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Fundamentals of

Bus Bar Protection


GE Multilin
Outline

• Bus arrangements
• Bus components
• Bus protection techniques
• CT Saturation
• Application Considerations:
 High impedance bus differential relaying
 Low impedance bus differential relaying
 Special topics

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Single bus - single breaker

ZONE 1

1 2 3 ---- n-1 n

• Distribution and lower transmission voltage levels


• No operating flexibility
• Fault on the bus trips all circuit breakers

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Multiple bus sections - single breaker with
bus tie
ZONE 2
ZONE 1

• Distribution and lower transmission voltage levels


• Limited operating flexibility
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Double bus - single breaker with bus tie
ZONE 1

ZONE 2

• Transmission and distribution voltage levels


• Breaker maintenance without circuit removal
• Fault on a bus disconnects only the circuits being connected
to that bus
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Main and transfer buses
MAIN BUS

ZONE 1

TRANFER BUS

• Increased operating flexibility


• A bus fault requires tripping all breakers
• Transfer bus for breaker maintenance
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Double bus – single breaker w/ transfer bus
ZONE 1

ZONE 2

• Very high operating flexibility


• Transfer bus for breaker maintenance

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Double bus - double breaker
ZONE 1

ZONE 2

• High operating flexibility


• Line protection covers bus section between two CTs
• Fault on a bus does not disturb the power to circuits
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Breaker-and-a-half bus
ZONE 1

ZONE 2

• Used on higher voltage levels


• More operating flexibility
• Requires more breakers
• Middle bus sections covered by line or other equipment
protection 9
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Ring bus L1 L2

TB1

B1 B2

TB1

L3 L4

• Higher voltage levels


• High operating flexibility with minimum breakers
• Separate bus protection not required at line positions
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Bus components breakers
BUS 1

BUS 2

ISO 1 ISO 2

Low Voltage circuit breakers

CB 1
ISO 3
BYPASS

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
SF6, EHV & HV - Synchropuff 20-Sep-19
Disconnect switches & auxiliary contacts
BUS 1

BUS 1
BUS 2
+

ISOLATOR 1
7B 7A

ISO 1 ISO 2 ISOLATOR 1 OPEN


F1a Contact Input F1a On
F1c Contact Input F1c On
F1b

BUS 1

ISOLATOR 1
+
CB 1
7B 7A
ISO 3
BYPASS
ISOLATOR 1 CLOSED
F1a Contact Input F1a On
F1c Contact Input F1c On
F1b

- 12
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Current Transformers
BUS 1

BUS 2

ISO 1 ISO 2

Gas (SF6) insulated current


transformer

Oil insulated current transformer


(35kV up to 800kV)
CB 1
ISO 3
BYPASS

Bushing type (medium 13


voltage switchgear) GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Protection Requirements

High bus fault currents due to large number of circuits


connected:
• CT saturation often becomes a problem as CTs may not be sufficiently
rated for worst fault condition case
• large dynamic forces associated with bus faults require fast clearing
times in order to reduce equipment damage
False trip by bus protection may create serious problems:
• service interruption to a large number of circuits (distribution and sub-
transmission voltage levels)
• system-wide stability problems (transmission voltage levels)
With both dependability and security important, preference is
always given to security
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Bus Protection Techniques

• Interlocking schemes
• Overcurrent (“unrestrained” or “unbiased”)
differential
• Overcurrent percent (“restrained” or “biased”)
differential
• Linear couplers
• High-impedance bus differential schemes
• Low-impedance bus differential schemes

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Interlocking Schemes
• Blocking scheme typically
used
• Short coordination time
required
50
• Care must be taken with

BLOCK
possible saturation of feeder
CTs
50 50 50 50 50
• Blocking signal could be sent
over communications ports
(peer-to-peer)
• This technique is limited to
simple one-incomer
distribution buses

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Overcurrent (unrestrained) Differential
• Differential signal formed by
summation of all currents feeding
the bus
• CT ratio matching may be
required
51 • On external faults, saturated CTs
yield spurious differential current
• Time delay used to cope with CT
saturation
• Instantaneous differential OC
function useful on integrated
microprocessor-based relays

