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IQTADARI SYSTEM

DEFINATION
AN IQTA HAPPENED TO BE A FIEF OR A TERRITORY GIVEN TO
ANY STATE OFFICIAL OR COMMANDER FROM WHICH HE WAS
REQUIRED TO GET REVENUE.THE IQTADAR IN RESPONSE
HAS TO COLLECT THE REVENUE FOR THE STATE
EXCHECQUER.
THE POST OF IQTA DURING THE LATER PART OF DELHI
SULTANAT BECAME HEREDITORY DUE TO WHICH THERE WAS
CONCENTRATION OF POWERS IN THE HANDS OF THE
IQTADARS----MILITARY,REVENUE,JUDICIARY,EXECUTIVE-----
WHICH MADE THEM AMBIGUOUS,CORRUPT AND REBELLIOUS
AS THEY HIDE THE INCOME COLLECTED FROM THE
PESEANTS AND USED TO BUILD AN ARMY.
ILLTUTMISH DIVIDED HIS KINGDOM INTO VARIOUS TQTAS AND
THESE IQTAS WERE RULED BY THE CHALISA OR THE 40
TURKS.
BALBAN
BALBAN WANTED TO RESTORE THE PRESTIGE OF
THE CROWN WHICH HAD GOWN DOWN AFTER THE
DEATH OF THE ILLTUTMISH.
BALBAN STRUCK AT THE BASE OF THE IQTA
SYSTEM BY OPPOSING THE HEREDITORY SYSTEM
OF THE IQTADARS.
BALBAN ADOPTED THIS POLICY AS HE BELIEVES IN
DEFENSIVE CONSOLIDATION WHICH MEANS MORE
CENTRALIZATION OF POWER IN THE HANDS OF
SULTAN TO DEAL WITH THE MONGOL MENACE AS
WELL AS THE IQTADARS.
ALLAUDDIN KHILJI
ALLAUDDIN KHILJI ALSO KNOWS THE DISINTEGRATIVE
NATURE OF THE IQTA SYSTEM.TO DEAL WITH IT,HE
CONVERTED THE ENTIRE DOAB INTO THE KHALSA LANDS
AND IN THAT WAY HE WAS ABLE TO APPROPIATE THE ENTIRE
SURPLUS OF THE DOAB.
HENCE HE HAD THE TIME TO CONSOLIDATE IF THE
IQTADAR’S REVOLT AS NONE OF THEM WERE LEFT CLOSE TO
THE CAPLITAL.
HE ORDERED THE STRICT CONTROL,AUDIT AND INQUIRY
INTO THE ACCOUNTS OF THE IQTADARS AND THEY WERE
PUT IN ROUTINE SURVELLIANCE.
AT THE SAME TIME THEY WERE TO DEPOSIT ALL THE
SURPLUS INTO THE STATE TREASURY.
IF ALL THE IQTADARS COLLECTED THEIR ARMY THAN THE
ARMY OF ALLAUDDIN KHILJI WOULD BE GREATER THAN
THEM.
MUHAMMED BIN TUGHLAQ
BUT MUHAMMED BIN TUGHLAQ ADOPTED
THE DIFFERENT POLICY TOWARDS THE
IQTADARS.
HE DEPRIVED THE IQTADARS OF THE RIGHT
OF REVENUE COLLECTION ,WHICH WAS TO
BE DONE BT THE TUGHLAQ OFFICIALS.IN
THIS WAY THE SURPLUS WAS TAKEN BACK
TO THE STATE TREASURY.
THIS RESULTED IN THE UNIFICATION OF
THE IQTADARS AND THEY REVOLTED
AGAINST THE KING.
FEROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ
FEROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ REVIVED THE
JAGIRS SYSTEM WHICH ALLAUDDIN
HAD ABOLISHED,WAS EXTREMELY
UNWISE.
SUCH AMOUNT OF JAGIRS OFTEN
RESULTED IN THE HEREDITORY
VICEROYALITIES AND SO THE HOLDER
WAS OFTEN TEMPTED TO DEFY THE
CENTRAL AUTHORITY.
CONCLUSION
THEREFORE THE IQTA SYSTEM DID NOT
ALLOW THE SULTANS TO REFORM THE
ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM OD THE
SULTANAT AT A TIME WHEN THE MONGOLS
ATTACKED INDIA.
HENCE IT TURNED OUT TO BE A CURSE
THAN BOON FOR DELHI SULTANATE ,WHICH
ULTIMATELY LED TO THE DOWNFALL OF
THE EMPIRE.

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