines may form continuous closed paths surrounding a

changing magnetic field

H fds must always form continuous closed paths surrounding

either a conduction current or a changing electric field

(Displacement Current)

E FD BOUNDARY

CONDITIONS

H FD BOUNDARY

CONDITIONS

Wavefronts in Space

Plane Waves at Conducting

Surface

Trough

Trough

Trough

Peak Peak Peak

Peak

Trough

λp vg

θ

θ

λ vn vc

vn = vccosθ

λn vg = vcsinθ

λp= λ/(sinθ)

λn= λ/(cosθ)

θ

┐

Sep 5, 2019 235

Plane Waves at Conducting Surface

:θ= 90o

Trough

Trough

Trough

Peak Peak Peak

Peak

Trough

λ = λp vg

θ= 90o

θ

vn vc

vn = vccosθ

vg = vcsinθ

λp= λ/(sinθ)

λn= λ/(cosθ)

λn θ

┐

Sep 5, 2019 236

Plane Waves at Conducting Surface

:θ= 0o

Trough

Trough

Trough

Peak Peak Peak

Peak

Trough

vg

θ

vn vc

θ = 0o vn = vccosθ

λn = λ = λp vg = vcsinθ

λp= λ/(sinθ)

λn= λ/(cosθ)

θ

┐

Sep 5, 2019 237

Types of Velocities

An EM wave has two velocities:

Velocity of propagation (vg)

Velocity of change in phase (vp)

λ – Distance between two peaks

f - No of peaks /s

For a frequency f, the velocity with which the wave changes

phase in a direction || to the conducting surface is-

vp=f λp =f λ/(sinθ)

vg.vp=vc. (sinθ).vc/(sinθ) = vc2

Radiation From Probe in a

Waveguide

WAVE FRONT REFLECTIONS

Wavefronts in a Waveguide

Combined Wavefronts

Plane Waves at Conducting

Surface

3λn/2

4λn/2

2λn/2

λn/2

Parallel Plane Waveguide

4λn/2

3λn/2

2λn/2

λn/2

Labelling Waveguide

Dimensions

Cut Off Wavelength

To avoid disturbing the existing wave pattern it is essential that

the two side walls be placed at a location that is a multiple of

half wavelength from each other

Since the wavelength normal to the walls is λn, the distance

between the two sidewalls is mathematically given by :-

a = (m λn)/2 = m(λ/cosθ)/2 =mλ/(2cos θ)

cos θ = mλ/2a = λ/ λo (Where λo is the cut off

wavelength for the distance between two sidewalls)

Guide Wavelength

λp= λ/(sinθ) = λ/(1-cos2θ)½

= λ/[1-(mλ/2a)2]½

= λ

[1- (λ/ λo)2]½

Cut Off Wavelength

for a fixed ‘a’ dimension, at λ =2a/m, λp →∞

This is the cut off wavelength λo

∴ λo=2a/m

The largest cut off wavelength is achieved for m = 1 where

λo=2a

This is how the waveguide acts as a high pass filter

E Fd in a Rect Waveguide

Modes of Operation

TE mode

TM mode

Each mode of operation is further divided into submodes

as :-

TEm,n

TMm,n

m – No of half wavelengths across the waveguide width

‘a’ dimension

n - No of half wavelengths across the waveguide height

‘b’ dimension

TE and TM Modes

TEmn mode has the E-field entirely transverse, i.e. perpendicular,

to the direction of propagation

TMmn mode has the H-field entirely transverse to the direction of

propagation

All TEmn and TMmn modes are theoretically permissible except, in

a rectangular waveguide, TMmo or TMon modes are not possible

since the magnetic field must form a closed loop

Usually, only the dominant mode, (TE10 for rectangular

waveguides) is used

TEm,0 Modes

TEm,0 modes do not use the ‘b’ dimension wall of the

waveguide for any purpose other than reflection

All equations of parallel plate waveguide are applicable

Dominant Mode

It is the method of propagation that yields the longest

cutoff wavelength of the guide

E-Field Pattern of TE1 0 Mode

a g/2

End View Side View

TEmn means there are m number of half-wave variations

of the transverse E-field along the “a” side and n number

of half-wave variations along the “b” side.

The magnetic field (not shown) forms closed loops

horizontally around the E-field

H FD in a Rect Waveguide

H Fd in a Rect Waveguide

Fd Distr in Waveguides

Modes in Waveguides

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Wavelength for TE & TM

Modes

2

Cutoff wavelength: λ o

m/a 2 n/b 2

Any signal with > c will not propagate down

the waveguide

For air-filled waveguide, cutoff freq, fc = vc/o

TE10 is called the dominant mode since o = 2a

λ λ

Guide wavelength: λ p or

1 λ /λ o

2

1 f c /f 2

Other Formulas for TE & TM

Modes

λ

or v c 1 λ/λ 2

Group velocity: v g v c o

λg

λ p vc

Phase velocity: v p v c or

λ 1 λ/λ 2

o

Zo

Wave impedance: ZTE

1 λ/λ o

2

ZTM Z o 1 λ/λ o

2

waveguide

Sep 5, 2019 265

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

Cylindrical Waveguides

TE and TM Modes in Cylindrical

Waveguides

TEmn mode has the E-field entirely transverse, i.e. perpendicular, to the

direction of propagation.

TMmn mode has the H-field entirely transverse to the direction of

propagation.

m – No of full wave intensity variations around the circumference

n – No of half wave intensity changes radially out from the center to the

circumference

TMmo or TMon modes are possible since the magnetic field must form a

closed loop.