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Linear Couplers

ZC = 2  – 20  - typical coil impedance

(5V per 1000Amps => 0.005 @ 60Hz )

59
0V
40 V 10 V 10 V 0V 20 V
External
Fault
If = 8000 A
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
2000 A 2000 A 0A 4000 A 20-Sep-19
Linear Couplers
Esec= Iprim*Xm - secondary voltage on relay terminals

IR= Iprim*Xm /(ZR+ZC) – minimum operating current

where,
Iprim – primary current in each circuit
Xm – liner coupler mutual reactance (5V per 1000Amps => 0.005 @ 60Hz )
ZR – relay tap impedance
ZC – sum of all linear coupler self impedances

If = 8000 A Internal Bus


Fault

40 V 59
0V 10 V 10 V 0V 20 V

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
0A 2000 A 2000 A 0A 4000 A
Linear Couplers

• Fast, secure and proven


• Require dedicated air gap CTs, which may not be used for
any other protection
• Cannot be easily applied to reconfigurable buses
• The scheme uses a simple voltage detector – it does not
provide benefits of a microprocessor-based relay (e.g.
oscillography, breaker failure protection, other functions)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
High Impedance Differential
• Operating signal created by
connecting all CT secondaries in
parallel
o CTs must all have the same ratio
o Must have dedicated CTs
• Overvoltage element operates on
voltage developed across resistor
59 connected in secondary circuit
o Requires varistors or AC shorting
relays to limit energy during faults
• Accuracy dependent on secondary
circuit resistance
o Usually requires larger CT cables to
reduce errors  higher cost

Cannot easily be applied to reconfigurable buses and


offers no advanced functionality 21
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Percent Differential

• Percent characteristic used


to cope with CT saturation
and other errors
• Restraining signal can be
87
51
formed in a number of
ways
• No dedicated CTs needed
• Used for protection of re-
configurable buses
possible
I DIF  I1  I 2  ...  I n
I RES  I1  I 2  ...  I n I RES  max  I1 , I 2 , ..., I n  22
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Low Impedance Percent Differential
• Individual currents sampled by protection and summated digitally
o CT ratio matching done internally (no auxiliary CTs)
o Dedicated CTs not necessary
• Additional algorithms improve security of percent differential
characteristic during CT saturation
• Dynamic bus replica allows application to reconfigurable buses
o Done digitally with logic to add/remove current inputs from differential
computation
o Switching of CT secondary circuits not required
• Low secondary burdens
• Additional functionality available
o Digital oscillography and monitoring of each circuit connected to bus zone
o Time-stamped event recording
o Breaker failure protection

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Digital Differential Algorithm Goals
• Improve the main differential algorithm operation
o Better filtering
o Faster response
o Better restraint techniques
o Switching transient blocking
• Provide dynamic bus replica for reconfigurable bus bars
• Dependably detect CT saturation in a fast and reliable manner,
especially for external faults
• Implement additional security to the main differential algorithm to
prevent incorrect operation
o External faults with CT saturation
o CT secondary circuit trouble (e.g. short circuits)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Low Impedance Differential (Distributed)
• Data Acquisition Units (DAUs)
installed in bays
52 52 52
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
processes all data from DAUs
DAU DAU DAU
• Communications between DAUs
and CPU over fiber using
proprietary protocol
• Sampling synchronisation
between DAUs is required
CU • Perceived less reliable (more
hardware needed)
copper
fiber
• Difficult to apply in retrofit
applications

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Low Impedance Differential (Centralized)

• All currents applied to a single


52 52 52 central processor
• No communications, external
sampling synchronisation
necessary
• Perceived more reliable (less
hardware needed)
• Well suited to both new and
CU
retrofit applications.
copper

