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Submitted By:- Submitted To:-

 Group 3 Parveen Sir


 Batch : JAN’15 Morning
 Timings : 7:30-11:30
 Section : C
COMPUTER NETWORKS
Acknowledgement

This project is a result of dedicated effort.


It gives us an immense pleasure to prepare
the project on Computer Networks.

We would like to thank our project guide


Praveen Sir and Ratnesh Sir for their consultative
Help and constructive suggestions in making this
project a successful one.
CONTENTS

 Introduction to Computer Networks


 Classification - Geographical Distance
 Physical Types of Network
 Network Topologies
 Network Media
• Wired Media
• Wireless Media
 Internet Protocols
 Bibliography
 Thank you
 A computer network is a group of
interconnected computers.

 It allows computers to communicate


with each other and share resources
Introduction and information.

to Networks  First Network : The Advanced


Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
funded the design of the "Advanced
Research Projects Agency Network"
(ARPANET) for the United States
Department of Defense
COMPUTER NETWORKS

B a s i s
GEOGRAPHICAL PHYSICAL TYPE NETWORK NETWORK
DISTANCE OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY MEDIA

 PAN  Peer To Peer  BUS  Wired


 LAN  Client -Server  RING  Wireless
 CAN  STAR
 MAN  MESH
 WAN
 GAN
 Computer networks
Localmay
Area Network
be classified
according to the scale:
 Contains printers,
Personalservers
area network
and
computers(PAN), Local Area
G e o g r a p h i c a l Network
Systems are close to(LAN), Campus
each other
Geographical
Distance  Area Network (CAN),
Organizations often have several
Distance Metropolitan area
LANS
network (MAN), or
Wide area network
(WAN).
Personal Area Network (PAN )

 Short range communication network


among computerized devices such as
Geographical mobiles, fax and digital media

Distance adapters.

 Range is less than 6-9 meters approx.


Local Area Network(LAN)

 LAN is a computer network that


Geographical interconnects computers within a
limited area such as Home, School,
Distance
Office etc.
Campus Area Network(CAN)

 CAN is a network of multiple


interconnected LAN in a limited
Geographical
geographical area.
Distance  EX: College Campus, Industrial
Complex
Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)

 A large computer network that usually


spans a city or a large campus.
Geographical
 Interconnects a number of LANs using
Distance a high-capacity backbone technology.
Wide Area Network(WAN)

 Collection of computers & network


Geographical resources connected via network over a
geographic area.
Distance
 Use public or leased lines.
Global Area Network(GAN)

 GAN is a model for supporting mobile


Geographical communications across an arbitrary no.
of wireless LAN.
Distance
Geographical Distance
 Physical topology refers to the
placement of the network’s various
Physical components, including device
location and cable installation, while
Types of
logical topology shows how data
Network flows within a network, regardless of
its physical design.
Physical Types of Network
 Peer-to-peer Network:  Client Server Network:
Devices which are connected In a Client/Server model, the
to each other directly without client requests information or
any additional networking services from the server. The
devices between them. Each server provides the requested
device has equivalent information or service to the
capabilities and client.
responsibilities.
 Network topology is the arrangement
of the various elements(links, nodes,
etc.) of a computer or biological
N e t
Networkw o r k
network. Essentially, it is the
To p o
Topologyl o g y topological structure of a network,
and may be depicted physically or
logically.
B u s N et wo r k

 In this structure, a single cable is laid


down & computers are connected at
different points.

Network
 End of the cable is terminated with
the help of terminators.
Topology
R i n g N et wo r k

 A ring network is an extension of bus


topology; it is like connecting both
Network the ends of bus topology to create a
loop.
Topology
S ta r N et w o r k

 In star network all computers are


connected with each others with the
help of a centralized system.
Network
 It is used in banking, railway &
Topology telecom networks.
M e s h N et wo r k

 The nodes are connected directly &


indirectly through different paths.

Network  If one link fails between nodes then


alternate links would allow the data
Topology communications.
TOPOLOGIES – Birds Eye View
 It refers to digital media mainly used
in computer networks

 It is the actual path over which an


electrical signal travels as it moves
Network from one component to another

Media  Choice of network media impacts

 Speed

 Size

 Security
T W I S T E D - PA I R C A B L I N G

 It is mainly used for telephone communications and modern


Ethernet networks

 There are two types of twisted pair cables:


1. UTP: Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable
2. STP: Shielded Twisted Pair Cable
COAXIAL CABLE
 It consists of a hollow cylindrical conductor that surrounds a
single inner wire made of two conducting elements

 It is similar to TV cable wire.

 Speeds up to 10 Mbps

 It is nearly obsolete now.


FIBER-OPTIC CABLE
 It consists of two fibers encased in separate sheaths.

 Data is transmitted with light pulses.


Wireless Media
WIRELESS MEDIA
 uses wireless data connections for connecting
network nodes

 i m p l e m e n t e d a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d u s i n g ra d i o
communication.

 Applications :
 Cellular phones and pagers
 Global Positioning System (GPS)
 Cordless telephone sets
 Wireless LANs or local area networks
 Network Protocols are the formal
description of a set of rules and
conventions that govern how
devices on the network later
exchange information.

Internet  Protocols provide the link by which


systems connected to a network
Protocol may talk to each other.

 For two end systems to talk to each


other, they must effectively “speak
the same language traffic”.
• NETWORK MEDIA
 An intranet is a set of Internet
services inside a local network, i.e.
only accessible from workstations of
a local network, or rather a set of
well-defined networks that are
invisible from the outside.

Intranet  It involves the use of internet client-


server standards protocols.

 Example- use of Web Browser and


Web Servers to create an
information system inside of an
organization or enterprise.
 An extranet is a connection of the
information system of the company
to its partners located outside of the
network.

Extranet  Access to the extranet must be


secured to the extent that the same
provides access to the information
system for persons located outside
of the enterprise.
 Intranets and extranets
may or may not have
connections to the
Internet. If connected to
Internet the Internet, the intranet
or extranet is normally
protected from being
accessed from the Internet
without proper
authorization.
I N T E R N E T, E X T R A N E T, I N T R A N E T :

HEAVE!!
BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Wikipedia.com
 Google.com
 ITT Module 1
 Microsoft Power Point Clip Art
 "Overview of Wireless Communications". cambridge.org.
Local Area Network

 Contains printers, servers and


computers

Thank
Geographical You
 Systems are close!!
to each other

 Organizations often have several


Distance
LANS