The dominant mode, TE11 is used most often

Circular/Cylindrical Waveguides

c = 2r/Bmn where r = waveguide radius, and Bmn is obtained

from table of Bessel functions.

All TEmn and TMmn modes are supported since m and n

subscripts are defined differently.

Dominant mode is TE11.

Advantages: higher power-handling capacity, lower attenuation for a

given cutoff wavelength.

Disadvantages: larger and heavier.

EM Field in TE20 Mode

Fd Patterns for TE10

Fd Patterns for TM11

Waveguide Plumbing

Intro to Waveguide Components

Waveguides

E & H Plane Tees

Magic Tee

Directional Couplers

Attenuators

Waveguide Terminators

Dummy Load

Cavity Resonators

Waveguide Excitation

Methods Used for Excitation and

Coupling

Three methods

Probes

Loops

Slots

Depth of insertion of probe/loop, shape and size of the slot & its

orientation decides the power it couples and the impedance it

encounters

Extrication of energy from a waveguide is simply a reversal of the

injection process using the same type of probe/loop/slot coupling

Methods Used for Excitation:

Probes

When a small probe is inserted into a waveguide and supplied with microwave

energy, it acts as a quarter-wave antenna and sets up an E field

The E lines detach themselves from the probe & flow in the waveguide

When the probe is located at the point of highest efficiency, the E lines set up an

E field of considerable intensity.

The most efficient place to locate the probe is in the center of the "a" wall,

parallel to the "b" wall, and one quarter-wavelength from the shorted end of the

waveguide (This is the point at which the E field is maximum in the dominant

mode & therefore, energy transfer /coupling is maximum at this point)

Probe Coupling in a Rectangular

Waveguide

Methods Used for Excitation: Loops

Energy insertion into a waveguide can also be accomplished by inserting a

small loop which carries a high current into the waveguide

A magnetic field builds up around the loop and expands to fit the waveguide

If the frequency of the current in the loop is within the bandwidth of the

waveguide, energy will be transferred to the waveguide.

For the most efficient coupling to the waveguide, the loop is inserted at one

of several points where the magnetic field will be of greatest strength.

Positions for Loop Coupling in a

Rectangular Waveguide

Methods Used for Excitation: Slots

Slots or apertures are sometimes used when very loose (Inefficient)

coupling is desired

In this method energy enters through a small slot in the waveguide and the

E field expands into the waveguide. The E lines expand first across the slot

and then across the interior of the waveguide.

Minimum reflections occur when energy is injected or removed if the size of

the slot is properly proportioned to the frequency of the energy.

Slot Coupling in a Waveguide

Coupling Fds to Excite Modes

Waveguide Excitation

Waveguide Joints &

Bends

Waveguide Joints

Flanges

Choke Joint

Rotary Joint

Waveguide connectors

Choke Joint

Choke Joint

Rotary Joints

Rotary Joints

Waveguide Bends

Ridged Waveguides

Flexible Waveguides

Waveguide Bends

Waveguide Bends & Corners

Sep 5, 2019 297

Waveguide Junctions

Passive Components

Bends

Called E-plane or H-Plane bends depending on the

direction of bending

Tees

Also have E and H-plane varieties

Hybrid or magic tee combines both and can be used

for isolation

Waveguide Bends

Tee Junctions

Wave guide T-Junctions

2

3 3

1 2

1

E-Plane Junction H-Plane Junction

3 but the outputs will be anti-phase for E-plane T and in-phase

for H-plane T. Input power at ports 1 & 3 will combine and

exit from port 1 provided the correct phasing is used.

Sep 5, 2019 302

E Plane Tee

H Plane Tee

Electrical Equivalents

H Plane Tee- Current Junction

Magic Tee

Hybrid Tee

The Hybrid Tee

Folded Magic Tee

Magic Tee With Input to E Plane

Arm

Magic Tee With Input to H Plane

Arm

Magic Tee With Input to Collinear

Arm

Hybrid-T Junction (Contd)

the combined power exits from port 4. If the input is out-of-phase, the output

is at port 3.

Applications:

Isolator/Duplexer (Tx and a Rx sharing a common antenna)

Phase Shifter

Balanced Mixer ((Low noise mixer circuit)

Combining power from two transmitters (Power combiner)

Magic T Jn : Isolator

Ae

Matched

Load Mixer

LO

Magic T Junction:Duplexer

To RX

To antenna

2

3

1 4

Termination From TX

Load

Magic T Jn : Phase Shifter

O/P

λ/4

SC Plunger SC Plunger

x x

I/P

Magic T Junction:Power

Combiner

TX 1

To antenna

2

3

1 4

Termination TX 2

Load

Balanced Mixer Using A Magic Tee

IF +

LOnoise -IF

+LOnoise

Hybrid Ring

Hybrid Ring

Application of Magic Tee

Suggest a possible permutation of stick figures of

four Magic Tees to manipulate the four input

signals A, B, C and D to generate the following

three signals:-

A+B+C+D.

(A+B)-(C+D).

(A+C)-(B+D).

Magic Tee As Monopulse

Comparator

A C

H Plane Arm

H Plane Arm

A+B

A+B

A-B D

H Plane Arm B

H Plane Arm

A+B –

A+B + A+C – A+D –

(C+D)

(C+D) (B+D) (B+C)

E Plane Arm E Plane Arm

C+D C-D

Impedance Matching

Effects of Mismatched Terminations

Power loss due to reflections

Standing Waves (Internal arcing)

Reduced power handling capability

Iris Impedance Matching

In waveguides, iris matching instead of stubs

= horizontal

= elements, filters or impedance

matching devices

Waveguide Irises

Tuning Screws

Tuning Screws Post

When the screw is advanced partway into the wave-

guide, it acts capacitive. When the screw is advanced

all the way into the wave guide, it acts inductive. In

between the two positions, one can get a resonant LC

circuit.

