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1.

SIMILE
A COMPARISON SHOWING SIMILARITIES BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT THINGS, DRAWS RESEMBLANCE WITH
THE HELP OF THE WORDS LIKE WAS. IT IS THEREFORE A DIRECT COMPARISON.

1. OUR SOLDIERS ARE AS BRAVE AS LIONS. 7. IN WINTER, WHEN IT RAINED, HE


2. HER CHEEKS ARE RED LIKE A ROSE. CLIMBED INTO BED AND FELT AS SNUG
AS A BUG IN A MUG.
3. HE IS AS FUNNY AS A MONKEY
8. AT EXAM TIME, THE HIGH
4. HE IS RUNNING AS A FOX. SCHOOL/STUDENT WAS AS BUSY AS A
5. THE WATER WELL WAS AS DRY AS A LEAVE. BEE.
6. THE GLOW OF THE TUBE-LIGHT WAS AS 9. THE PRISONER WAS LIKE A BIRD IN A
BRIGHT AS THE SUNSHINE. CAGE.
2. METAPHOR
WORDS & PHRASES CONTAINING INFLICTED COMPARISON THAT ARE ORDINARY APPLIED TO
ONE THING AND APPLIED TO SOMETHING THAT WOULDN’T NECESSARY PAIR WITH IT.

1. THIS CURTAIN MIGHT FELL UPON US.


2. BOB IS A HUNGRY WOLF, HE CAN EAT A LOT.
3. LIFE IS A JOURNEY.
4. HER LOVELY VOICE WAS MUSIC TO HIS EARS.
5. THE MAN HAS A SEA OF KNOWLEDGE.
6. THE RICH LADY HAS A HEART OF GOLD.
7. THE FOOTBALL PLAYER IS REALLY PUTTING THE TEAM ON HIS OWN BACK IN THIS
COMPETITION.
3. PERSONIFICATION
-FIGURE OF SPEECH WHERE HUMAN QUALITIES ARE GIVEN NON-LIVING OBJECTS OR NON-
LIVING THINGS REPRESENTS AS IF IT WERE HUMAN.
-IT GIVES ANIMALS OR OBJECTS QUALITIES OR ABILITIES THAT ONLY HUMAN CAN HANDLE.

1. LIGHTNING DANCED ACROSS THE SKY.


2. THE CAR COMPLAINED AS THE KEY WAS ROUGHLY TURNED IN ITS IGNITION.
3. RITA HARD THE LAST PIECES AND THE PIECE OF THE PIE CALLING HER NAME.
4. MY ALARM CLOCK YELLS AT ME TO GET OUT OF BED EVERY MORNING.
5. MY HOUSE IS A FRIEND WHO PROTECTS ME.
6. THE MOON PLAYED HIDE AND SEEK WITH THE CLOUD.
4. HYPERBOLE
COMMONLY KNOWN AS EXTREME EXAGGERATION TO MAKE A POINT EMPHASIS. IT
IS THE OPPOSITE AND UNDERSTATEMENT.

1. IT HAS BEEN AGES SINCE I LAST SAW YOU.


2. MY GRANDMOTHER IS AS OLD AS THE HILLS.
3. YOUR SUITCASE WEIGHTS A TON.
4. I AM TRYING TO SOLVE A MILLION ISSUES TODAY.
5. SHE HAD RAISED A MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION.
5. ONOMATOPOEIA
REFERS TO A WORLD THAT PHONETICALLY MIMICS OR RESEMBLES THE SOUND OF THE THING
IT DESCRIBES.
ONOMATOPOETIC- WOULD USE TO DESCRIBE THE NOISE THAT
ANIMALS MAKE. (SOUND WORDS)
1. WATER SOUND- SPRINKLE, DRIZZLE, BLOOP, SPLASH, SQUIRT, 2. VOCAL SOUND- GIGGLE, GROWL, GRUNT, GURGLE,
DRIBBLE,DRIP MUMBLE, MURMUR, CHATTER, BELCH, BLURT
EXAMPLES:
WATER PLOPS INTO POND
3. COLLISION SOUND- BAM, BING, CLANG, CLAP,
CLATTER, CLICK, DING, JUNGLE, SCREECH
SPLISH-SPLASH DOWNHILL
WARBLING MAGPIE IN TREE
TRILLING, MELODY THRILL
WHOOSH, PANNING BREEZE
FROG CROAKS, BIRD WHISTLES
BABBLING BUBBLES FROM TAP
ANIMAL SOUNDS
• ARF-DOG • MOO-COW
• BAA-SHEEP (BOY) • NEIGH-HORSE
• MEE-SHEEP (GIRL) • OINK-PIG
• BARK-DOG • QUACK-DUCK
• BRAY-DONKEY • RIBBIT-FROG
• BUZZ-BEE • ROAR-LION
• CHIRP-BIRD • TWEET-BIRD
• HISS-SNAKE • GROWL-TIGER
• MEOW-CAT • WOOF-DOG
• HOOT-OWL • HEE-HAW-DONKEY
• CROW-ROOSTER • COO-PIGEON
6. APOSTROPHE
ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS ADDRESSING A NON-EXISTING PERSON OR ABSTRACT IDEA AS IF
IT WERE PRESENT AND CAPABLE OF UNDERSTANDING FEELINGS.

