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THE SOLAR

SYSTEM
THE SOLAR SYSTEM

• The Solar System is a


collective name for the Sun
together with the groups of
celestial (heavenly) bodies
that are held in it’s gravity
and revolve around the Sun.
Members of the Solar System
• 1. The Sun- is a star, a huge
ball of hot gases with a
temperature of around
15,000,000 degrees Celsius at
the center and 5,000 degrees
Celsius at the surface.
Members of the Solar System
• 2. The Planets- classified
into four Terrestrial
(Mercury, Venus, Earth and
Mars) and four Gaseous or
Jovian (Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus and Neptune)
Members of the Solar System

• 3. Comets
• 4. Meteoroids
• 5. Asteroids
• 6. Dwarf Planets in the
Kuiper Belt
How did the Planets Form?
Nebular Theory
• A nebula is a cloud of gas and/or dust in
space.
• According to the nebular theory, the sun
and planets formed from a rotating disk
of dust and gases.
Planetesimals
• Planetesimals are small, irregularly
shaped bodies formed by colliding matter.
The Nebular Theory
The Planets
Compositions of Planet
Gases, hydrogen an helium, are those
with melting points near absolute zero (0
Kelvin). These are the most abundant
constituents of the solar nebula.
Rocks, principally silicate minerals and
metallic iron which have melting points
that exceed 700ºC.
Ices, include ammonia, methane, carbon
dioxide and water. They have immediate
melting points.
The Inner (Terrestrial) Planets

• Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars


1. MERCURY
• Nearest planet to the Sun.
• It is very hot during the day, 426
degrees Celsius and very cold at
night -170 degrees Celsius.
• Surface has many craters
because it has no atmosphere.
1. MERCURY
• Mercury has no moons.

• Rotation: 58 days, 15 hours, 30


minutes.
• Revolution: 88 days.
• The Fastest planet.
1. MERCURY
2. VENUS
• Second planet from the Sun.
• Aside from the Sun, Venus is the
brightest object in the sky
commonly referred to as the
“Morning and Evening Star”
• Considered as the Twin Planet
of the Earth.
2. VENUS “The Veiled Planet”
2. VENUS
• Venus is known as the hottest
planet because of its very thick
atmosphere made up of Carbon
dioxide.
• The layer of Carbon dioxide traps
heat and results to Greenhouse
Effect, sending temperatures if 482
°C.
The Atmosphere of Venus
2. VENUS
• The clouds of Venus are mostly
Sulfuric acid, which gives Venus
a yellow-white color. All the
rains in Venus are acid rain.
• The surface of Venus has faults
and volcanoes.
The Surface of Venus
2. VENUS
• Venus is the Earth’s closest
neighbor.
• It was the first planet to be
studied with space in 1962.
• Venus has no moons and the
gravity is as strong as the Earth.
The Volcanoes in Venus
2. VENUS
• Rotation: 116 days, 18 hours.
• Revolution: 225 days

• Venus’ rotation is very slow that it


only rotates nearly two times in
one year.
3. EARTH “The Living Planet”
•Earth is the third
planet from the
Sun.
•It is the only
living planet
where life
exist.
3. EARTH
• Earth is rich in
liquid water
that supports
life.
• It has
atmosphere
that supports
and protects life.
3. EARTH
• Earth’s atmosphere burns most of
the meteors before the reach the
Earth’s surface.
3. The Earth’s Moon
• The Earth has one
large Moon.
• Rotation: 23 hours,
56 minutes, 4.2
seconds
• Revolution: 365 ¼
days
4. MARS “The Red Planet”
4. MARS
• Mars is known as the “Red Planet”,
its surface appears red-yellow
because of Iron oxide in the soil and
dust that covers most of the planet.
• Mars has a thin atmosphere
composed mostly of Carbon
dioxide, small amounts of Oxygen
and Nitrogen.
The Atmosphere of Mars (L)
4. MARS
• Mars has water in its atmosphere
but not enough to condense and
form clouds.
• Days on Mars are almost the
same as on Earth.
• Rotation: 24 hours, 37 minutes
• Revolution: 687 days
Mars Seasons
4. MARS

• Mars was once believed to


have water.
• Mount Olympus Mons, the
largest volcano in the Solar
System is in Mars.
Mount Olympus Mons
Mt. Olympus Mons
700 km wide, 23 km tall
4. MARS

