Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

# The Nature of Probability

and Statistics
Introduction
1-1 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
1-2 Variables and Types of Data
1-3 Parameter vs Statistic

2
 Statistics is the science of conducting studies
to
collect,
organize,
summarize,
analyze, and
draw conclusions from data.
 Students study statistics for several reasons:

##  1. Like professional people, you must be able to read and understand

the various statistical studies performed in your fields.

##  2. You may be called on to conduct research in your field, since

statistical procedures are basic to research. To accomplish this, you
must be able to design experiments; collect, organize, analyze, and
summarize data; and possibly make reliable predictions or forecasts for
future use. You must also be able to communicate the results of the

 3. You can also use the knowledge gained from studying statistics to
become better consumers and citizens. For example, you can make
intelligent decisions about what products to purchase based on
consumer studies, about government spending based on utilization
studies, and so on.
 A variable is a characteristic or attribute
that can assume different values.
 The values that a variable can assume are
called data.
 A population consists of all subjects
(human or otherwise) that are studied.
 A sample is a subset of the population.

5
 Descriptive statistics consists of the collection,
organization, summarization, and
presentation of data. It summarizes some of
the important feature of a set of data or
simply describe the set of data and conclusion
apply only to the data on hand. There is NO
drawing of conclusions or inferences about a
larger set.
 Examples: Charts deals with taxes, Sports
Statistics, University Enrolment
 Inferential statistics concerned with the
formulation of conclusions and
generalizations about a larger set of data
using only the information gathered from the
subset of this larger set. The main concern is
not to describe but to predict and make
conclusions based on the data gathered.
 Examples: Studies about Social Sciences,
Marketing Research, Economics
In each of these statements, tell whether descriptive or
inferential statistics have been used.
a. By 2040 at least 3.5 billion people will run short of water
(World Future Society).
b. Nine out of ten on-the-job fatalities are men (Source: USA
TODAY Weekend).
c. Expenditures for the cable industry were \$5.66 billion in
1996 (Source: USA TODAY ).
d. The median household income for people aged 25–34 is
\$35,888 (Source: USA TODAY ).
e. Allergy therapy makes bees go away (Source: Prevention).
Data

Qualitative Quantitative
Categorical Numerical,
Can be ranked

Discrete Continuous
Countable Can be decimals
5, 29, 8000, etc. 2.59, 312.1, etc.
 Qualitative Data can be identified simply by
noting its presence. It also yield categorical
responses, differ according to characteristics
possessed.

## Examples: classification of data according to

occupation, religion, date of birth, year level
 Quantitative Data take on numerical values
representing an amount or quantity. It
indicates how much of a given characteristic
an individual, object or event possesses.
 Discrete Quantitative Data are those whose
values can not take the form of decimals.

## Examples: number of siblings, number of

students in each section, number of trees in a
certain mountain
 Continuous Quantitative Data those whose
values can be written in the form of decimals
to increase degrees of precision and
accuracy.

## Examples: weight, volume, monthly salary, age

 Constant is a characteristics of a population
or sample which makes the member similar
to each other. Researchers usually not include
this item since they are alike.

## Example: Gender in exclusive school for boys

or girls.
 Variable is a characteristic of a population or
sample which makes the members different
from each other.

## Example: Gender of Mapua students

DEPENDENT is a variable affected by another
variable
Example: Monthly Family Income, Test Scores

## INDEPENDENT is a variable which affects the

dependent variable.
Example: Occupation, Number of hours spent
in studying

16
LEVEL of MEASUREMENT

##  Nominal (Classificatory Scale) is the weakest

level of measurement where numbers or
symbols are used simply for categorizing
subjects into different groups.

## Examples: Gender: M= Male, F = Female

Marital Status : 1 = Single, 2= Married,
3=Widowed, 4 = Separated
 Ordinal (Ranking Scale) contains properties of
the nominal level and in addition, the
numbers assigned to categories of any
variable may be ranked or ordered in some
low- to high manner

## Examples: Year Level: 1=1st yr, 2= 2nd yr, 3 =

3rd yr, 4 = 4th yr
Ratings : 1= Poor, 2= Fair, 3= Good, 4 =
Excellent
 Interval has the properties of the ordinal and
in addition, the distances between any two
numbers on the scale are known sizes,
interval scale must have a common and
constant unit of measurement ( unit of
measurement is arbitrary and there is NO
ZERO point).
Examples: IQ Level, Temperature
 Ratio contains all the properties of the
interval level and in addition, has a TRUE
ZERO point

## Examples: Scores in a certain test, Age ( in

years )
Determine the measurement level.
Variable Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Level
Hair Color Yes No Nominal
Zip Code Yes No Nominal
IQ Score Yes Yes Yes No Interval
Height Yes Yes Yes Yes Ratio
Age Yes Yes Yes Yes Ratio
Temperature (F) Yes Yes Yes No Interval
I. Classify each variable as qualitative or quantitative.
a. Marital status of nurses in a hospital.
b. Time it takes to run a marathon.
c. Weights of lobsters in a tank in a restaurant.
d. Colors of automobiles in a shopping center parking lot.

## II. Classify each as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level,

or ratio-level measurement.
a. Rankings of golfers in a tournament.
b. Temperatures inside 10 pizza ovens.
c. Weights of selected cell phones.
d. Categories of magazines in a physician’s office(sports,
women’s, health, men’s, news).
III. Classify each variable as discrete or continuous..
a. Number of pizzas sold by Pizza Express each day.
b. Relative humidity levels in operating rooms at local
hospitals.
c. Number of bananas in a bunch at several local
supermarkets.
d. Lifetimes (in hours) of 15 iPod batteries.
Parameter is any numerical value describing a
characteristics of population.
Example: There are 1.2 M students enrolled in
Mapua
N = 1.2 M which is a population ; 1.2 M is a
parameter!
 Statistic is any numerical value describing a
characteristics of sample.
Example: Of the 1.2 M students enrolled in
Mapua, 13,589 taken engineering course.
n = 13,589 which is a sample; 13,589 is a
statistic!
questions.
A study conducted at Mapua Institute Technology revealed that
students who attended class 95% to 100% of the time usually
received an A in the class. Students who attended class 80% to 90% of
the time usually received a B or C in the class. Students who attended
class less than 80% of the time usually received a D or an F or
eventually withdrew from the class. Based on this information,
attendance and grades are related. The more you attend class, the
more likely it is you will receive a higher grade. If you improve your
your grade in a course. One factor that you have considerable control
over is attendance. You can increase your opportunities for learning
by attending class more often.
1. What are the variables under study?
2. What are the data in the study?
3. Are descriptive, inferential, or both types of statistics used?
4. What is the population under study?
5. Was a sample collected? If so, from where?
6. From the information given, comment on the relationship between
the variables.
POPULATION is a collection of all
elements under observation in
statistical study. Also known as the
complete set of individuals, objects,
places or events under study.

## Example: the students of Mapua Institute

Technology, the costumer of a
particular bookstore, residents of
Quezon City
SAMPLE is a subset of population. It is
the part of population from which
information is collected.

## Example: the set of 500 students of

Mapua Institute Technology, first 100
costumer of a particular bookstore, 300
residents of Quezon City.
SLOVIN’S FORMULA
n = sample size N
N = population size n= 2
e = margin of error 1 + Ne
Using Slovin’s Formula, solve the indicated.
1. N = 80,000 and e = 20% ; n = __________.
2. N = 40,000 and e = 1% ; n = __________.
3. N = 20,000 and n = 3,500 ; e = _________.