1. TWINKLE, TWINKLE LITTLE STAR, HOW I WONDER WHAT YOU ARE!


2. O HOLY NIGHT! THE STARS ARE BRIGHTLY SHINING.
7. METONYMY
A THING OR CONCEPT IS NOT CALLED BY THE NAME AND SOMETHING ASSOCIATED WITH
THAT THING OR CONCEPT.

1. THE PEN IS MIGHTIER THAN A SWORD 3. CURFEW FOR MINORS? THERE GOES
BY EDWARD “BIG BROTHER AGAIN”.
(PEN- THOUGHT, REASON, (BIG BROTHER- GOVERNMENT)
COMMUNICATION/DIPLOMACY
4. DON’T BE ADDICTED TO THE BOTTLE
(SWORD- PHYSICAL WARFARE)
(THE BOTTLE-ALCOHOL)
2. SOON, THAT CORRUPT SENATOR WILL
BE IN THE BIG HOUSE 5. DON’T BE A GRASS DEALER
(BIG HOUSE- PRISON) (ILLEGAL DRUG)
ANOTHER EXAMPLES OF METONYMY

1. CROWN- POWER AND KING


2. WHITE HOUSE- AMERICAN ADMINISTRATION
3. DISH- AN ENTIRE PLATE AND FOOD
4. PENTAGON- FOR THE DEPTH AND DEFUSE AND OFFICES OF THE U.S ARMED FORCES
5. HAND- TO HELP
6. EARS- TO LISTEN
7. PEN- WORD
8. SWORD- MILITARY
8. OXYMORON
OPPOSITE IDEAS ARE JOINED TO CREATE AN EFFECT OF A COMBINATION OF AN ADJECTIVE
PRECEDED BY NOUN WITH CONTRASTING MEANING.

1. CRUEL KINDNESS 1. SUDDENLY THE ROOM WAS FILLED WITH


DEAFENING SILENCE.
2. LIVING DEAD 2. YOU ARE CLEARLY CONFUSED BY THE
3. BITTER SWEET SITUATION YOU HAVE FOUND YOURSELF IN.
3. THERE IS A REAL LOVE HATE RELATIONSHIP
4. OPEN SECRET DEVELOPING BETWEEN THE TWO OF THEM.

5. RANDOM ORDER 4. THIS IS A GENUINE IMITATION OF A ROLEX


WATCH.
5. HIS NEW GIRLFRIEND IS REAL PRETTY UGLY.
6. DO YOU HAVE THE ORIGINAL COPIESTHAT WE
REQUESTED?
9. ALLUSION
REFERENCES A PERSON, PLACE, THING, OR EVENT. EACH OF THESE CONCEPTS CAN BE
REAL OR IMAGINARY, REFERRING TO ANYTHING FROM FICTION, TO FOLKLORE, TO
HISTORICAL EVENTS AND RELIGIOUS MANUSCRIPTS.

EXAMPLES: HE CAN SCALE ANY STRUCTURE AS IF HE


HE LIES SO MUCH! I AM SURPRISED THAT WERE SPIDER-MAN.
HIS NOSE HAS NOT GROWN LIKE -THE REFERENCE IS TO THE POPULAR
PINOCCHIO’S. SUPERHERO SPIDER-MAN, IT IS MADE TO
DESCRIBE HOW GOOD THE PERSON IS AT
-HERE, THE REFERENCE IS TO THE STORY
CLIMBING VARIOUS STRUCTURES, JUST AS
ABOUT PINOCCHIO IN WHICH HIS NOSE
SPIDER-MAN COULD.
GREW LONGER EVERY TIME HE LIED.
10. ANTITHESIS
REFERS TO THE JUXTAPOSITION OF OPPOSING OR CONTRASTING IDEAS. IT INVOLVES THE BRINGING
OUT OF A CONTRAST IN THE IDEAS BY AN OBVIOUS CONTRAST IN THE WORDS, CLAUSES, OR
SENTENCES, WITHIN A PARALLEL GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE.