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation Concepts

• CT saturation depends on a number of factors


o Physical CT characteristics (size, rating, winding resistance,
saturation voltage)
o Connected CT secondary burden (wires + relays)
o Primary current magnitude, DC offset (system X/R)
o Residual flux in CT core
• Actual CT secondary currents may not behave in the same manner as
the ratio (scaled primary) current during faults
• End result is spurious differential current appearing in the summation of
the secondary currents which may cause differential elements to
operate if additional security is not applied

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation

No DC Offset
• Waveform remains fairly
symmetrical

Ratio Current CT Current

With DC Offset
• Waveform starts off being
asymmetrical, then
symmetrical in steady
Ratio Current CT Current
state
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
External Fault & Ideal CTs
differential

t1

t0 restraining
• Fault starts at t0
• Steady-state fault conditions occur at t1
Ideal CTs have no saturation or mismatch errors thus
produce no differential current 30
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
External Fault & Actual CTs
differential

t1

t0 restraining
• Fault starts at t0
• Steady-state fault conditions occur at t1
Actual CTs do introduce errors, producing some differential
current (without CT saturation) 31
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
External Fault with CT Saturation

t2
differential

t1

t0 restraining
• Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1
• CT fully saturated at t2
CT saturation causes increasing differential current that
may enter the differential element operate region. 32
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Some Methods of Securing Bus Differential

• Block the bus differential for a period of time (intentional delay)


o Increases security as bus zone will not trip when CT saturation is present
o Prevents high-speed clearance for internal faults with CT saturation or
evolving faults
• Change settings of the percent differential characteristic (usually Slope 2)
o Improves security of differential element by increasing the amount of
spurious differential current needed to incorrectly trip
o Difficult to explicitly develop settings (Is 60% slope enough? Should it be
75%?)
• Apply directional (phase comparison) supervision
o Improves security by requiring all currents flow into the bus zone before
asserting the differential element
o Easy to implement and test
o Stable even under severe CT saturation during external faults

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
High-Impedance
Bus Differential
Considerations
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Multilin
20-Sep-19
High Impedance Voltage-operated Relay
External Fault
• 59 element set above max possible voltage developed across
relay during external fault causing worst case CT saturation
• For internal faults, extremely high voltages (well above 59
element pickup) will develop across relay

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
High Impedance Voltage Operated Relay
Ratio matching with Multi-ratio CTs
• Application of high impedance differential relays with CTs of
different ratios but ratio matching taps is possible, but could
lead to voltage magnification.
• Voltage developed across full winding of tapped CT does not
exceed CT rating, terminal blocks, etc.

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
High Impedance Voltage Operated Relay
Ratio matching with Multi-ratio CTs
• Use of auxiliary CTs to obtain correct ratio matching is also
possible, but these CTs must be able to deliver enough voltage
necessary to produce relay operation for internal faults.

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
Electromechanical High Impedance Bus
Differential Relays
• Single phase relays
• High-speed
• High impedance voltage sensing
• High seismic IOC unit

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
P -based High-Impedance Bus Differential
Protection Relays

Operating time: 20 – 30ms @ I > 1.5xPKP

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
High Impedance Module for Digital
Relays

RST = 2000 - stabilizing resistor to limit the current


through the relay, and force it to the lower impedance CT
windings.
MOV – Metal Oxide Varistor to limit the voltage to
1900 Volts
86 – latching contact preventing the resistors from
overheating after the fault is detected
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
High-Impedance Module
+
Overcurrent Relay

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
High Impedance Bus Protection - Summary
• Fast, secure and proven
• Requires dedicated CTs, preferably with the same CT ratio
and using full tap
• Can be applied to small buses
• Depending on bus internal and external fault currents, high
impedance bus diff may not provide adequate settings for
both sensitivity and security
• Cannot be easily applied to reconfigurable buses
• Require voltage limiting varistor capable of absorbing
significant energy
• May require auxiliary CTs
• Do not provide full benefits of microprocessor-based relay
system (e.g. metering, monitoring, oscillography, etc.)
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Multilin
20-Sep-19
Low-Impedance
Bus Differential
Considerations
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Multilin
20-Sep-19
P-based Low-Impedance Relays
• No need for dedicated CTs
• Internal CT ratio mismatch compensation
• Advanced algorithms supplement percent differential
protection function making the relay very secure
• Dynamic bus replica (bus image) principle is used in
protection of reconfigurable bus bars, eliminating the need
for switching physically secondary current circuits
• Integrated Breaker Failure (BF) function can provide optimal
tripping strategy depending on the actual configuration of
a bus bar