Sep 5, 2019 328

Conducting Posts & Screws

Impedance Matching of Magic

Tee

Waveguide Terminations &

Attenuation

Waveguide Terminations

g/2 Dissipative Vane Short-circuit

which in turn has a thin dielectric coating for

protection. Its impedance is made equal to the

wave impedance. The taper minimizes reflection.

Sliding short-circuit functions like a shorted stub

for impedance matching purpose.

Sep 5, 2019 332

Attenuators

Max attenuation when

Resistive Flap flap is fully inside. Slot

for flap is chosen to be at

Pi Po a non-radiating position.

Atten (dB) = 10 log (Pi/Po)

Rotary-vane Type

= Pi (dB)-Po(dB)

Pi Po vane is at centre of

guide and min at the

Sliding-vane Type side-wall.

Attenuation in Waveguides

Waveguides operating above cutoff frequency have

attenuation for any or all of the following reasons:-

Reflections due to impedance mismatches

Losses due to flow of current in walls

Losses in the dielectric filling of waveguides

Attenuation Factor

For waveguides operating below cutoff frequency, attenuation is given

by:-

A = eαz , where,

e - Base of natural Logarithm

α = 2π/ λo – Attenuation factor in Np/m,

z - Length of waveguide

λo - Cutoff wavelength

AdB = 20 log10(eαz)

Relation Between Np & dB

Attenuation of a wave is a measure of the spatial decay

of the wave

Attenuation of 1 Np denotes a reduction to e-1 of the

original value

So, 1 Np = e

In terms of dB, 1 Np = 20 log10(e)

= 20 x 0.434 = 8.686 dB

Cavity Resonators

Cavity Resonators:Definition

• A resonant cavity is any space completely

enclosed by conducting walls that can contain

oscillating electromagnetic fields and

possesses resonant properties

• Theoretically a resonator has an infinite

number of resonating modes, each mode

corresponding to a definite resonant frequency

• The mode having lowest resonant

frequency is known as dominant mode

• Whenever two or more modes have the

same cut-off/resonant frequency they are said

to be degenerate modes

Sep 5, 2019 338

Quality Factor

The high Quality Factor (Q) gives these devices

a narrow bandpass and allows very accurate tuning.

Simple, rugged construction is an additional

advantage.

Cavity Resonators Coupling

Energy is coupled into the cavity either through a small opening, by

a coupling loop or a coupling probe. These methods of coupling

also apply for wave guides

Applications of resonators:

Microwave tubes

Oscillators

Tuned Amplifiers

Frequency Filters

Coupling Power to Waveguides

Cavity Resonators Fd

Patterns

Dimensions of a Resonant

Cavity

Cylindrical Cavity Resonator

2r

Sep 5, 2019 344

Cavity Resonators Formulae

Resonant wavelength for a

rectangular cavity:

2

r b L

( m / a ) ( n / b) ( p / L )

2 2 2

a

r

2

r L

2 2

Bmn p

r L

Sep 5, 2019 345

Types of Cavity Resonators

(Shape/Size)

Cavity Tuning By Volume

Changing Cavity Capacitance

Changing Cavity Inductance

Directional Couplers

Directional Coupler

P3 g/4

Termination

P1 P4 P2 P1 P2

2-hole Coupler

port 3 to combine. Waves travelling toward port 4,

however, will cancel. Therefore, ideally P4 = 0.

couplers would usually have multi holes.

Sep 5, 2019 352

Directional Coupler (Contd)

Propagation of Signal in Directional

Coupler

Coupling Parameters

Coupling

C = 10log10[Pi/Pf] dB

Directivity

D = 10log10[Pf/Pb] dB

Insertion Loss

L = 10log10[Pi/Pt] dB

Isolation

I = 10log10[Pi/Pb] dB

dB

Sep 5, 2019 355

Bi-Directional Coupler

Ferrites

Ferrite Components

Ferrites are non metallic materials (Usually compounds of metallic

oxides such as those of Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, Co, Al, and Ni – like MnFe2O3,

Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 etc

They have magnetic properties similar to ferromagnetic metals and at

the same time have high resistivity (Sp resistivity 1014 times, εr 10 to

15 & μr of several thousand times) associated with dielectrics.

Their magnetic properties can be controlled by means of an external

magnetic field.

They can be transparent, reflective, absorptive, or cause wave rotation

depending on the H field.

Faradays Rotation

Underlying principle for use of ferrites

If a polarised wave is made to pass through a ferrite rod under the

influence of a magnetic field B, its axis of polarisation gets tilted by

an amount dependent upon the strength of the magnetic fd and

geometry of ferrite

Direction of rotation depends on the value of DC magnetic fd

Examples of Ferrite Devices

Attenuator Isolator

2

1 3

Differential

Phase Shifter 4-port

Circulator

4

Notes On Ferrite Devices

Differential phase shifter - is the phase shift between the two directions

of propagation.

Isolator - permits power flow in one direction only.

Circulator - power entering port 1 will go to port 2 only; power entering

port 2 will go to port 3 only; etc.

Most of the above are based on Faraday rotation.

Other usage: filters, resonators, and substrates.