• Mars’ gravity is 2/5 as


strong as the Earth.
• Mars has two irregularly
shaped moons- Phobos
(25km) and Deimos (13km)
Phobos and Deimos
The Terrestrial Planets
• Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are
called Terrestrial Planets because they
have rocky surfaces and metal cores.
ASTEROID BELT

• An Asteroid Belt is found between


the orbit of Mars and Jupiter.
• The Asteroid Belt separates the
Terrestrial Planets and the Jovian
or Gas Giants.
ASTERIOD BELT
THE OUTER PLANETS
“The Gas Giants”
“The Jovian Planets”
1. Jupiter
2. Saturn
3. Uranus
4. Neptune
5. JUPITER
5. JUPITER
• Jupiter is the largest gaseous
planet in our Solar System.
• It is more than 11 times the size
of Earth.
• The great mass of Jupiter enables
it to generate very strong
gravitational force.
5. JUPITER
5. JUPITER
• Jupiter is a gaseous planet.
• Jupiter’s atmosphere is made up
of Hydrogen, Helium,
Methane, Ammonia and Water
Vapor.
• Jupiter has very small, faint dust
rings around it.
Jupiter’s Rings
Jupiter’s Atmosphere
Jupiter’s Moons
• Jupiter has at least 63 moons.
• Four moons were first observed
by Galileo Galilei and was
named Galilean Moons-
Ganymede, Io, Europa and
Callisto.
Galilean Moons
Jupiter’s Moons
• Ganymede- largest moon in the
Solar System, bigger than Mercury.
• Io- has an active volcano
• Callisto- has water, made mostly
of rocks and ice.
• Europa- rock, thick smooth crust
of ice.
Jupiter’s Great Red Spot
Jupiter’s Great Red Spot
• Most striking feature is the Great
Red Spot in the southern
hemisphere which is a
counterclockwise rotating storm.
• Rotation: 9 hours, 56 minutes
• Revolution: 12 years
6. SATURN “The Elegant Planet”
6. SATURN
• Saturn is the second largest
planet but has the lowest
density.
• 9.5 times larger than Earth.
• Radiates more energy into space.
• Rotation: 10 hours, 39 minutes
• Revolution: 29 years
Saturn’s Atmosphere
•Saturn is a
gaseous planet.
•It has a thick
atmosphere of
Hydrogen, Helium,
some Methane and
Water Vapor.
Saturn’s Rings
Saturn’s Moons
• Saturn has at least 31 moons.
• The largest is Titan.
Saturn’s Moons
7. URANUS “The Sideways Planet”
7. URANUS
• Uranus is the third largest planet
with a system of 11 thin, dark rings.
• Discovered by William Herschel on
March 13, 1781.
• Atmosphere is made up of
Hydrogen, Helium and some
Methane which gives the planet’s
bluish- green color.
Uranus’ Atmosphere
URANUS
• Uranus radiates the same amount
of solar energy it receives.
• Uranus’ axis of rotation is tilted at
84 degrees on its side.
• The result is its North Pole faces
the Sun for ½ of 84 years
revolution.
Uranus’ Rings
7. Uranus
• Rotation: 17 hours, 14 minutes
• Revolution: 84 years
• Uranus’ gravity is a little stronger
than of the Earth.
• Has at least 21 moons, largest is
Titania.
Uranus’ Moons
8. NEPTUNE ‘The Windy Planet”
8. NEPTUNE
• Neptune is the fourth largest
planet.
• Neptune has an elliptical orbit.
• Atmosphere is made up of
Methane, which gives the bluish-
green color.
Neptune’s Atmosphere
Neptune’s “Great Dark Spot”
8. NEPTUNE
• Neptune has a dark colored storm
called Great Dark Spot.
• Neptune has the fastest winds
in the Solar System.
• Neptune has at least 11 moons,
largest is Triton.
Neptune’s Moons
Neptune’s Rings
8. NEPTUNE
• Neptune was discovered in Berlin
Observatory, Germany by Johann
Gottfried Galle on September 23-24,
1846.
• Rotation: 16 hours, 6 minutes
• Revolution: 165 years
What are the
eight planet
in the solar
system?
Fill this up !
From the picture, what
do you think are the
inner and outer
planets?
Why are they called the
inner and outer
planets?
Setting Standard for group
activity
1. Check all the needed
materials.
2. Cooperate.
3. Do the activity silently.
Activity II- Scrambled letter
Activity I- Concept Mapping
Write the name of 8 planets in
the solar system