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Small Bus Applications
2-8 Circuit Applications
• Up to 24 Current Inputs • Different CT Ratio Capability for
• 4 Zones Each Circuit
• Zone 1 = Phase A • Largest CT Primary is Base in
• Zone 2 = Phase B Relay
• Zone 3 = Phase C
• Zone 4 = Not used

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Medium to Large Bus Applications
9-12 Circuit Applications
• Relay 1 - 24 Current Inputs • Relay 2 - 24 Current Inputs
• 4 Zones • 4 Zones
• Zone 1 = Phase A (12 currents) • Zone 1 = Not used
• Zone 2 = Phase B (12 currents) • Zone 2 = Not used
• Zone 3 = Not used • Zone 3 = Phase C (12 currents)
• Zone 4 = Not used • Zone 4 = Not used
• Different CT Ratio Capability for Each Circuit
• Largest CT Primary is Base in Relay

CB 11 CB 12

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
Large Bus Applications

87B phase A

87B phase B

87B phase C

Logic relay
(switch status,
optional BF)

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
Large Bus Applications
For buses with up to 24 circuits

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
Summing External Currents
Not Recommended for Low-Z 87B relays
• Relay becomes combination
CT-1

of restrained and unrestrained


CT-2
elements
•In order to parallel CTs:
I1 = Error

CT-3 • CT performance must be closely


matched
o Any errors will appear as
I2 = 0

CT-4
differential currents
• Associated feeders must be radial
I3 = 0

IDIFF = Error Maloperation if o No backfeeds possible


Error > PICKUP
IREST = Error
• Pickup setting must be raised to
accommodate any errors

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
Definitions of Restraint Signals
iR  i1  i2  i3  ... in “sum of”

iR   i1  i2  i3  ...  in 
1
“scaled sum of”
n

iR  n i1  i2  i3  ...  in “geometrical average”

iR  Max  i1 , i2 , i3 ,..., in  “maximum of”

50
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
“Sum Of” vs. “Max Of” Restraint Methods

“Sum Of” Approach “Max Of” Approach


• More restraint on external faults; • Less restraint on external faults;
less sensitive for internal faults more sensitive for internal faults
• “Scaled-Sum Of” approach takes • Breakpoint settings for the percent
into account number of connected differential characteristic easier to
circuits and may increase set
sensitivity • Better handles situation where one
• Breakpoint settings for the percent CT may saturate completely (99%
differential characteristic more slope settings possible)
difficult to set

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Bus Differential Adaptive Approach

Region 2
(high differential
currents)
differential

Region 1
(low differential
currents)

restraining
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Bus Differential Adaptive Logic Diagram

DIFL

AND
DIR

OR
OR

87B BIASED OP
SAT
AND

DIFH

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Phase Comparison Principle
• Internal Faults: All fault (“large”) currents are approximately in
phase.

• External Faults: One fault (“large”) current will be out of phase

Secondary Current of
Faulted Circuit
• No Voltages are required or needed (Severe CT Saturation)

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Multilin
20-Sep-19
Phase Comparison Principle Continued…

External Fault Conditions Internal Fault Conditions

 Ip   Ip 
imag   imag  
 ID  I p  OPERATE  ID  I p 
    OPERATE
BLOCK BLOCK
 Ip   Ip 
ID - Ip real   ID - Ip real  
Ip  ID  I p   ID  I p 
   
Ip
BLOCK
BLOCK
OPERATE OPERATE

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation

t2
differential

t1

t0 restraining
• Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1
• CT fully saturated at t2
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation Detector State Machine
NORMAL

SAT := 0

The differential
current below the saturation
first slope for condition
certain period of
time EXTERNAL
FAULT

