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THE NATURE AND SCOPE

OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
(PHILIPPINE CONTEXT)
Objectives

 Explain the nature and scope of curriculum development in Philippines


Context.
 Determine the two schools of thought on Curriculum development
 State the basic Principles in Curriculum development
 Identify the steps in the curriculum development
Definitions of Curriculum

 Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to b


ring about desired outcomes in school and out-of-school situations.
 It is also defined as a sequence of potential experiences set up in sch
ool for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways o
f thinking and acting
Definition(s) of Curriculum

 Curriculum – is a structured set of learning outcomes or ta


sk that educators usually call goals and objectives. ( Howe
ll and Evans 1995)
 Curriculum – is the “what” of teaching.
 Curriculum – listings of subjects to be taught in school.
Curriculum Planning

 A curriculum Plan is the advance arrangement of learning op


portunities for a particular population of learners.
 A Curriculum Planning is the process whereby the arrangeme
nt of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created.
Curriculum Development

 It is defined as the process of selecting, organizing,


executing, and evaluating learning experiences on the basis
of the needs, abilities and interests of the learners and the
nature of the society or community.
Curriculum Laboratory

 Curriculum laboratory is a place or workshop where curriculum


materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners of curricu
lum.
Curriculum Development in the
Philippines
 Touched on the religion, economic, political, and social
influences and events that took place in the country. •
Colonial rules in the Philippines tailored the curriculum to
serve colonial goals and objectives.
TWO SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT ON
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

The The
progressive essentialist
school school
The Essentialist School

 It considers the curriculum as something rigid


consisting of discipline subjects.
 • It considers all learners as much as the same
and it aims to fit the learner into the existing
social order and thereby maintain the status quo
 • Its major motivation is discipline and considers
freedom as an outcome and not a means of
education.
The Essentialist School

 Its approach is authoritative and the teacher’s


role is to assign lessons and to recite recitations.
 • It is book-centered and the methods
recommended are memory work , mastery of
facts and skills, and development of abstract
intelligence.
The Essentialist School

 It has no interest in social action and life


activities.
 • Its measurement of outcomes are standard tests
based on subject matter mastery.
Traditional Points of View of Curriculum

•Body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the


teachers for the students to learn.
• Synonymous to “course study”.
• “Permanent studies” where the rule of grammar, reading,
rhetoric, logic and mathematics for basic education
emphasized.(Hutchins)
• Most of the traditional ideas view curriculum as written
documents or plan of action in accomplishing goals.
The Progressive School

• It conceives of the curriculum as something flexible based


on areas of interest.
• It is learner-centered, having in mind that no two persons
are alike.
• Its factor of motivation is individual achievement
believing that persons are naturally good
• Its measurement of outcomes are now devices taking into
consideration subject matter and personality values.
The Progressive School

 The Role of the teacher is to stimulate direct learning


process.
 It uses a life experience approach to fit the student for
future social life.
 Constant revision of aims and experimental techniques of
teaching and learning are imperatives in curriculum
development in order to create independent thinking,
initiative, self-reliance, individuality, self expression and
activity in the learner. uses a life experience approach to
fit the student for future social life.
Progressive Points of View of Curriculum

• Listing of subjects, syllabi, course of study and list of


courses or specific discipline can only be called curriculum if
these written materials are actualized by the learner.
• Total learning experiences of the individual.
• All experiences children have under the guidance of
teachers. – Caswell & Campbell
• Experiences in the classroom which are planned and
enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students. –
Marsh and Willis
Curriculum principles

 arethe values a school believes will give


both their pupils and community the best
chance of succeeding, and what they know
to be right, given its context.
 In curriculum development, we think about the type of learning
experiences to be given to a child at various age and grade levels.

 It needs a systematic and sequential planning to widen the sphere of


the learning experience at each level by keeping in view the
principles of integration and correlation.
 Whatshould we teach? What should be the content
of education?

 Howshould we organize it and how should we


teach?
Suitability to the age and mental level of
the children

 What is to be given to the children in the form of learning experiences at a


particular age and grade level should suit their age and mental
development

 The capacity for understanding, how children grow with age. The content
of the study in any subject should be formed to suit their mental ability.
According to the specific interests of
students

 Children will be able to learn better in fields where they have special
tastes and inclination of the mind.
 It is also found that at different stages of age groups, children have
different interest patterns.
 Interests of children also change according to circumstances and
situations.
 Therefore learning experiences should be designed to suit the interests
and tastes of the age group of students.
The curriculum should be
environmentally centered

 The content of the learning experiences for children should be linked


with the needs of the environment in which they live.
 For example, children from rural areas can understand and grasp easily
the information which is directly concerned with their experiences in
their own rural environment.
 The same thing applies to children in the various environment like urban
areas, hilly areas etc.
The principle of the comprehensive
curriculum

 The curriculum must have necessary details. List of topics to be covered does
not solve the purpose.

 Both teachers and students should know clearly what is expected of them,
what is the beginning and what is the end of the topic for the particular class.

 Material, aids, activities, life situations etc. should be listed in the


curriculum.
Principle of co-relation

 The curriculum should be such that all the subjects are


correlated with each other.

 While designing the curriculum, it must be kept in mind


that the subject matter of various subjects has some
relation to each other so that they help the child
eventually.
The principle of practical work

 Children are very active by nature.