Ferrite Isolator

Constraints on Ferrites

Line Width. The rg of fd strengths over which absorption will take place. It

is defined between half power points for absorption

Curie Temp. The temp at which a magnetic material loses its magnetic

properties. This places a limitation on max temp at which ferrites may be

operated & therefore on the power dissipated

Max Frequency of Op. For devices utilising resonance absorption, this is

dependent on the max mag fd strength that can be generated. It is offset

by the gen reduction in the size of the waveguide as the frequency is

increased

Ferrite Isolator (One Way)

Ferrite Circulator

3 2

1 4

Components

Chebyschev 3 dB Coupler

N S

Sep 5, 2019 366

4 Port Waveguide Based Ferrite

Circulator

3 2

1 4

λg/8

Duplexers & TR Cells

Duplexers: Basics

Requirements of an effective duplexing System

During txn connect Ae to txr & disconnect from rxr

Isolate rxr from txrduring txn

After txn, rapidly connect rxr to Ae

Absorb min power during txn & rxn

Types of Duplexers

Magic Tee (6 dB Loss)

Circulators (Isolation, Insertion Loss)

Gas tubes (Pulsed Systems)

Branched Duplexer

Parallel

Series

Balanced Duplexer

Branch Type Duplexers

Parallel Series

Parallel Branch Type

Duplexer: Construction

Parallel Duplexer : Transmission

Parallel Duplexer : Reception

Series Branch Type

Duplexer: Construction

Series Duplexer : Transmission

Series Duplexer : Reception

Balanced Duplexer

Ae TR Cell

TR Cell

Txr Rxr

Balanced Duplexer:Txn

270o

Ae TR Cell

TR Cell

Txr Rxr

0o

Balanced Duplexer:Reception

0o

Ae TR Cell

TR Cell

Txr Rxr

90o

TR & ATR

TR Tube

Primary Fn- Disconnect Rx

The requirements of a spark gap are:-

High Impedance prior to arc

Low impedance during arcing

Arc should get extinguished at earliest (Recovery

time)

TR Tube: Construction

Waveguide filled with a gas mixture and sealed

at either end by glass windows

Low pressure (Ionisation)

Electrode Pair

Keep Alive Electrode

Glass Windows

Glass Sheath

Gas Reservoir

OF TR TUBE

Sep 5, 2019 383

TR Tube with Keep Alive

Electrode

TR Tube: Gas Mixture

Noble Gases like Argon

Low breakdown V

Offer good rx protection

Longer life

Long deionisation time

Addition of Water Vapour/Halogens

Speeds up deionisation

Reduced tube lifetimes

Radioactive Isotopes

Alternative to keep alive voltages

Merits & Demerits of Radioactive

Isotopes

Merits Demerits

Rx wideband noise V Comparatively more leakage

unaffected energy passed

Requires passive TR limiter

Longer life

stages

Leakage Pulse & Arc Loss

Leakage pulse

Large amplitude spike is result of finite ionisation time

Arc Loss. The fraction of the power absorbed by TR tube

discharge

0.5 dB

60 dB

Life of TR Tube Is determined by:-

Amt of leakage power

Excessive recovery time

Waveguide Duplexer

ATR Tube

Simpler device

No keep alive electrode

Only pure inert gas used

Tube Based Microwave

Generators & Amplifiers

Klystrons

Magnetrons

TWT

Microwave Tubes

Classical vacuum tubes have several factors which limit their

upper operating frequency:

Interelectrode capacitance & lead inductance

Dielectric losses & skin effect

Transit time

between the electric field, magnetic field and the electrons

Frequency Limitation of

Conventional Tubes

Transit Time

Transit time is the time required for electrons to travel between the

electrodes & depends on electrode spacing

It is insignificant at low frequencies

At high frequencies, transit time becomes an appreciable portion of a signal

cycle and begins to hinder efficiency

Transit times in excess of 0.1 cycle cause a significant decrease in tube

efficiency

Velocity

Modulation

Interaction Between an Electron

& the E Fd

Velocity Modulation

Velocity modulation is defined as that variation in the

velocity of a beam of electrons caused by the alternate

speeding up and slowing down of the electrons in the

beam

This variation is usually caused by a voltage signal

applied between the grids through which the beam must

pass

Buncher Cavity Action

Buncher Cavity Action

Buncher Cavity Action

Buncher Cavity Action

Buncher Cavity Action

Buncher Cavity Action

Catcher Cavity

The net effect of velocity modulation is to form a current-density modulated

beam that varies at the same rate as the grid-signal frequency

A second cavity, called a CATCHER CAVITY, must be placed at a point of

maximum bunching to take useful energy from the beam

The physical position of the catcher cavity is determined by the frequency of

the buncher-grid signal because this signal determines the transit time of the

electron bunches

The electron bunches will induce an rf voltage in the grid gap of the second

cavity causing it to oscillate

Velocity & Current Modulation

Klystron Amplifiers

Klystrons

Klystrons are linear-beam devices since the E-field is parallel to

the static magnetic field

Their operation is based on velocity and current modulation with

resonating cavities to create the bunching effect and to tap the

energy of the electron beam

They can be employed as oscillators or power amplifiers

Klystron Cross-Section

Klystron Operation

RF signal applied to the buncher cavity sets up an alternating

field across the buncher gap

beam causing electrons to bunch up in the drift region

When the electron bunches pass the catcher gap, they excite

the catcher cavity into resonance

loop

Two Cavity Klystron

Control RF In RF Out

Grid Gap

Filament Collector

Cathode Drift

Buncher Catcher Region

Cavity Cavity

v

Electron

Beam

Effect of velocity modulation

Sep 5, 2019 410

Klystron Amplifier Schematic

SCHEMATIC

DIAGRAM OF 2

CAVITY

KLYSTRON AMP

Sep 5, 2019 411

Klystron Tube Animated

Applegate Diagram

Each line represents the distance time history of an individual electron

More the gradient, lower the velocity being represented

Applegate Diagram For Klystron

Amplifier

Catcher Cavity

Grid Voltage

Catcher Grid

(Drift Space)

