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 Computer has become a part of our
life. Today along with calculations,
their work area is very wide-
supermarket scanners scan and
calculate our grocery bill and also
keep store inventory, automatic
teller machines (ATMs) help us in
banking transaction. How the
technology has developed and what
its future course is. To understand
this first we should know about the
different generation of computers.
First-generation computers used vacuum tubes and values
as their basic electronic component. They were extremely
large in size and reliable. The language used for storing and
processing data was machine language.
Some of the first-generation computers are:
 ENIAC(electronic numerical integrator and calculator) – it
was built in 1946 at the university of PENNSYLVANIA, U S A
 EDVAC (electronic discrete variable automatic computer) –
developed in 1950
 EDSAC (electronic delay storage automatic computer)
– it was developed by MV WILIKES at Cambridge
University in 1949

 Univac-I - The Universal Automatic Computer was

USA’S first commercially available computer system. It
was delivered in 1951 by the ECKERT-MAUCHLY
computer corp.
The disadvantages of the first-generation computers
1. They were too bulky.
2. They emitted large amounts of heat because they
used lots of vacuum tubes.
3. AIR conditioning was required.
4. They were prone to frequent failure that’s why they
were unreliable.
5. They were not portable.
In the generation of computers, transistors were used
in place of vacuum tubes. Transistors are more
compact than vacuum tubes as they are made up of
semiconductors. They are also more durable than
vacuum tubes. Programming languages some of the
computers of the second generation are:
 IBM 1620 – Its size was used smaller as compared to
the first-generation computers and it was used
mostly for scientific purpose.
 IBM 1401- IT was used for was business application.
 CDC 3600- IT was used for scientific purpose.
ADVANTAGES The advantages that the second-
generation computers had over the generation
computers are:
 They were smaller as compared to first-generation
 They generated less heat.
 They took comparatively less computers time.
 They were less prone to failure.

DISADVANTAGES The disadvantages that second

generation computer had over the first generation
commuter are:
 They required Air Conditioning.
 Frequent maintenance was required.
 They were difficult and quite expensive
 In the third generation of computers integrated
circuits (ICs) began to be used. These ICs were
called chips. These ICs are more compact than a
transistor. Single ICs has many transistors, registers
and capacitors, placed on a single thin of silicon. So
the computer built of such components became
smaller. Some of the computers developed during
this period were :
 IBM- 360- Developed by IBM in 1964.
 PDP – 8 -Developed by DEC in 1965.
 PDP- 11 - Developed by DEC IN 1970.
 RA 1 - Developed by CRAY research in 1974.
 VAX - Developed by DEC 1978.
The advantages that the third-generated
computers had over the second generation
computers were:
1. They were smaller in size as compared to
the second-generation computers.
2. They generated less heat.
3. They reduced computational time.
4. They involved low maintenance cost.
5. They were easily portable.
6. They were comparatively cheaper.
Fourth-generation computers used very large
integration (VLSI) technology. After the induction
of integrated circuits, computers could only get
small in size, since hundreds of computers could
fit onto one chip. By the 1890s, the use of VLSI
technology had squeezed hundreds of thousands
of computers onto a single chip. Ultra-large scale
integration (ULSI) increased that number to
millions. This also helped decrease the price of
computers are IBM-PC, Apple macintosh, sun
SPARC station etc.
 They advantages of fourth generation
computers over
Third-generation computers are:
 They were cheaper.
 They had a larger memory and high
functional speed.
 They consumed less power.
 They generated a negligible amount of
Fifth generation computing devices, based on
artificial intelligence, are still in development,
though there are some applications, such as
voice recognition, that are being used today. The
use of parallel processing and superconductors
is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.
Quantum computation and molecular and
nanotechnology will radically change the face of
computers in years to come. The goal of fifth
generation computing is to develop devices that
respond to natural language input and are
capable of learning and self-organization.
 Less power consumption .
 High performance, lower cost and very compact.
 Computers based on artificial intelligence are
 Portable note book computers introduced .
 Memory chips up to 1 GB, hard disk drives up to
180 GB and optical disks up to 27 GB are
available (still the capacity is increasing) .
 Functional block diagram consists of
three basic units:
1) Input/Output devices
2) System Unit
3) Storage Unit
 Computer hardware system consists of
different types of devices. Each device is
connected directly or indirectly to the
motherboard. These are classified into
three basic categories:
 Input / Output Devices: User enters the commands and data through the
keyboard or mouse, these data are translated into a form that computer can
process. After processing the data, output devices converts it into human
understandable format.
 Commonly used input/output devices are keyboard, mouse, monitor and
 System Unit : Also called as system cabinet contains the most of the electronic
components that make up a computer system. Important component is
processor, which controls and manipulates data to produce information. Clock
is used to synchronize the whole circuitry of the system.
 RAM (Random Access Memory) use to store temporarily data to read or write
data onto the disk/memory. ROM (Read Only Memory) contains permanently
stored programs such as monitor programs. Expansion slots are available on
motherboard to enhance computer system by using graphics cards, sound
cards, TV tuner card etc. Ports are connecting sockets on the system unit like
monitor port, printer port, USB port, RJ45 port and audio port.
 Storage Unit : Attached hard disk inside the cabinet is mainly used as storage
device, as it can store more data and faster than CD drive. But still CD
(Compact disc) and DVD (Digital Video Disc) are used to store and transfer
data from one pc to another.
Some of the following
components may be similar to
what you have seen while seated
at a personal computer.
Used for making selections.
There are two buttons on a
mouse. Most actions are
performed using the left mouse
button. Some mice have cords
and some do not.