SAT := 1
The differential-
The differential restraining trajectory
characteristic out of the differential
entered characteristic for
certain period of time
EXTERNAL
FAULT & CT
SATURATION

SAT := 1

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation Detector Operating
Principles
• The 87B SAT flag WILL NOT be set during internal faults,
regardless of whether or not any of the CTs saturate.
• The 87B SAT flag WILL be set during external faults,
regardless of whether or not any of the CTs saturate.
• By design, the 87B SAT flag WILL force the relay to use
the additional 87B DIR phase comparison for Region 2

The Saturation Detector WILL NOT Block the Operation of


the Differential Element – it will only Force 2-out-of-2
Operation
58
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation Detector - Examples
• The oscillography records on the next two slides were captured from a
B30 relay under test on a real-time digital power system simulator
• First slide shows an external fault with deep CT saturation (~1.5 msec of
good CT performance)
o SAT saturation detector flag asserts prior to BIASED PKP bus
differential pickup
o DIR directional flag does not assert (one current flows out of zone),
so even though bus differential picks up, no trip results
• Second slide shows an internal fault with mild CT saturation
o BIASED PKP and BIASED OP both assert before DIR asserts
o CT saturation does not block bus differential
• More examples available (COMTRADE files) upon request

59
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation Example – External Fault
200

150

100 ~1 ms
50

current, A
0

-50

-100

-150

-200
0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12
time, sec

The bus differential The CT saturation flag


protection element is set safely before the
picks up due to heavy pickup flag
CT saturation

Despite heavy CT
saturation the
external fault current
The element is seen in the
The
does not opposite direction
directional flag
maloperate 60
is not set
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
CT Saturation – Internal Fault Example

The bus differential


protection element
picks up
The saturation
flag is not set - no
directional
decision required

All the fault currents


are seen in one
direction

The
The element directional
operates in flag is set
10ms 61
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Applying Low-Impedance Differential
Relays for Busbar Protection
Basic Topics
• Configure physical CT Inputs
• Configure Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus Replica
• Calculating Bus Differential Element settings
Advanced Topics
• Isolator switch monitoring for reconfigurable buses
• Differential Zone CT Trouble
• Integrated Breaker Failure protection

62
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Configuring CT Inputs
• For each connected CT circuit enter Primary rating and
select Secondary rating.
• Each 3-phase bank of CT inputs must be assigned to a
Signal Source that is used to define the Bus Zone and
Dynamic Bus Replica

Some relays define 1 p.u. as the maximum


primary current of all of the CTs connected in the
given Bus Zone
63
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Per-Unit Current Definition - Example
Current Primary Secondary Zone
Channel
CT-1 F1 3200 A 1A 1
CT-2 F2 2400 A 5A 1
CT-3 F3 1200 A 1A 1
CT-4 F4 3200 A 1A 2
CT-5 F5 1200 A 5A 2
CT-6 F6 5000 A 5A 2

• For Zone 1, 1 p.u. = 3200 AP


• For Zone 2, 1 p.u. = 5000 AP
64
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Configuration of Bus Zone
• Dynamic Bus Replica associates a status signal with each
current in the Bus Differential Zone
• Status signal can be any logic operand
o Status signals can be developed in programmable logic
to provide additional checks or security as required
o Status signal can be set to ‘ON’ if current is always in the
bus zone or ‘OFF’ if current is never in the bus zone
• CT connections/polarities for a particular bus zone must be
properly configured in the relay, via either hardwire or
software

65
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Configuring the Bus Differential Zone
Bus Zone settings defines the boundaries of the Differential
Protection and CT Trouble Monitoring.

