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Concentration of Solutions

 A solution is a homogeneous
mixture of one substance (the
solute) dissolved in another
substance (the solvent).

 Solid solutions include brass,

bronze and steel.

 Concentration is a ratio of the

amount of solute to the amount
of solvent.
Most Common Types of Solutions

Solute Solvent Appearanceof

of Solution Example

Liquid Solid Solid 14-Carat gold

Solution Concentrations

Volume-Volume Percentage (Percent volume)

% volume = volume solute (mL) x 100
volume solution (mL)

Mass-Mass Percentage (Percent mass)

% mass = mass solute (g) x 100
mass solution (g)

mass of solution = mass solvent + mass solute

Mass-Volume Percentage

% m/v = __mass of solute __ x 100

volume of solution

The label on a bottle of vinegar says it contains 5.0% w/v

acetic acid (CH3COOH). The bottle contains 240 mL of
vinegar. How many grams of acetic acid are in the bottle?

240 mL x _5.0g CH3COOH_ = 12.0g CH3COOH

100 mL solution
Mass-Volume Percentage

 % m/v = __mass of solute __ x 100

volume of solution

5% = (x) (100)_
240 L
x = (0.05 g/mL) (240 mL)

x = 12.0 g
Solution Concentrations

Example 1:
What is the percent by volume concentration of a
solution in which 75.0 mL of ethanol is diluted to
a volume of 250.0 mL?

% = 75.0 mL x 100
250 mL

= 30.0%
Solution Concentrations

Example 2:
What volume of acetic acid is present in a bottle
containing 350.0 mL of a solution which measures
5.00% concentration?

0. 05 = x ___
350.0 mL

x = 17.5 mL
Solution Concentrations

Example 3:
Find the % by mass in which 41.0 g of NaCl is
dissolved in 331 grams of water.

% mass = 41.0 g x 100

372 g

= 11 %
Solution Concentrations
Example 4:
 Calculate the % of the solution that contains 20.0g of
sugar in 250 g of water.

%= mass of solute x 100

mass of solute + mass of solvent

= _ 20.0 g____ x 100

20.0g + 250.0 g

= 7.4 %
Solution Concentrations
Example 5:
 Determine the amount of NaOH dissolved in 400.0 g
of solution that is 1.25% concentrated.

mass of solution = 400 g

m/m% concentration = 1.25% Req’d: mass of NaOH

mass of solute = _mass % x mass of solution

100

= 1.25 % x 400 g
100
= 5.00 g NaOH
Example 6:
 If 15 mL of alcohol is added to 50 mL of water, what is
the concentration of the solution?
Given:
volume of alcohol = 15 mL
volume of water = 50 mL Req’d: v/v % of sol’n

v/v% = _______vol of alcohol______ x 100

vol of alcohol + vol of water

= _____15 mL____ x 100

15mL + 50 mL

= 23.08% or 23%
Molarity
 Molarity (M) is the most common unit of
concentration
 Molarity is an expression of moles/Liter of the
solution.
Molarity = mole
L
 M = 5 mg_NaCl 5 mg = 0.005g
0.5 mL 0.5 mL = 0.0005L
= 8.6 x 10-5 mol
0. 0005L
= 0.17 M

0.005 g NaCl x __1 mole_ = 8.6-5 x 10_mole

58 g NaCl
How to prepare 1M NaCl solution?
Preparing Solutions
 You just calculated the molar mass of sodium
chloride to be 58.44 g/mol.
 To determine how to make a stock solution of
sodium chloride, use the formula:

M = _moles of solute_
L

M = _g/mole_
Liter

g = M x L x molar mass
Making Solutions
 How many grams of NaCl would you need to prepare
200.0 mL of a 5 M solution?

g = M x L x molar mass
g = (5mol/L) (0.2L) (58.44g/mol)
g = 58.44 g
Diluting Solutions
Diluting Solutions

Often once you have made a stock solution, you

need to dilute it to a working concentration.

To determine how to dilute the stock solution,

use the formula:

C1V1 = C2V2
C1 – concentration of stock
C2 - concentration of diluted solution
V1 – volume needed of stock
V2 – final volume of dilution
Diluting Solutions

Example 7:
How many milliliters of a 5 M stock solution of NaCl are
needed to prepare 100 ml of a 0.4 M solution?

C1 V1 = C2 V2
(5) V1 = (0.4)(100)
V1= 8 mL
 How would you prepare 100 mL of 0.4 M MgSO4
from a stock solution of 2.0 M MgSO4?
M1V1 = M2V2
(2.0 M) (x) = (0.4 M) (100 mL)
x = 40 M mL
2.0 M
= 20 mL

water up to 100 mL mark of the flask.
 If 1.0L of water is added to 3.0 L of a 6.0 M
solution of HCl, what is the new molarity of the
acid solution?
M1V1 = M2V2
(6.0M) (3.0 L) = (x) (4.0 L)
18.0 M L = x 4.0 L_
4.0 L 4.0 L

4.5 M = x
Exercise:
1. Describe how to prepare the following
solutions:
 a. 280.0 mL of a 27% v/v solution of
ethanol (C2H6O) in water?
 b. 435 mL of 1.8% v/v solution of
Ethyl acetate (C4H8O2) in water?
c. 1.65 L of an 8% v/v solution of
benzene (C6H6) in chloroform
(CHCl3)?
2. Calculate the w/v % of each of these
solutes:
 a. 623 mg of casein in 15.0 mL of
milk
 b. 74 mg of vitamin C in 250 mL of
orange juice
 c. 3.25 g of sucrose in 186 mL
coffee
 3. A teardrop with a volume of 0.5 mL
contains 5.0 mg NaCl. What is the
molarity of NaCl in the teardrop?
 4. The label on the jar of a jam says it
contains 13.0 g of sucrose
(C12H22O11) per tablespoon (15 mL).
What is the molarity of sucrose in the
jam?

 5. What is the molarity (moles/Liter) when

25.0 g of the compound NaCl is placed in
85.0 mL of total solution?

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