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NACA 0012 Airfoil

Introductory

FLUENT Training

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-1 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

techniques for modelling flow in high speed external aerodynamic

applications.

• Transonic flow will be modelled over a NACA 0012 airfoil for which

experimental data has been published, so that a comparison can be

made.

• The solver used is the density based implicit solver, which gives

good results for high speed compressible flows.

• The tutorial is carried out using FLUENT and CFD Post from within

Workbench, but it could also be completed in standalone mode.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-2 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

working directory.

• Double-click or drag a FLUENT module from the component systems.

• Add a results module – double click or drag.

• Drag the mouse from cell A3 (Solution) to B2 (Results) to couple the

modules.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-3 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Right click on cell A2 (setup) and select ‘import FLUENT case file’

– Change the ‘Files of type’ to “FLUENT mesh file”

– Select the mesh file naca0012.msh

• The FLUENT launcher will start.

– Keep the default options.

– Note that ‘2D’ has automatically been selected

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-4 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• The mesh will read in and display, and the zones will be written out

for the Workbench project.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-5 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• The mesh needs scaling, since it was created with lengths in mm.

• Select General > Scale and observe the current domain extents.

– Select ‘Mesh was created in mm’.

– Press ‘Scale’

– Check that the domain extents are as expected.

– Close the scale panel and select General > Check

• Review the text window and check there are no errors.

• Finally use ‘Report Quality’ to print out cell quality statistics.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-6 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• The maximum aspect ratio in this mesh is quite high (around 7000)

• This is acceptable because these cells are close to the airfoil wall

surfaces.

• This is needed for the turbulence model being used, since it ensures the

first grid point is in the viscous sublayer.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-7 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– From ‘General’ in the tree select Type: Density-Based

– Check time is steady

– This is needed because the flow is compressible and we will be using the

ideal gas equation.

– From ‘Models’ in the tree, select ‘Energy’ > Edit > and check box

• From ‘Models’ in the tree, select ‘Viscous’ and Edit

• Choose the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model.

• Select strain/vorticity based production, then OK

• This is a relatively simple turbulence model that has been shown to give

good results for boundary layers subjected to adverse pressure

gradients, particularly where there is no or only mild separation.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-8 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Select ‘Materials’ from the model tree

– Highlight ‘Air’ then Create/Edit

– For Density, select ‘Ideal Gas’

– For Viscosity, select “Sutherland”, and accept the default settings for the

3 Coefficient method.

• The Sutherland law for viscosity is well suited for high-speed compressible

flow. For simplicity, we will leave Cp and Thermal Conductivity as constants.

Ideally, in high speed compressible flow modeling, these should be

temperature dependent as well.

– Select Change/Create

– Select ‘Cell Zone Conditions’

– Highlight ‘fluid’ then ‘Edit’

– Observe ‘air’ is already selected.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-9 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Absolute pressure is the gauge pressure plus the operating pressure.

– Setting zero operating pressure means that all pressures set in FLUENT

will be absolute. This is the most common practice for compressible

flows.

– Select ‘Cell Zone Conditions > Operating Conditions

– Set the Operating Pressure to Zero, then ‘OK’

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-10 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Select ‘Boundary Conditions’ > pressure-far-field-1 > edit

– The pressure-far-field boundary type is applicable only when the density is

calculated using the ideal-gas law. It is important to place the far-field boundary

far enough from the object of interest. For example, in lifting airfoil calculations, it

is not uncommon for the far-field boundary to be a circle with a radius of 20 chord

lengths.

– On the ‘Momentum’ tab, set the gauge static

pressure to 73048 Pa po 1 2 1

– We need to input static pressure for a far-field 1 M

p 2

boundary. We can calculate this from the total

pressure, which was atmospheric at 101325 Pa

for the wind-tunnel test. where

– In the case of a real external aerodynamic simulation, po total pressure 101325 Pa

rather than a wind tunnel, the static pressure (at a p static pressure

given altitude) would actually be the same as the total 1.4 for air

pressure in the far field, because the air in the far field

would be stationary. M Mach No. 0.7

– We have already set the operating pressure to zero, so po 1.3871

we are now working in absolute pressure values. Hence p

the gauge static pressure input will be equal to the p 73048 Pa

absolute static pressure value, which we will calculate

to be 73048 Pa.

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary April 28, 2009

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-11 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Set the Mach Number to 0.7 and flow direction components as shown.

