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Concentration of Solutions

 A solution is a homogeneous
mixture of one substance (the
solute) dissolved in another
substance (the solvent).

 Solid solutions include brass,


bronze and steel.

 Concentration is a ratio of the


amount of solute to the amount
of solvent.
Most Common Types of Solutions

Solute Solvent Appearanceof


of Solution Example

Gas Liquid Liquid Carbonated water

Liquid Liquid Liquid Wine

Solid Liquid Liquid Saline water

Gas Gas Gas Air

Liquid Solid Solid 14-Carat gold


Solution Concentrations

Volume-Volume Percentage (Percent volume)


% volume = volume solute (mL) x 100
volume solution (mL)

Mass-Mass Percentage (Percent mass)


% mass = mass solute (g) x 100
mass solution (g)

mass of solution = mass solvent + mass solute


Mass-Volume Percentage

% m/v = __mass of solute __ x 100


volume of solution

The label on a bottle of vinegar says it contains 5.0% w/v


acetic acid (CH3COOH). The bottle contains 240 mL of
vinegar. How many grams of acetic acid are in the bottle?

240 mL x _5.0g CH3COOH_ = 12.0g CH3COOH


100 mL solution
Mass-Volume Percentage

 % m/v = __mass of solute __ x 100


volume of solution

5% = (x) (100)_
240 L
x = (0.05 g/mL) (240 mL)

x = 12.0 g
Solution Concentrations

Example 1:
What is the percent by volume concentration of a
solution in which 75.0 mL of ethanol is diluted to
a volume of 250.0 mL?

% = 75.0 mL x 100
250 mL

= 30.0%
Solution Concentrations

Example 2:
What volume of acetic acid is present in a bottle
containing 350.0 mL of a solution which measures
5.00% concentration?

0. 05 = x ___
350.0 mL

x = 17.5 mL
Solution Concentrations

Example 3:
Find the % by mass in which 41.0 g of NaCl is
dissolved in 331 grams of water.

% mass = 41.0 g x 100


372 g

= 11 %
Solution Concentrations
Example 4:
 Calculate the % of the solution that contains 20.0g of
sugar in 250 g of water.

%= mass of solute x 100


mass of solute + mass of solvent

= _ 20.0 g____ x 100


20.0g + 250.0 g

= 7.4 %
Solution Concentrations
Example 5:
 Determine the amount of NaOH dissolved in 400.0 g
of solution that is 1.25% concentrated.

mass of solution = 400 g


m/m% concentration = 1.25% Req’d: mass of NaOH

mass of solute = _mass % x mass of solution


100

= 1.25 % x 400 g
100
= 5.00 g NaOH
Example 6:
 If 15 mL of alcohol is added to 50 mL of water, what is
the concentration of the solution?
Given:
volume of alcohol = 15 mL
volume of water = 50 mL Req’d: v/v % of sol’n

v/v% = _______vol of alcohol______ x 100


vol of alcohol + vol of water

= _____15 mL____ x 100


15mL + 50 mL

= 23.08% or 23%
Molarity
 Molarity (M) is the most common unit of
concentration
 Molarity is an expression of moles/Liter of the
solution.
Molarity = mole
L
 M = 5 mg_NaCl 5 mg = 0.005g
0.5 mL 0.5 mL = 0.0005L
= 8.6 x 10-5 mol
0. 0005L
= 0.17 M

0.005 g NaCl x __1 mole_ = 8.6-5 x 10_mole


58 g NaCl
How to prepare 1M NaCl solution?
Preparing Solutions
 You just calculated the molar mass of sodium
chloride to be 58.44 g/mol.
 To determine how to make a stock solution of
sodium chloride, use the formula:

M = _moles of solute_
L

M = _g/mole_
Liter

g = M x L x molar mass
Making Solutions
 How many grams of NaCl would you need to prepare
200.0 mL of a 5 M solution?

g = M x L x molar mass
g = (5mol/L) (0.2L) (58.44g/mol)
g = 58.44 g
Diluting Solutions
Diluting Solutions

Often once you have made a stock solution, you


need to dilute it to a working concentration.

To determine how to dilute the stock solution,


use the formula:

C1V1 = C2V2
C1 – concentration of stock
C2 - concentration of diluted solution
V1 – volume needed of stock
V2 – final volume of dilution
Diluting Solutions

Example 7:
How many milliliters of a 5 M stock solution of NaCl are
needed to prepare 100 ml of a 0.4 M solution?

C1 V1 = C2 V2
(5) V1 = (0.4)(100)
V1= 8 mL
 How would you prepare 100 mL of 0.4 M MgSO4
from a stock solution of 2.0 M MgSO4?
M1V1 = M2V2
(2.0 M) (x) = (0.4 M) (100 mL)
x = 40 M mL
2.0 M
= 20 mL

Add 20 mL of 2.0 M MgSO4 to the flask and add


water up to 100 mL mark of the flask.
 If 1.0L of water is added to 3.0 L of a 6.0 M
solution of HCl, what is the new molarity of the
acid solution?
M1V1 = M2V2
(6.0M) (3.0 L) = (x) (4.0 L)
18.0 M L = x 4.0 L_
4.0 L 4.0 L

4.5 M = x
Exercise:
1. Describe how to prepare the following
solutions:
 a. 280.0 mL of a 27% v/v solution of
ethanol (C2H6O) in water?
 b. 435 mL of 1.8% v/v solution of
Ethyl acetate (C4H8O2) in water?
c. 1.65 L of an 8% v/v solution of
benzene (C6H6) in chloroform
(CHCl3)?
2. Calculate the w/v % of each of these
solutes:
 a. 623 mg of casein in 15.0 mL of
milk
 b. 74 mg of vitamin C in 250 mL of
orange juice
 c. 3.25 g of sucrose in 186 mL
coffee
 3. A teardrop with a volume of 0.5 mL
contains 5.0 mg NaCl. What is the
molarity of NaCl in the teardrop?
 4. The label on the jar of a jam says it
contains 13.0 g of sucrose
(C12H22O11) per tablespoon (15 mL).
What is the molarity of sucrose in the
jam?

 5. What is the molarity (moles/Liter) when


25.0 g of the compound NaCl is placed in
85.0 mL of total solution?