Distance

Buncher Grid

Time

Buncher Cavity

Grid Voltage

Bunching Limits

Sep 5, 2019 414

Klystron Amplifier

Multicavity Klystrons

Gain can be increased by inserting intermediate cavities

between the buncher and catcher cavity

Each additional cavity increases power gain by 15 to 20 db

Synchronous tuned klystrons have high gain but very narrow

bandwidth, e.g. 0.25 % of fo

Stagger tuned klystrons have wider bandwidth at the expense

of gain

Can operate as oscillator by positive feedback

Multi Cavity Klystron

Klystron Oscillator

Reflex Klystron

Output

Anode Cavity

Cathode Repeller

Filament

Electron

Beam

Vr

time to be:

where n = an integer and

3

T = period of oscillation

t n T

4

Reflex Klystron Operation

Electron beam is velocity modulated when passing

though gridded gap of the cavity

Repeller decelerates and turns back electrons thus

causing bunching

Electrons are collected on the cavity walls and output

power can be extracted

Repeller voltage, Vr, can be used to vary output

frequency and power.

Notes On Reflex

Compact size Klystrons

Can be used as an oscillator only

Low output power and low efficiency

Output frequency can be tuned by Vr , or by changing

the dimensions of the cavity

Reflex Klystron

Electron Bunching Diagram

Bunching Action of Reflex

Klystron

Tuning & O/P Power

Magnetrons

Intro to Magnetrons

A magnetron is a self contained microwave

oscillator

It is classified as a diode

It is a crossed field device

Radial DC Electric fd

Axial Magnetic fd

Lends itself to a variety of types, designs and

arrangements

Useful for small sized tx

Magnetrons

It consists of a cylindrical cathode surrounded by the

copper anode with a number of resonant cavities.

It’s a crossed-field

Interaction device since the E-field

Waveguide

Space is perpendicular to the

Output

dc magnetic field.

At a critical voltage

Coupling Cavity the electrons from the

Window cathode will just graze

Anode the anode.

Cathode

Magnetron: Cutaway View

Magnetron: Cutaway View II

Theory of Op

The force exerted by an electric field on an electron is

proportional to the strength of the field

The force exerted on an electron in a magnetic field is at

right angles to both the field and the path of the electron

Electron Motion in Static E Fd

Magnetron: Effect of H Fd on

Single Electron

Cavity Magnetron

Magnetron Op

EXPLANATION OF MAGNETRON

The microwave radiation of microwave ovens and some radar

applications is produced by a device called a magnetron.

The magnetron is called a "crossed-field" device in the industry

because both magnetic and electric fields are employed in its

operation, and they are produced in perpendicular directions

so that they cross. The applied magnetic field is constant and

applied along the axis of the circular device illustrated. The

power to the device is applied to the center cathode which is

heated to supply energetic electrons which would, in the

absence of the magnetic field, tend to move radially outward to

the ring anode which surrounds it.

Op of Cavities

EXPLANATION OF MAGNETRON

Electrons are released at the center hot cathode by the process of

thermionic emission and have an accelerating field which moves them

outward toward the anode. The axial magnetic field exerts a

magnetic force on these charges which is perpendicular to their

initially radial motion, and they tend to be swept around the circle. In

this way, work is done on the charges and therefore energy from the

power supply is given to them. As these electrons sweep toward a

point where there is excess negative charge, that charge tends to be

pushed back around the cavity, imparting energy to the oscillation at

the natural frequency of the cavity. This driven oscillation of the

charges around the cavities leads to radiation of electromagnetic

waves, the output of the magnetron.

Cavity Magnetron

1

2

3

4

5

Cross-section of Magnetron

Sep 5, 2019 444

Magnetron: Electron Paths

Conditions

Hull Cut Off Condition

Determines the voltage & magnetic fd necessary to

obtain non zero anode current in the absence of the

electromagnetic fds

Hartee Condition

For sustained rf osc, Hartee condition must be

fulfilled

Magnetron: Rotating Space

Charge Wheel

Magnetron Operation

When an electron cloud sweeps past a cavity, it excites the

latter to self oscillation which in turn causes the electrons to

bunch up (Phase focusing effect) into a spoked wheel formation

in the interaction space

Due to change in polarity of the RF fd, the spoked wheel rotates

ACW @ 2 poles per cycle for π mode

The continuous exchange of energy between the electrons and

the cavities sustains oscillations at microwave frequency

Reqmt of Strapping of Anode

Blocks

This resonant system possesses a series of resonant freq or modes corresponding to

the number of cavities

This resonant system possesses a series of possible phase shifts or modes

corresponding to the number of cavities

Osc possible only if total phase shift around the structure is an integral multiple of 2π

radians

φ = 2πm/N

φ - Phase shift between two adjacent cavities

m – Integer indicating mth mode of op; m= 1,2,3,…N/2

N – No of reentrant cavities

For sustaining osc, anode DC V must be adjusted so that the average rotational

velocity of e- corresponds to phase velocity of slow wave structure

Magnetrons are usually op in π mode, ie φ = π

Strapping is used to avoid mode jumping

Magnetron: Strapping of Anode

Blocks

Magnetron: Common Types of

Anode Blocks

More Notes On Magnetrons

Alternate cavities are strapped (i.e., shorted) so that adjacent

resonators are 180o out of phase. This enables only the

dominant -mode to operate

Frequency tuning is possible either mechanically (screw tuner)