“MAN PROPOSES, GOD DISPOSES.” -UNKNOWN


“LOVE IS AN IDEAL THING, MARRIAGE A REAL THING.” –GOETHE.
“THAT’S ONE SMALL STEP FOR MAN, ONE GIANT LEAP FOR MANKIND.” -NEIL ARMSTRONG.
“TO ERR IS HUMAN; TO FORGIVE DIVINE.” – ALEXANDER POPE.
“GIVE EVERY MAN THY EAR, BUT FEW THY VOICE.” –WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
“MANY ARE CALLED, BUT FEW ARE CHOSEN.” - MATTHEW 22:14
11. IRONY
IN WHICH WORDS ARE USED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THEIR INTENDED MEANING IS DIFFERENT
FROM THE ACTUAL MEANING OF THE WORDS. IT MAY ALSO A SITUATION THAT ENDS UP IN
QUITE A DIFFERENT WAY THAN WHAT IS GENERALLY ANTICIPATED. IN SIMPLE WORDS, IT IS
A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN APPEARANCE AND REALITY.

EXAMPLES:
• I POSTED A VIDEO ON YOUTUBE ABOUT HOW BORING AND USELESS YOUTUBE IS.
• THE NAME OF BRITAIN’S BIGGEST DOG WAS “TINY.”
• YOU LAUGH AT A PERSON WHO SLIPPED STEPPING ON A BANANA PEEL, AND THE NEXT
THING YOU KNOW, YOU’VE SLIPPED TOO.
• THE BUTTER IS AS SOFT AS A SLAB OF MARBLE.
• “OH GREAT! NOW YOU HAVE BROKEN MY NEW CAMERA.”
12. LITOTES
EMPLOYS AN UNDERSTATEMENT BY USING DOUBLE NEGATIVES OR, IN OTHER WORDS, A
POSITIVE STATEMENT EXPRESSED BY NEGATING ITS OPPOSITE EXPRESSIONS.

EXAMPLES:
• THEY DO NOT SEEM THE HAPPIEST COUPLE AROUND.
• THE ICE CREAM WAS NOT TOO BAD.
• NEW YORK IS NOT AN ORDINARY CITY.
• YOUR COMMENTS ON POLITICS ARE NOT USELESS.
• YOU ARE NOT AS YOUNG YOU USED TO BE.
• I CANNOT DISAGREE WITH YOUR POINT OF VIEW.
• SHE IS NOT UNLIKE HER MOTHER.
• YOU ARE NOT DOING BADLY AT ALL.
13. PARADOX
IT IS THE STATEMENT THAT APPEARS TO BE SELF-CONTRADICTORY OR SILLY, BUT WHICH
MAY INCLUDE A LATENT TRUTH. IT IS ALSO USED TO ACCEPTED TRADITIONAL IDEAS. IT IS
OFTEN USED TO MAKE A READER THINK OVER AN IDEA IN INNOVATIVE WAY.

• EXAMPLE:
• YOUR ENEMY’S FRIEND IS YOUR ENEMY.
• I AM NOBODY.
• “WHAT A PITY THAT YOUTH MUST BE WASTED ON THE YOUNG” –GEORGE BERNARD SHAW
• WISE FOOL
• TRUTH IS HONEY, WHICH IS BITTER.
• “I CAN RESIST ANYTHING BUT TEMPTATION.” –OSCAR WILDE
14. SYNECDOCHE
IT IS A LITERARY DEVICE IN WHICH A PART OF SOMETHING REPRESENTS THE WHOLE, OR IT MAY USE
A WHOLE TO REPRESENT A PART. SYNECDOCHE MAY ALSO USE LARGER GROUPS TO REFER TO
SMALLER GROUPS, OR VICE VERSA. IT MAY ALSO CALL A THING BY THE NAME OF THE MATERIAL IT IS
MADE OF, OR IT MAY REFER TO A THING IN A CONTAINER OR PACKAGING BY THE NAME OF THAT
CONTAINER OR PACKAGING.
EXAMPLES:
• THE WORD “BREAD” REFERS TO FOOD OR MONEY, AS IN “WRITING IS MY BREAD AND BUTTER,” OR “HE IS
THE SOLE BREADWINNER.”
• THE PHRASE “GRAY BEARD” REFERS TO AN OLD MAN.
• THE WORD “SAILS” REFERS TO A WHOLE SHIP.
• THE WORD “SUIT” REFERS TO A BUSINESSMAN.
• THE WORD “BOOTS” USUALLY REFERS TO SOLDIER.
• THE TERM “COKE” IS A COMMON SYNECDOCHE FOR ALL CARBONATED DRINKS.
• “PENTAGON” IS A SYNECDOCHE WHEN IT REFERS TO A FEW DECISION MAKERS.
• THE WORD “GLASSES” REFERS TO SPECTACLES.

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