1. Configure the physical CT Inputs


o CT Primary and Secondary values
o Both 5 A and 1 A inputs are supported by the UR hardware
o Ratio compensation done automatically for CT ratio differences up to 32:1
2. Configure AC Signal Sources
3. Configure Bus Zone with Dynamic Bus Replica

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Dual Percent Differential Characteristic

High Set
(Unrestrained)

High Slope

Low Slope
High
Breakpoint

Min Pickup Low


Breakpoint 67
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Calculating Bus Differential Settings
• The following Bus Zone Differential element parameters need to be set:
o Differential Pickup
o Restraint Low Slope
o Restraint Low Break Point
o Restraint High Breakpoint
o Restraint High Slope
o Differential High Set (if needed)
• All settings entered in per unit (maximum CT primary in the zone)
• Slope settings entered in percent
• Low Slope, High Slope and High Breakpoint settings are used by the CT
Saturation Detector and define the Region 1 Area (2-out-of-2 operation
with Directional)

68
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Calculating Bus Differential Settings –
Minimum Pickup

• Defines the minimum differential current required for


operation of the Bus Zone Differential element
• Must be set above maximum leakage current not zoned off
in the bus differential zone
• May also be set above maximum load conditions for added
security in case of CT trouble, but better alternatives exist

69
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Calculating Bus Differential Settings –
Low Slope

• Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents from


IREST=0 to IREST=Low Breakpoint
• Setting determines the sensitivity of the differential element
for low-current internal faults
• Must be set above maximum error introduced by the CTs in
their normal linear operating mode
• Range: 15% to 100% in 1%. increments

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Calculating Bus Differential Settings –
Low Breakpoint
• Defines the upper limit to restraint currents that will be
biased according to the Low Slope setting
• Should be set to be above the maximum load but not more
than the maximum current where the CTs still operate
linearly (including residual flux)
• Assumption is that the CTs will be operating linearly (no
significant saturation effects up to 80% residual flux) up to
the Low Breakpoint setting

71
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Calculating Bus Differential Settings –
High Breakpoint

• Defines the minimum restraint currents that will be biased


according to the High Slope setting
• Should be set to be below the minimum current where the
weakest CT will saturate with no residual flux
• Assumption is that the CTs will be operating linearly (no
significant saturation effects up to 80% residual flux) up to
the Low Breakpoint setting

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Calculating Bus Differential Settings –
High Slope
• Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents IRESTHigh
Breakpoint
• Setting determines the stability of the differential element
for high current external faults
• Traditionally, should be set high enough to accommodate
the spurious differential current resulting from saturation of
the CTs during heavy external faults
• Setting can be relaxed in favour of sensitivity and speed as
the relay detects CT saturation and applies the directional
principle to prevent maloperation
• Range: 50% to 100% in 1%. increments

73
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Calculating Unrestrained Bus Differential
Settings

• Defines the minimum differential current for unrestrained


operation
• Should be set to be above the maximum differential current
under worst case CT saturation
• Range: 2.00 to 99.99 p.u. in 0.01 p.u. increments
• Can be effectively disabled by setting to 99.99 p.u.

74
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20-Sep-19
Dual Percent Differential Characteristic

High Set
(Unrestrained)

High Slope

Low Slope
High
Breakpoint

Min Pickup Low


Breakpoint 75
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Reconfigurable Buses
C-3 C-5
NORTH BUS

B-1 S-1 S-3 S-5


B-5

CT-1 CT-7
CT-2 B-2 CT-3 B-3 CT-4 B-4 CT-5

B-7

CT-6
CT-8
B-6
S-2 S-4 S-6

SOUTH BUS

C-1 C-2 C-4

Protecting re-configurable buses 76


GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Reconfigurable Buses
C-3 C-5
NORTH BUS

B-1 S-1 S-3 S-5


B-5

CT-1 CT-2 B-2 CT-4 B-4 CT-7


CT-3 B-3
CT-5

B-7

CT-6
CT-8
B-6
S-2 S-4 S-6

SOUTH BUS

C-1 C-2 C-4

Protecting re-configurable buses


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Reconfigurable Buses
C-3 C-5
NORTH BUS

B-1 S-1 S-3 S-5


B-5

CT-1 CT-2 B-2 CT-4 B-4 CT-7


CT-3 B-3
CT-5

B-7

CT-6
CT-8
B-6
S-2 S-4 S-6

SOUTH BUS

C-1 C-2 C-4

Protecting re-configurable buses 78


GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Reconfigurable Buses
C-3 C-5
NORTH BUS

