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# Ever wondered that how

• Each point on
earth is
referenced by
two numbers
named:
• Latitude
• Longitude
An imaginary axis about which the Earth rotates
Equator Vs. Prime Meridian
• Equator divides
the Earth
horizontally in two
equal halves

• Prime Meridian
divides the Earth
vertically in two
equal halves
Equator Vs. Prime Meridian

• Prime meridian
divides Earth into:
• Eastern Hemisphere
• Western Hemisphere
Equator Vs. Prime Meridian

## • Equator divides earth

into:
• Northern Hemisphere
• Western Hemisphere
Latitude Vs.
Longitude
Latitude Vs. Longitude
Lines of Latitude are:
• Known as parallels
• Run in East-West direction
• Measure distance north or south of
Equator
• Parallel to each other and never meet
• Cross prime-meridian at right angles
• Lie in plane that cross the Earth’s axis at
right angles
• Longest at Equator and get shorter
towards poles
Latitude Vs. Longitude
Lines of Longitude are:
• Known as meridians
• Equal in length
• Run in north-south direction
• Halves of great circles
• Meet at poles, farthest at equator
• Meet equator at right angle
• Measure distance east/west of prime
meridian
• Lie in planes that pass through Earth’s
axis
Representation of Latitude/Longitude
For Latitudes:
North of Equator is
positive
South of Equator is
negative

For Longitudes
East of Prime-meridian is
positive
West of Prime-meridian is
negative
Methods of Computation of Area
Area from Field Notes

## During survey work,

The whole area is
divided into
geometrical figures
like rectangles,
triangles, trapezoids
etc.
An example of Cross-staff survey
Area from Field Notes

## An example of Cross-staff survey Corresponding plan

Area from Field Notes
Methods of
Computation
of Area

REGULAR FIGURES
Methods of
Computation
of Area

REGULAR FIGURES
Area from Plotted Plan (Entire Area)
1. By dividing area into triangles
Triangles are drawn to equalize irregular
boundary line.
Then, base and altitudes are
determined according to scale to which
plan was drawn.

## Area of each triangle=

½*(Base*Altitude)
Total area=Sum of areas of all triangles
Area from Plotted Plan (Entire Area)
2. By dividing the area into squares

Approximate method
Squares of equal sizes ruled out on a
tracing paper.
Each square represents a unit area
The tracing paper is placed over the plan
and the number of squares covered by
the plan are counted.
Total area= Number of squares*Unit
area of 1 square
Area from Plotted Plan (Entire Area)
3. By drawing parallel lines and converting
them to rectangles
Series of equidistant parallel lines are drawn on
tracing paper
Tracing paper is laid on plan
Whole area is divided into strips
Curved ends of strips are replaced by
perpendicular lines

## Total area= (Sum of lengths of all rectangles)*Strip

width
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)
• A large square or rectangle is
formed within the plan
• Then, ordinates are drawn at
regular intervals from the
side of square to the curved
boundary.
• The middle area is calculated
by usual way.
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)

## The boundary area is calculated

according to one of the following
rules:
• The mid-ordinate rule
• The average ordinate rule
• Trapezoidal rule
• Simpson’s rule
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)
1. MID-ORDINATE RULE
• Boundary between the ends of
ordinates is considered straight.
• Ordinates are drawn at equal
intervals called common
interval.
ℎ1 , ℎ2 , … , ℎ𝑛 = 𝑚𝑖𝑑 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠
𝑂𝑛 + 𝑂𝑛+1
ℎ𝑛 =
2
𝑑 = 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑙
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑡
= (ℎ1 × 𝑑) + ℎ2 × 𝑑 + ⋯ + (ℎ𝑛 × 𝑑)
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)

## • Boundary between the ends

of ordinates is considered
straight
• Ordinates are drawn at equal
intervals.

𝑂1 + 𝑂2 + ⋯ + 𝑂𝑛
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑡 = × 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒
𝑛
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑡 = 𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 × 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)
3. TRAPEZOIDAL RULE

## Boundaries between the

ends of ordinates are
assumed to be straight. 𝑶𝟏 + 𝑶𝟐
Thus, areas enclosed 𝟏𝒔𝒕 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = ×𝒅
𝟐
between base line and 𝑶𝟐 + 𝑶𝟑
𝟐𝒏𝒅 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = ×𝒅
irregular boundary line are 𝟐
considered trapezoidal. 𝑶𝒏 + 𝑶𝒏+𝟏
𝒏 − 𝒕𝒉 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = ×𝒅
𝒅 𝟐
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = × 𝑶𝟏 + 𝑶𝟐 + 𝑶𝟐 + 𝑶𝟑 + ⋯ + 𝑶𝒏+𝟏
𝟐
𝒅
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = × 𝟏𝒔𝒕 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆 + 𝒍𝒂𝒔𝒕 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆 + 𝟐 × 𝒔𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒐𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒓 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒔
𝟐
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)

## 3. Trapezoidal Area (Contd…)

Total area= To the sum of 1st and last ordinates, add twice the sum of
intermediate ordinates. Multiply this sum by the common distance.
Then, divide the product by 2.

## Limitation: There is no limitation in using this rule. This rule can be

used for any number of ordinates.
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)
4. Simpson’s Rule
• Boundaries between
the ends of ordinates
are assumed to form an
arc of parabola.
• Also known as “
Parabolic rule”

## 𝑶𝟏 , 𝑶𝟐 & 𝑶𝟑 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒓𝒆𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒆𝒄𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒔

Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)
4. Simpson’s Rule (Contd..)

## 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐴𝐹𝑒𝐷𝐶 = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑝𝑒𝑧𝑖𝑢𝑚 𝐴𝐹𝐷𝐶

+𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑔𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐹𝑒𝐷𝐸𝐹 … 1

2
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑔𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐹𝑒𝐷𝐸𝐹 = × 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 𝐹𝑓𝑑𝐷
3
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 = 𝐸𝑒 × 2𝑑
𝑂1 + 𝑂3
𝐸𝑒 = 𝑂2 −
2
𝑂1 + 𝑂3
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑝𝑒𝑧𝑖𝑢𝑚 𝐴𝐹𝐷𝐶 = × 2𝑑
2
Putting in eq. (1)
𝑂1 + 𝑂3 2 𝑂1 + 𝑂3
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐴𝐹𝑒𝐷𝐶 = × 2𝑑 + × 𝑂2 − × 2𝑑
2 3 2
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)
4. Simpson’s Rule (Contd..)

𝑑
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑓𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡 2 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 = × {𝑂1 + (4 ×
3
𝑂2 ) + 𝑂3 }
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑛𝑒𝑥𝑡 2 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠
𝑑
= × 𝑂3 + 4 × 𝑂4 + 𝑂5
3
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
𝑑
= × 𝑂1 + 4𝑂2 + 2𝑂3 + 4𝑂4 + 2𝑂5 + ⋯ + 𝑂𝑛
3
𝒅
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = × 𝑶𝟏 + 𝑶𝒏 + 𝟒 × 𝑶𝟐 + 𝑶𝟒 + ⋯ + 𝟐 × 𝑶𝟑 + 𝑶𝟓 + ⋯
𝟑
Area from Plotted Plan (Boundary Area)
4. Simpson’s Rule (Contd..)
𝑪𝒐𝒎𝒎𝒐𝒏 𝒅𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = × { 𝟏𝒔𝒕 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆 + 𝒍𝒂𝒔𝒕 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆
𝟑
+𝟒 𝒔𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒔 + 𝟐 𝒔𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒐𝒅𝒅 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒔

## Limitation: This rule is applicable only

when the number of divisions are even OR
the number of ordinates are odd.