planets
In our Solar System,
astronomers often divide the
planets into two groups — the
inner planets and the
outer planets. The inner
planets are closer to the Sun and
are smaller and rockier. The outer
planets are further away, larger
and made up mostly of gas.
The inner planets
The four inner planets are called terrestrial
planets because their surfaces are
solid (and, as the name implies,
somewhat similar to Earth — although
the term can be misleading because
each of the four has vastly different
environments). They’re made up mostly
of heavy metals such as iron and nickel,
and have either no moons or few
moons.
Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1.The inner planet is also known as_____
Jovian Planets
Red Planet
Terrestrial planets
Morning planet
2.The planets of the solar system can be
categorized as _____.
A. Inner and outer space
B. Inner and outer planets
C. Inner and outer places
D. Inner core and outer core
3. What you call as Jovian planet?
A. Inner planet
B. Outer core
C. inner core
D. Outer planet
4. Which are the inner planets?
A. Mars , Jupiter, Saturn, Earth
B. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
C. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
D. Pluto, Mars, Jupiter, Earth
6. What planets are all made up of gases?
A. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
B. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
C. Mars Jupiter Saturn and Uranus
D. Venus, Mars ,Saturn and Pluto
7. What planets are mostly made up of rocks
and they all have solid surface.
A. Pluto, Mars, Jupiter , Saturn
B. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
C. Earth , Mars, Jupiter and
Neptune
D. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
8. How many are inner planets?
A. 5 B. 6. C. 4 D. 3
9. How many outer planets do we
have?
A. 8 B. 4 C. 7 D. 1
10. Which group of planets are the giant
planet
A. Jupiter, Saturn , Uranus, Neptune
B. Saturn, Mars, Earth, Mercury
C. Saturn, Uranus, Venus , Mars
D. Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn.
• 1. Planets and their Moons
• 2. The Solar System Grand Tour
Why isn’t Pluto
considered a planet
anymore?
Video
The Dwarf Planets
Kuiper Belt or Edgeworth
The Trans-Neptunian Objects
(TNO’s)
1. PLUTO
• Pluto was considered the 9th planet
until 2006.
• The Discovery of the Kuiper Belt
that lies beyond the orbit of Pluto
reclassified it into a member of the
Dwarf Planet.
PLUTO
• Rotation: 6.378 days, the
same with its moon Charon.
• Revolution: 248 years
• Atmosphere is made up of
Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide,
Methane
Pluto and Charon
2. CERES
• Ceres is considered as the
largest asteroid orbiting
between Mars and Jupiter.
• It has self gravity which makes
it round and qualify as a dwarf
planet.
CERES
3. ERIS
• Eris was discovered in 2005 by
Mike Brown and is located
beyond the orbit of Neptune.
• Eris is one of the dwarf planets
in the Kuiper Belt.
ERIS
The Kuiper Belt or Edgeworth

• This is a circumstellar disc in the


outer Solar System extending from
the orbit of Neptune.
• It is similar to the asteroid belt
between Mars and Jupiter but is far
larger 20-200 times wider and more
massive.
The Dwarf Planets in the Kuiper Belt
The Dwarf Planets in the Kuiper Belt
OTHER MEMBERS OF THE
SOLAR SYSTEM

1. Comet
2. Meteoroids
3. Asteroids (Planetoids)
1. COMET
COMET
• A Comet is made up of dust and
rock particles mixed with frozen
water, methane and ammonia.
• Comets also revolve around the
Sun.
COMETS
• As a Comet goes near the Sun, it
heats up and develop a tail.
• A Comet’s tail is generally
directed away from the Sun.
• Parts of a Comet are: Nucleus,
Head or Coma, Gas Tail and
Dust Tail
Halley’s Comet (86years)
Parts of a Comet
2. METEOROIDS
METEOROIDS
• Meteoroids are the pieces of dust
and rock particles that breaks from
a Comet’s nucleus.
• When these rocks enter the Earth’s
atmosphere, they are called
Meteors, when they reach the
ground they are called Meteorites.
METEOROIDS
Perseid Meteor Shower
3. ASTERIODS
ASTERIODS
• Asteroids are also known as
Planetoids that are made up of
small rocks and also revolve
around the Sun.
• Asteroids are chinks of rocks that
has failed to develop into a
planet.
What do you call a person that
Studies the heavenly bodies?
ASTRONOMER
Where does an
Astronomer work?
OBSERVATORY
The Universe