B-1 S-1 S-3 S-5


B-5

CT-1 CT-7
CT-2 B-2 CT-3 B-3 CT-4 B-4 CT-5

B-7

CT-6
CT-8
B-6
S-2 S-4 S-6

SOUTH BUS

C-1 C-2 C-4

Protecting re-configurable buses 79


GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Isolators
• Reliable “Isolator Closed” signals are needed for the Dynamic
Bus Replica
• In simple applications, a single normally closed contact may
be sufficient
• For maximum safety:
o Both N.O. and N.C. contacts should be used
o Isolator Alarm should be established and non-valid combinations
(open-open, closed-closed) should be sorted out
o Switching operations should be inhibited until bus image is recognized
with 100% accuracy
o Optionally block 87B operation from Isolator Alarm
• Each isolator position signal decides:
o Whether or not the associated current is to be included in the
differential calculations
o Whether or not the associated breaker is to be tripped
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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Isolator – Typical Open/Closed
Connections

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
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Switch Status Logic and Dyanamic Bus
Replica
Isolator Open Isolator Closed Isolator Position Alarm Block Switching
Auxiliary Auxiliary
Contact Contact
Off On CLOSED No No

Off Off LAST VALID After time delay Until Isolator


until Position is valid
On On CLOSED acknowledged

On Off OPEN No No

NOTE: Isolator monitoring function may be a built-in feature or user-


programmable in low impedance bus differential digital relays

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
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Differential Zone CT Trouble
• Each Bus Differential Zone may a dedicated CT Trouble
Monitor
• Definite time delay overcurrent element operating on the
zone differential current, based on the configured Dynamic
Bus Replica
• Three strategies to deal with CT problems:
1. Trip the bus zone as the problem with a CT will likely
evolve into a bus fault anyway
2. Do not trip the bus, raise an alarm and try to correct
the problem manually
3. Switch to setting group with 87B minimum pickup
setting above the maximum load current.

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Differential Zone CT Trouble
• Strategies 2 and 3 can be accomplished by:
 Using undervoltage supervision to ride through the period
from the beginning of the problem with a CT until declaring a
CT trouble condition
 Using an external check zone to supervise the 87B function
 Using CT Trouble to prevent the Bus Differential tripping (2)
 Using setting groups to increase the pickup value for the 87B
function (3)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Differential Zone CT Trouble – Strategy #2
Example
87B operates
Undervoltage condition
CT OK

• CT Trouble operand is used to rise an alarm


• The 87B trip is inhibited after CT Trouble
element operates
• The relay may misoperate if an external fault
occurs after CT trouble but before the CT trouble
condition is declared (double-contingency)
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
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Example Architecture for Large Busbars
Dual (redundant) fiber with
3msec delivery time between
neighbouring IEDs. Up to 8
relays in the ring

Phase A AC signals and


trip contacts

Phase B AC signals and Phase C AC signals and


trip contacts trip contacts

Digital Inputs for isolator


monitoring and BF
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Example Architecture – Dynamic Bus
Replica and Isolator Position

Phase A AC signals wired


here, bus replica configured
here

Phase B AC signals wired Phase C AC signals wired


here, bus replica configured here, bus replica configured
here here

Auxuliary switches wired here;


Isolator Monitoring function
configured here
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Example Architecture – BF Initiation &
Current Supervision

Phase A AC signals wired


here, current status
monitored here

Phase B AC signals wired Phase C AC signals wired


here, current status here, current status
monitored here monitored here

Breaker Failure
elements configured
here
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
Example Architecture – Breaker Failure
Tripping Trip

Phase A AC signals wired


here, current status Trip
Trip monitored here

Phase B AC signals wired Phase C AC signals wired


here, current status here, current status
monitored here monitored here
Trip

Breaker Fail Op command


generated here and send to trip
appropriate breakers
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19
IEEE 37.234

• “Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power


System Buses” is currently being revised by the K14
Working Group of the IEEE Power System Relaying
Committee.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
20-Sep-19