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IN GUIDANCE OF – Mrs. Sonal A.Kothari(Asst. Professor,
Dept.of Civil Engg.,DIT,Pimpri
As part of BCEE curriculum we were required to make a
presentation on energy/environment as part of the term work.

We chose the topic “Non-Conventional Energy Sources” because

The demand of energy is growing owing to the
development. Due to the problems associated with the
development of conventional sources of energy, the focus
is now being shifted to renewable energy sources. India
has potential of renewable energy source in abundance,
which if developed properly can augment the growing
demand of the energy. There is a need to make full use of
renewable energy technologies to harness the untapped
potential in cost effective manner and fulfil the energy
 Energy broadly means the capacity of something, a person, an
animal or aphysical system to do work and produce change.
 Used in science to describe how much potential a physical
system has tochange.
Sources of Energy.

Conventional sources of Non conventional

energy sources of energy

 Those energy sources which are renewable

and ecologically safe.

such as solar energy, wind energy, biomass

energy, ocean energy (tidal energy, wave
energy, ocean thermal energy), geothermal
energy, nuclear energy etc.

Some sources of energy are non renewable

like coal, petroleum and natural gas.
 About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from
renewable, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which
is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity.

 N e w renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar,

geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are
growing very rapidly.

 T h e share of renewable in electricity generation is around

19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from
hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable.
 Airflows can be used to run wind turbines.

 Wind energy is used in wind mills which converts the kinetic energy of
the wind into mechanical or electrical energy.

 The kinetic energy of wind can be used to do mechanical work like lifting
water from wells or grinding grains in flour mills.

 A single wind mill produces only a small amount of electricity.

 large number of wind mills in a large area are coupled together to

produce more electricity in wind energy farms.

 The minimum wind speed required is15km/hr.

 At present Wind power potential of India is 1020 M W

 Largest wind farm is near Kanyakumari in Tamilnadu generate 380 MW

Wind farm
Advantages :-
 It is a renewable source of energy.

 It does not cause pollution.

T h e recurring cost is less.

O n c e the wind turbine is built the energy it produces does

not cause green house gases

Disadvantages :-
 Wind is not available at all times.

It requires a large area ofland.

A minimum wind speed of 15km/h is


 energy obtained from the sun n

the form of heat and light.

 Energy derived in the form of solar


 T h e solar energy received by the

near earth space is approximately
1.4 kilojoules/second known as
solar constant

 T h e heat energy is used in solar

heating devices like solar cooker,
solar water heater, solar furnaces
etc. The light energy is used in solar
 S o l a r cookers
 S o l a r hot water systems
 S o l a r dryers
 S o l a r air heaters
 S o l a r desalination
 S o l a r batteries
 The box type solar cooker has
an insulated box painted black
 I t is covered by a glass plate
which allows heat to enter inside
but does not allow heat to
escape out.
 I t has a mirror to reflect more
sunlight into the box.
 T h e food to be cooked is
kept incontainers inside the box
 It can produce a temperature
of100° to 140°.
A solar water heater has an
insulated box painted black inside
with a system of copper tubes.

 I t is covered with a glass plate

which allows heat to enter inside
but does not allow heat to escape

 W h e n water flows through the

copper tube it absorbs heat and
becomes hot.
 Device which converts solar
energy into electrical energy.

 Solar cells are made from

semi conductors like silicon,
germanium, gallium etc.

 A single solar cell

produces a voltage of about
0.5 to 1 V
and produces about 0.7 W

 several solar cells are

arranged in a solar panel to
produce more electricity.
 A f t e r initial investment, all the electricity you produce is
 I t is abundant.
 I t is everlasting.
 I t is available almost everywhere.
 I t is free from political barriers.
 Incentives and rebates from governments and
utility companies offset the initial investment.
 R e d u c e or completely eliminate your electric bill.
 C o s t of solar panels are decreasing while efficiency is
 In hydro power plants water from rivers
are stored by constructing dams.

 Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric

power installations that typically produce
up to 100 kW of power.

 They are often used in water rich areas asa

remote-area power supply (RAPS).

 Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems

derive kinetic energy from rivers and
oceans without using a dam.

 E.g: Grand Coulee Dam in Washington

State and the Akosombo Dam in Ghana.

 Flowing water is a renewable source of energy.

 The electricity produced does not cause pollution.
 The water stored in dams can also be used to control floods and for
 Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a
 Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right.

 The initial cost is high.

 Large areas of land gets submerged and the decomposition of

vegetation produces methane gas which is a green house gas.

 It causes displacement of people from large areas of land.

 Produced by gravitational forces of sun and moon.

 Produced by making the use of water movement from a high tide to a low

 The high tide to a low tide refers to the rise and fall of water in the ocean.

 A difference of several meters is required between the high and low tide.

 Ocean waves and tides can be made to turn a turbine and generate

 Areas where rivers flow into the sea experience waves and tides and
electricity can be generated there. It has much potential.
 A s you know we have a large coastline and major river
systems in our country, electricity can be generated on a large
scale from waves and tides.

 T h e periodic rise and fall of sea level due to gravitational

attraction of the moon causes tides.

A Tidal barrage is constructed at a narrow openingbetween

the land and sea.

 T h e movement of water during high tide and low tide can b

used to rotate the turbines of generators to produce

 Tidal power site In india :-gulf of cambay, gulf of Kutch and th

sunder bans delta.
 It means the energy harnessed from the hot rocks present inside the earth .
 High temperature, high pressure steam fields exit below the earth’s surface in
many places.
 At the core, temperatures may reach over 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
 This heat comes from the fission of radioactive material naturally present in
the rocks.
 The deeper regions of the earth’s crust is very hot. This heat melts rocks and
forms magma.
 The magma moves up and collects below at some places called Hot spots.
 The underground water in contact with hot spot gets heated into steam at
high pressure.
 By drilling holes into hot spots the steam coming out can be used to rotate
turbines of generators to produce electricity.

 There are 46 hydrothermal areas in India where the water

temperature normally exceeds 150 degree centigrade.

Electricity can be generated from these hot springs.

 In many places the the hot water comes out of the ground
through cracks in the form of Natural geysers:E.g. Manikaran,
Kullu and sohana, Haryana.

 Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original

formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of
minerals (80%).
Significant Cost Saving : Geothermal energy generally involves low running
costs since it saves 80% costs over fossil fuels and no fuel is used to generate the

 Reduce Reliance on Fossil Fuels : Dependence on fossil fuels decreases with

the increase in the use of geothermal energy. With the sky-rocketing prices of
oil, many countries are pushing companies to adopt these clean sources of

 Environmental Benefits : helped in reducing global warming and pollution ,

does not create any pollution as it releases some gases from deep within the
earth which are not very harmful to the environment.

 Direct Use : Since ancient times, people having been using this source of energy
for taking bath, heating homes, preparing food and today this is also used for
direct heating of homes and offices.

 Job Creation and Economic Benefits .

Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived
from biomass.
 T h e term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and
various biogases.
 Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols, such as bioethanol, and
oils, such as biodiesel.
 Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar
components of plant materials and it is made mostly from
sugar and starch crops.
 Trees and grasses, are also used as feedstock for ethanol
production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its
pure form.
 Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in

 Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils ,animal

fats or recycled greases.

 Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its

pure form, usually used as a diesel additive to
reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide,
and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered

 Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats

using trans esterification and is the most
common biofuel in Europe.

 Biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's

transport fuel in 2010.
 I t is an agriculture based fuelsubstitute.
 It can be made from both vegetable oil and animal fats.
 It can be used without major modifications in engines.
 It does not need separate infrastructure for storage and
 Handling bio-diesel is safer.
 It’s combustion emits less carbon monoxide, sulphates,
unburnt hydrocarbons and particulate matters, thus
reduces air pollution.
 Minimize exploitation of non-renewable energy resources.

Emphasis on use of renewable sources of energy.

 Stop wastage of energy.

 Creating awareness among people regarding wise and

judicious use of energy.

 M o r e use of bio-mass based energy

1.Civil Engineering Materials by S V Deodhar (Author)