or electrically with voltage

Magnetrons are used as oscillators for radars, beacons,

microwave ovens, etc

Peak output power is from a few MW at UHF and X-band to 10

kW at 100 GHz

Magnetron: Coupling Methods

Sep 5, 2019 454

Forming Up

Arcing in magnetrons is very common

It occurs with a new tube or following long periods of idleness

Prime causes of arcing is the release of gas from tube elements during

idle periods

Arcing may also be caused by the presence of sharp surfaces within

the tube, mode shifting, and by drawing excessive current

Continued arcing will shorten the life of the magnetron and may

destroy it entirely

Forming up is essential

Freq Variations

Frequency Pushing

The resonant freq of Magnetrons can be altered by changing

anode V

This alters the orbital vel of e- cloud & thus changes the

bandwidth

This change in freq is called Freq Pushing

Frequency Pulling

The magnetron is susceptible to freq variations due to change in

load impedance reflected into cavity resonators

This change in freq is called Freq Pulling

TWT

Intro to TWT

It’s a linear beam tube used as a microwave amp

Has continuous interaction between e- beam & RF fd

Uses slow wave structure

Capable of enormous bandwidths

Travelling-Wave Tube

Electron Beam RF In Helix Attenuator RF Out Collector

running parallel to tube lengthwise.

down the RF field so that its velocity down the the tube is

close to the velocity of the electron beam.

Sep 5, 2019 459

TWT: Construction

TWT: Construction

TWT Structure & RF fd

15¼”

Russian TWT UV-1B (УВ-1-Б)

TWT: Functional Diagram

TWT Operation

As the RF wave travels along the helix, its positive and negative oscillations

velocity modulate the electron beam causing the electrons to bunch up

The prolonged interaction between the RF wave and electron beam along

the TWT results in exponential growth of the RF voltage

The amplified wave is then extracted at the output

The attenuator prevents reflected waves that can cause oscillations

TWT: Operation

TWT: Amplified Helix Signal

RF I/P

Bunching

of e- beam

RF O/P

Notes On TWTs

Since interaction between the RF field and the electron beam is

over the entire length of the tube, the power gain achievable is

very high (> 40 dB)

As TWTs are nonresonant devices, they have wider bandwidths

and lower NF than klystrons

TWTs operate from 0.3 to 50 GHz & generally have octave

bandwidths

Antennas

Typical Antennas

Current & Voltage Distribution in an

Antenna

Antenna & RF Source

Voltage & Current Standing Waves

in an Antenna

Reciprocity of Antennas

Isotropic Radiator

Anisotropic Radiator

Polar Coordinate Graph of

Anisotropic Radiator

Radiation Pattern of a Doublet

Radiation Pattern of a Dipole

Standing Waves of Current &

Voltage: Halfwave Antenna

Grounded Quarter Wave

Antenna

Ground Screen & Counterpoise

Folded Dipole Antenna

Phasing of Antenna in Free Space

Phasing of Connected Elements

Single Antenna Vs Array

Single Half Wave Antenna Vs Two Half

Wave Antennas in Phase

Typical Broadside Array

Parallel Elements in Phase

Typical End Fire Array

Parallel Elements 180o Out of Phase

Unidirectional End Fire Arrays

Parasitic Arrays

Yagi Antenna

Rhombic Antenna

Ground Plane Antenna

Parabolic Reflector Antenna

Parabolic Radiation Pattern

Basic Paraboloid Reflector

Truncated Paraboloid Reflector

Orange Peel Paraboloid

Reflector

Cylindrical Paraboloid Reflector

Horn Radiators

Waveguide Lens

Field Pattern of an Antenna Array

Horizontal Array Field Pattern

Microwave Solid State

Devices

Developments in Microwave

Devices & Ccts

Applications of semiconductor devices have grown rapidly since the invention of the

bipolar transistor

Devices using pn jn started to be used

Varactors, Tunnel Diodes, IMPATT, Gunn Diode intro between 1950 -70

Planar txn lines intro

MIC (Integrated semiconductor devices with txn lines)

Hybrid MICs (Soldered / bonded semiconductor devices on planar txn lines)

MMICs (Active devices grown on a semiconductor substrate)

Adv of Semiconductor Devices

Greater Flexibility

Improved Performance

Improved Reliability

Compact Integrated Modules

Reduced Size & Wt

Reduced Power Reqmts

Ease of Mass Production

Low Cost

Planar Txn Lines

Types of Planar Txn Lines

Strip Lines

Microstrip lines

Slot lines

Coplanar Waveguide

Coplanar Strips

Suspended Substrate Lines

Suspended Strip Lines

Suspended Microstrip Lines

Inverted Microstrip Lines

Parallel Coupled Lines

Edge Coupled & Broadside Coupled Strip lines

Edge Coupled & Broadside Coupled Microstrip lines

Tunnel Diodes

Intro to TD

Normal PN jn are lightly doped – wide depletion regions

Hy doping – Narrow depletion regions

Unusual characteristic curve- negative resistance due to tunnelling

Tunnelling used to offset transit time effects

TD Characteristic Curve

TD Vs PN Jn Characteristic Curves

TD Energy Diagram without Bias

TD Energy Diagram With Bias (50

mV)

TD Energy Diagram With Bias (450

mV)

TD Energy Diagram With Bias (600

mV)

TD Schematic Symbols

TD Oscillator

TD Amplifier

Tunnel Diode

Symbol Equivalent Circuit Characteristic Curve

Ls Ip i

Cj -R A B C

Rs

V

Vp Vv

Heavy doping of the semiconductor material creates a very

thin potential barrier in the depletion zone which leads to

electron tunneling through the barrier.