 They like new things and can learn more by doing or by activity
method.

 Therefore curriculum should be designed in such a way that it


provides maximum opportunity to the child for practical work with
the help of concrete things.
Principle of flexibility

 Instead of being rigid curriculum should show the sign of flexibility.

 The organization of the curriculum should be on the basis of individual


differences as every child is different from the other.

 Apart from this conditions of society go on changing, therefore, the


curriculum must be flexible enough to address the needs as aspirations of
the society.
Principle of forward-looking

 This principle asks for the inclusion of those topics, content and
learning experiences that may prove helpful to the students in leading
their future life in a proper way.
The principle of consultation with
teachers

 Teachers play a key role in the implementation of the school curriculum


of any grade or stage.

 It is therefore quite essential to seek the proper involvement of the


teachers in the construction and development of school curriculum.
The principle of joint venture

 It is necessarily a joint venture where various experts are involved


like educational psychologists, educational technologists,
curriculum specialists, evaluation specialists, teachers, subject
matter experts etc.
The Principle of the Availability
of Time and Resources
 Curriculum is the means to realize the outcomes of the educational objectives of the
school

 Implementation of curriculum is equally important as curriculum construction

 While developing, curriculum experts should also keep its implementation in mind.
They should be aware of the conditions of the schools and the availability of time ad
resources available
Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principle

1. Purposes of the school


2. Educational experiences related to the purpose
3. Organization of the experiences
4. Evaluation of the experiences
Tyler’s Questions of Curriculum Development will
provide 4 steps:

• What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?


• What educational experiences can be provided that are likely
to attain these purposes?
• How can these educational experiences be effectively
organised?
• How can we determine whether these purposes are being
attained?
• Selection of Aims
1

• Selection of Content & Learning Experiences


2

• Organization of content & Learning Experiences


3

• Evaluation of Learning outcomes


4
Steps in Curriculum Development
 curriculum development comes from the latin word
meaning race course Developing a curriculum for a
training seminar can seem like a daunting task, but it
doesn’t have to be! Following these steps will ensure a
successful curriculum design.
 Fun Fact: the first use of the word “curriculum” was early in the
seventeenth century at the University of Glasgow here in Scotland!
The word “curriculum” comes from the Latin word which means “a
race” or “the course of the race”. By following our six steps for
curriculum development, you’ll be sure your students can follow
the course you plot for them.
Determine Your Target Audience

 It is important to know who your audience will be so you


can plan accordingly. The content of your seminar will
most likely change depending on your audience. If you
are training managers, the information presented will be
different than if you are training hourly employees. The
content of your seminar will vary depending on your
audience so keep your audience in mind as you go
through the following steps.
Develop Goals and Objectives

 Goals and objectives are the heart of your content. Goals are
broad statements describing what the learner should be able to
do once instruction is complete. Objectives are more specific and
outline how each goal will be met.
 Here is an example:
 Goal: Students will be able to use Microsoft Word.
 Objective: Students will create a document including columns.
 Objective: Students will format document according to specific
directions about font, spacing, etc.
 Both the goals and the objectives should be measurable so you
can assess student mastery of the subject being taught (step 6).
When writing goals and objectives you are doing backwards
planning- thinking about the desired end result and then
working backwards, creating steps to achieve that result
Choose Your Instructional Strategy
There are many types of instruction to use beyond simple lecturing, for example:

 The Socratic method


 demonstration
 brainstorming
 group discussion
 cooperative learning
 role play
 independent study

The key is to pick an instructional method that best suits your content. For example, a CPR or
First Aid workshop will rely heavily on demonstration and role play as opposed to
brainstorming.
Consider Logistics

 Although this sounds like the step where you would actually teach, you’re
still in the planning stages! Before you set foot into a classroom you’ll need
to consider all the logistics. Things to think about include where and when
your training will be held, what pieces of technology will be used, who will
present, what materials are necessary and so on. Avoid common pitfalls
such as not having the correct technology or having insufficient space by
planning ahead.
Develop Assessments

 If you have designed measurable goals and objectives the assessment piece
should be fairly simple. Keeping in line with the previous example, an
assessment for the students who learn how to use Microsoft Word would be
to show you their document with the necessary requirements. Assessing
your students in a CPR workshop may include demonstration of the proper
techniques as well as a written exam. Your assessments don’t need to be
long or complex but do need to demonstrate that your students learned
what you wanted them to.
Evaluate Effectiveness
 It is essential to gather feedback from your students so make
sure you have an evaluation tool. Hearing their opinions of your
training will help you to know ways to adjust or improve for
next time if necessary. Beyond student evaluations, take time to
think about what worked and what didn’t. Make a list of pros
and cons once the training is finished. This information will
enable you to make changes to aspects that did not go as
smoothly and will better prepare you for teaching your
curriculum again.
Evaluate Effectiveness
 It is essential to gather feedback from your students so make
sure you have an evaluation tool. Hearing their opinions of your
training will help you to know ways to adjust or improve for
next time if necessary. Beyond student evaluations, take time to
think about what worked and what didn’t. Make a list of pros
and cons once the training is finished. This information will
enable you to make changes to aspects that did not go as
smoothly and will better prepare you for teaching your
curriculum again.
Thank You
Group 1

Aira Cabrera

Hadji Rand Emil Pervera

Eugene Azor

Karen Perdon

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