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Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering

BASIC HAND SOLDERING

MULTICORE SOLDER
 most common type for hand
soldering has a composition of
Tin (Sn60) and Lead (Pb40),
with a diameter of 0.71 mm
 contains internal core of non-
corrosive Rosin Mildly
Activated (RMA) flux
 has a ‘plastic’ stage between
the melting and solidifying
stages
Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering

BASIC HAND SOLDERING

 ‘Dry joints’ are caused through:


 movement of joint during
‘plastic’ stage
 thermal stress
 PCB contamination
 oxidisation
BASIC HAND SOLDERING Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering

TIPS
 appropriate size and width is
determined by the size of the
connection to be made
 ideally 2/3 to equal the
diameter of the pad
 tips should be correctly 'tinned’
at all times, by adding a small
amount of solder to the hot tip
BASIC HAND SOLDERING Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering

LEAD FORMING
 minimum distance from the
end of the component body to
the start of the lead bend is
usually 2 lead diameters or
1.5mm for hand bending
methods

 without undue pressure hold


the component lead with the
pliers and bend the lead
protruding beyond the pliers
with a finger until a 90 degree
angle is formed.

 if damaged discard component


BASIC HAND SOLDERING Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering

COMPONENT MOUNTING
 Radial leaded loaded slightly
off the PCB (0.3 - 3.0mm)
 Axial-leaded loaded with the
body of the component very
close to the PCB (0.3 - 3.0mm)
Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering
BASIC HAND SOLDERING

BENDING AND MOUNTING OF


COMPONENTS
 mounted centrally between
the holes

 resistors mounted so colour


code orientated in the same
direction

 polarised components
should be orientated so that
polarity symbols (+ or - ) and
component value are visible
BASIC HAND SOLDERING Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering

LEAD TERMINATIONS
TYPE 1 FULLY CLINCHED –
 bend the lead flat against the pad
 trim the lead to a length of between 1-
2 lead diameters
 Used in High Quality/High Reliability
military or life support applications
 difficult to rework

TYPE 2 SEMI-CLINCHED –
 bend the lead to an angle of approx.
45
 Cut to a minimum of 0.5mm and a
max. of 1.5mm, or between 1-2 lead
diameters
 Used for commercial applications
 ease of de-soldering

TYPE 3 RIGID LEAD TERMINATION –


 straight through termination
 Cut to a length of min. 0.5mm and
max. of 1.5mm, or between 1-2 lead
diameters
BASIC HAND SOLDERING Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering

CONSTRUCTING A GOOD
SOLDER JOINT
 Figure a) the amount of solder
applied is minimal and may
result in a poor electrical
connection over time.

 Figure b) shows the optimal


solder joint that has good
wetting between component
lead and PCB pad.

 Figure c) indicates an
excessive amount of solder
has been applied to the
connection.
Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering
BASIC HAND SOLDERING

CLEANING
 a process of removing
contaminates before and after
soldering
 ensures good
mechanical/electrical
connection
 Three different methods:
 Mechanical - scourer or bristle
brush
 Chemical - solvents eg.
Isopropyl Alcohol
 Thermal - solder pot
Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering
BASIC HAND SOLDERING

BASIC SOLDERING
PROCEDURE

 iron temperature is set at approx.


350

 soldering iron tip size is suitable

 solder sponge is damp

 tip is clean and shiny (wipe & tin)

 Apply flux (RMA) to help ‘wetting’


if necessary

 soldering iron at a 45 angle


BASIC HAND SOLDERING Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering

BASIC SOLDERING PROCEDURE

 heat the lead and the pad


simultaneously

 flowing solder around the joint


forms a heat bridge

 remove soldering iron and solder


simultaneously (prevents ‘spiking’)

 clean the PCB with Isopropyl


Alcohol and a bristle brush

 wipe or pat dry with a lint free


tissue to remove traces of residue.
Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering
BASIC HAND SOLDERING

Use appropriate safety


equipment
 fume extractors
 hand cleaners
 goggles

READY TO SOLDER