Sep 5, 2019 522

More Notes On Tunnel Diode

Tunnel diodes can be used in monostable (A or C), bistable

(between A and C), or astable (B) modes

These modes lead to switching, oscillation, and

amplification applications

However, the power output levels of the tunnel diode are

restricted to a few mW only

Varactor Diode

Varactor Diode

PN Jn Diode as Varicap

PN Jn Diode as Varicap

Varactor Capacitance Vs Bias

Voltage

Varactor Tuned Resonant Cct

Voltage Amp from a Varying

Capacitor

Varactor Diode

Cj

Co

Circuit Symbol

V

Junction Capacitance Characteristic

The junction capacitance is:

Co K

where Vb = barrier potential Cj

(0.55 to 0.7 for silicon) (Vb V ) m

and K = constant (often = 1)

Equivalent Circuit for Varactor

The series resistance, Rs, and diode

capacitance, Cj, determine the

cutoff frequency: 1

Cj Rj fc

2Rs C j

Rs

The diode quality factor for a given

frequency, f, is:

fc

Q

f

Varactor Applications

Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) in AFC and

PLL circuits

Variable phase shifter

Harmonic generator in frequency multiplier

circuits

Up or down converter circuits

Parametric amplifier circuits - low noise

Non Degenerative Parametric Amp

Cct

Parametric Amp

LSB Parametric Downconverter

Schottky Barrier Diode

• It’s based on a simple metal-

Contact Metal semiconductor interface.

Electrode

conductor Dielectric a depletion region exists.

Layer

Substrate • Current is by majority

Metal

Electrode carriers; therefore, very low

in capacitance.

Sep 5, 2019 537

Parametric Amplifier Circuit

Degenerative Mode: fp = 2fs

Non-degenerative mode:

Pump signal (fp) Up-conversion - fi = fs + fp

Down conversion - fi = fs – fp

L2

C2 Power gain, G = fi /fs

C1

Input Regenerative mode:

C3 negative resistance

signal L3

L1 D1 very low noise

(fs)

very high gain

Signal Idler

tank (fs) tank (fi) f p = fs + fi

Sep 5, 2019 538

PIN Diode

R S1 RFC

P+ +V

C2

I C1

In

N+ Out

D1

PIN as shunt switch

materials. It has a very high resistance in the OFF mode

and a very low resistance when forward biased.

Sep 5, 2019 539

PIN Diode Applications

and out of the circuit

Voltage-variable attenuator

Amplitude modulator

Transmit-receive (TR) switch

Phase shifter (with section of transmission line)

Transferred Electron Devices

TEDs are made of compound semiconductors such as GaAs

They exhibit periodic fluctuations of current due to negative

resistance effects when a threshold voltage (about 3.4 V) is

exceeded

The negative resistance effect is due to electrons being swept

from a lower valley (more mobile) region to an upper valley (less

mobile) region in the conduction band

Gunn Diode

The Gunn diode is a transferred electron device that can be

used in microwave oscillators or one-port reflection

amplifiers. Its basic structure is shown below. N-, the

active region, is sandwiched between two heavily doped

N+ regions. Electrons from the cathode (K) drifts to

the anode (A) in bunched

l

formation called domains.

K N- A Note that there is no p-n

Metallic junction.

Electrode

N+ Metallic

Electrode

Sep 5, 2019 542

Gunn Operating Modes

Stable Amplification (SA) Mode: diode behaves as an amplifier due to

negative resistance effect

Transit Time (TT) Mode: operating frequency, fo = vd / l where vd is the

domain velocity, and l is the effective length. Output power < 2 W, and

frequency is between 1 GHz to 18 GHz

Limited Space-Charge (LSA) Mode: requires a high-Q resonant cavity;

operating frequency up to 100 GHz and pulsed output power > 100 W.

Gunn Diode Circuit and

Applications

The resonant cavity

Resonant Tuning is shocked excited by

Cavity Screw

current pulses from

Iris the Gunn diode and

the RF energy is

coupled via the iris

Diode to the waveguide.

V

Gunn diode applications: microwave source for

receiver local oscillator, police radars, and

microwave communication links.

Sep 5, 2019 544

Avalanche Transit-Time Devices

If the reverse-bias potential exceeds a certain threshold, the

diode breaks down

Energetic carriers collide with bound electrons to create more

hole-electron pairs

This multiplies to cause a rapid increase in reverse current

The onset of avalanche current and its drift across the diode is

out of phase with the applied voltage thus producing a negative

resistance phenomenon.

IMPATT Diode

A single-drift structure of an IMPATT (impact

avalanche transit time) diode is shown below:

- P+ N N+ +

Avalanche l

Region Drift Region

vd

Operating frequency: f where vd = drift

2l velocity

Notes On IMPATT Diode

The current build-up and the transit time for the current pulse to

cross the drift region cause a 180o phase delay between V and

I; Thus, negative R

IMPATT diodes typically operate in the 3 to 6 GHz region but

higher frequencies are possible

They must operate in conjunction with an external high-q

resonant circuit

They have relatively high output power (>100 W pulsed) but are

very noisy and not very efficient

Microwave Transistors

Silicon BJTs and GaAsFETs are most widely used

BJT useful for amplification up to about 6 MHz

MesFET (metal semiconductor FET) and HEMT (high electron

mobility transistor) are operable beyond 60 GHz

FETs have higher input impedance, better efficiency and more

frequency stable than BJTs.

Electromagnetic

Wave Propagation

Propagation Mechanisms

Schematic

Propagation Mechanisms

Ground waves (Surface waves)

Up to 2 MHz

Beyond horizon propagation

Sky Waves

3 MHz to 30 MHz

Reflections from ionised regions

Space Waves (Tropospheric Waves)

VHF & above

Mode of propagation similar to light

LOS propagation - extendable

Ground Waves

Ground Waves

EM waves propagate close to the earths surface

Rx & Tx both close to ground surface

Attenuation by earth freq

Vertical polarization preferred

Diffraction phenomenon

VLF rgs > 1000 km

Effects of Polarisation

Normally, the plane of polarization of a radio wave is

the plane in which the E field propagates with respect to

the Earth.