Used for entering data, generating commands.

The keyboard layout is similar to a typewriter
with additional keys for other functions. There is
a number keypad to the right of the main
alphabetical keypad.

The monitor is the visual component of the
computer. It displays information to the user.
This is a required part of the computer. This
part requires electricity so it will have its own
power cord to plug into an outlet.
 Speakers

The speakers are the audio

component of the computer.
 Printer

The printer is used to develop

a hard copy or paper copy of a
document or picture. The
printer connects to the
computer and requires the use
of its own power cord.
 Computer System Unit

This is where everything comes

together to work. The system box
holds the central processing unit to
act as the brains of the computer.
The unit contains the motherboard
which is the main circuitry for the
system. The power supply for the
main computer is located in the
unit. All the other parts including
the monitor, mouse, keyboard,
speakers, and others join at the unit
to become a functional system.
 Compact Disk (CD)
This device is used for storage.
Some CDs hold information to be
loaded into a computer. Some are
used to hold information from the
computer. It depends on what type
of CD it is.
 Thumb / Pen Drive
The thumb drive is a portable
storage device. You use it store
information from a computer and
use it on another system. They are
also known as flash drives.
 Hardware All physical contents of computer
are hardware. This form is given to all
electrical and mechanical devices attached
to the computer for the purpose of input,
process, and storage and output operations
 Software is a general term used for
computer Programs. A computer program is
a planned, step by step set of instructions
that directs the computer what to do and
how to do
 The programs directly related to the
computer hardware and perform tasks
associated with controlling and utilizing
computer hardware
 Application Software – An application is a
job or task a user wants to accomplish
through a computer. – Application
software are programs that help a user
perform a specific job.
 • System software is computer software designed
to operate the computer hardware, to provide
basic functionality, and to provide a platform for
running application software.
 System software includes device drivers,
operating systems, servers, utilities, and window
 System software is responsible for managing a
variety of independent hardware components, so
that they can work together harmoniously.
 • System control programs – controls the execution of
programs, manage the storage & processing
resources of the computer & perform other
management & monitoring function. – The most
important of these programs is the operating system.
 System support programs provide routine service
functions to the other computer programs &
computer users: E.g. Utilities, libraries,
Ex:Text editors, language translators such as BASIC
System Development Programs – They assists in the
creation of computer programs. Examples of system
development are – – programming language,
language translations.
 Application software are the software that are
designed to satisfy a particular need of a
particular environment.
 All software prepared by us in the computer lab.

Examples of application software are-student

record software, railway reservation software,
income tax software, word processors etc.
Examples include enterprise software,
accounting software, office suites, graphics
software and media players
1) Opera (Web Browser)
2) Microsoft Word (Word Processing)
3) Microsoft Excel (Spreadsheet software)
4) Microsoft Publishing
5) MySQL (Database Software)
6) Microsoft Powerpoint (Presentation Software)
7) iTunes (Music / Sound Software)
8) VLC Media Player (Audio / Video Software )
9) World of Warcraft (Game Software)
10) Adobe Photoshop (Graphics Software)
 MS Word

 MS Excel

 MS Power point

 Publisher

 Outlook
Suite of products developed by Microsoft Corporation that
 Microsoft Word
 Excel
 Access
 Publisher
 PowerPoint
 Outlook
Each program serves a different purpose and is compatible
with other programs included in the package. The suite of
programs is compatible with both the Windows and
Macintosh operating system. Microsoft Office is the most
common form of software used in the western world.
 Microsoft Word or MS-WORD (often called
Word) is a graphical word processing program
that users can type with. It is made by the
computer company Microsoft. The purpose of
the MS Word is to allow the users to type and
save documents. Similar to other word
processors, it has helpful tools to make