Vertically polarized waves cause a greater signal

strength along the Earth's surface. On the other hand,

antennas high above the ground should be horizontally

polarized to get the greatest possible signal strength to

the Earth's surface.

Effects of Earths Proximity

Within the atmosphere, EM waves can be reflected, refracted,

and diffracted like light and heat waves.

The amount of reflection depends on the reflecting material.

The surface of the Earth itself is a fairly good reflector. The

size of the area required for reflection to take place depends

on the wavelength of the radio wave and the angle at which

the wave strikes the reflecting substance.

Ground Waves

Disadvantages

Require relatively high transmission power

They are limited to very low, low and medium frequencies

which require large antennas

Losses on the ground vary considerably with surface material

Advantages

Given enough power they can be used to communicate

between any two points in the world

They are relatively unaffected by changing atmospheric

conditions

Atmospheric Structure

Troposphere

0 – 10 km ht

Temp decreases with ht

Weather phenomenon

Stratosphere - Const temp, min effect on propagation

Ionosphere

50 km upwards

Radiant energy – ions

Stratified due to variation in physical properties

Atmospheric Regions

TROPOSPHERE

STRATOSPHERE

IONOSPHERE

Sky Waves: Atmosphere

Ionosphere

Upper limits – atm rare- low ionization density

Decreasing ht – atm pressure increases & ionization

density increase to a max

Further down ionization density decreases, atm

pressure increases

Ionospheric Layers

D Layer (Lowest layer, disappears at ni)

70 km ht, 10 km thickness

Reflects VLF & LF (Low density)

Absorbs MF & HF (Deviative absorption)

E Layer

100 km ht, 25 km thick

Reflects HF

Es persists in ni, has 10 times the ionisation density of E layer

Deviative Absorption

Electron density in the D layer is relatively small, but because of collisions between the molecules of the atmosphere

and free electrons excited by the presence of an electromagnetic wave, pronounced energy loss occurs. This energy

loss, dissipated in the form of thermal energy of the electrons or thermal (electromagnetic) noise, is termed absorption.

Higher in the E and F regions, electron collisions with atmosphere molecules also affect the condition for reflection that

occurs wherever there is a marked bending of the wave.(As the wave nears its reflecting level), there is a slowing down

or retardation effect, which allows additional time for collisions to occur and thus for absorption to take place.

Ionospheric Layers (Contd)

F1 Layer

180 km ht in day, 20 km thickness

Combines with F2 layer at ni

Absorbs HF

F2 Layer

400 km ht, 200 km thick

Falls to 300 km at ni

Reflects HF

Poor recombination

Highly ionized

Large molecular free path

Typical Electron Density Profile

Electron Density / CC

Reflection / Refraction

Mechanism of Ionosphere

Low Freq

High change in ion density within span of wavelength presents

abrupt discontinuity causes reflection

Higher Freq

Short wavelength sees slight changes in ion density leads to

refraction

The refractive index of the ionosphere is given by

N – No of e-/cc

f – Frequency in kHz

81N

n 1-

f2

Refractive Index & Incidence

Angle

n1sinΦ1 = n2sinΦ2

sinΦ1 = n2sinΦ2, for n1 = 1

So at the point where Φ2=90o,

n2 = sinΦ1 is the condition for reflection

Smaller the angle of incidence, the smaller the refractive

index (Higher the e- density) reqd to return the wave to

earth

For vertical incidence, fv2 =81N

Sky Waves

Sky Wave Propagation in

Ionized Layers: Day

F2

HIGHER FREQUENCIES PROPAGATE BETTER:

F1 RULE = SUN UP, FREQS UP

Sky Wave Propagation in

Ionized Layers: Ni

F

RULE = SUN DOWN, FREQS DOWN

Concept of Critical Frequency

Critical Frequency & Effects

For a given layer of ionosphere, the highest frequency returned at

vertical incidence is called critical frequency of that layer

EM waves transmitted at frequencies higher than the critical frequency

of a given layer will pass through the layer and be lost in space; but if these

same waves enter an upper layer with a higher critical frequency, they will

be refracted back to Earth.

EM waves of frequencies lower than the critical frequency will also be

refracted back to Earth unless they are absorbed or have been refracted

from a lower layer. The lower the frequency of a radio wave, the more

rapidly the wave is refracted by a given degree of ionization.

Skip Distance

Skip Distance

The skip distance is the distance from the

transmitter to the point where the sky wave is first

returned to Earth. The size of the skip distance depends

on the frequency of the wave, the angle of incidence,

and the degree of ionization present.

Skip Zone

Concept of Critical Angle

Critical Angle

The rate at which a wave of a given frequency is refracted by an ionized

layer depends on the angle at which the wave enters the layer.

Critical angle is the max angle at which an EM wave (Of specific frequency)

can be transmitted, for it to be reflected back from ionosphere to the earth.

Any wave that leaves the antenna at an angle greater than the critical angle

will penetrate the ionospheric layer for that frequency and then be lost in

space.

Conversely, the frequency which makes a given receiving pt correspond to

the skip distance is called maximum usable frequency.

Critical Angle & Frequency

Space Waves

Attenuation by Atmosphere

15 28

Moisture

3.8

Attenuation dB/km

Oxygen

0.2

Frequency (GHz)

That’s all on the

Subject!