• The angle of attack (α) in this numerical case is 1.53 deg. The x-component of

the flow is cos α and the y-component is sin α.

– It is common practice to adjust the numerical α from the experimental α in order to match the lift obtained in

the wind tunnel, and then to determine the drag associated with this lift. This adjustment of α is carried out to

counter the effects of the wind tunnel enclosure.

far field turbulence:

• In reality the far-field air would be stationary. Wind

tunnels attempt to replicate this by using filters and

grids to obtain a low turbulence intensity at the

inlet.

• Select ‘Intensity and Length Scale’

• Set an intensity of 0.01%

• Choose a length scale proportional to

the boundary layer thickness. Based on

an estimated maximum boundary layer

thickness of 50mm*, a suitable length

scale is 0.4 x 0.05m = 0.02m

* taken from a previous simulation

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-12 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– The wind tunnel operating conditions for validation test data give the

total temperature as T0 = 311 K

– We can therefore calculate the static temperature to be 283.24 K

T0 1 2

1 M

T 2

where

T0 total temperatur e 311K

T static temperatur e

1.4 for air

M Mach number 0.7

T

0 1.098 and so T 283.24 K

T

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-13 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• For both walls representing the airfoil, leave the default settings

which correspond to a no-slip condition for momentum and adiabatic

for thermal.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-14 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Set the reference values: These are not used in the actual solution,

but are used for reporting coefficients, such as Cp.

– Use the freestream conditions as a reference, so choose ‘compute from’

then select ‘pressure-far-field-1’ in the drop down list.

enthalpy, pressure, temperature,

etc. will update from the freestream

values you specified in the

pressure-far-field-1 boundary.

updated from the far field boundary

values). In this 2D case, we will use

the airfoil chord length, of 1m.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-15 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• The CFD computation is now defined. However the solver settings need to

be modified. These dictate how fast, stable and accurate (within the mesh

and BC constraints) the solution will be.

• Select Solution Methods in the LHS tree.

• Keep the default settings for the implicit formulation and Roe-FDS flux type.

– The explicit formulation is only normally used for cases where the characteristic

time scale is of the same order as the acoustic time scale, for example the

propagation of high Mach number shock waves.

– The implicit formulation is more stable and can be driven much harder to reach a

converged solution in less time.

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary April 28, 2009

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-16 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– This is slightly more computationally expensive than the other methods

but is more accurate.

• Select Second Order Upwind for flow and turbulence discretization.

– To accurately predict drag, select the ‘Second Order Upwind’ schemes.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-17 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• The Courant number (CFL) determines the internal time step and

affects the solution speed and stability.

– The default CFL for the density-based implicit formulation is 5.0. It is

often possible to increase the CFL to 10, 20, 100, or even higher,

depending on the complexity of your problem. You may find that a lower

CFL is required during startup (when changes in the solution are highly

nonlinear), but it can be increased as the solution progresses.

‘solution steering’, the choice of CFL

at this stage is not important for this

case.

factors (URFs) for the uncoupled

parameters.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-18 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Monitors > Residuals > Edit

– Make sure ‘plot’ is on

– Turn off convergence checks by setting the criterion to ‘none’. This

means that the calculation will not stop based on the residual plots

convergence, but you can still see their progress.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-19 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Select both wall zones and toggle on ‘Print’, ‘Plot’ and ‘Write’.

• Remember that α is 1.53° so we need to use the force vector as shown. -Lift and drag

are defined relative to the wind, not the airfoil.

which window

FLUENT uses to

display plots. For

now, accept the

defaults.

• Press OK, then follow the same process to setup a monitor for Lift.

– The settings are identical except for the File Name (cl-history instead of cd-history) and the

Force Vectors defined as shown here:

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-20 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Select Solution Initialization from the model tree

– Compute from > pressure-far-field-1

– Press ‘Initialize’.

early-stages of the computation, then blends to the more accurate

second order schemes as the solution stabilizes.

– Select Run Calculation, and toggle on Solution Steering

– Change the flow type to transonic and keep default options

• Full-Multi-Grid Initialization will compute a quick, simplified solution based on

a number of coarse sub-grids. This will then be used as a starting point for the

main calculation. FMG can help to get a stable starting point.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-21 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Check the case file and make sure there are no reported issues.

– Use Run Calculation > Check Case

– Any potential problems with the case setup will be raised in the case

check panel if there are no problems this panel will not appear. In this

case there is a recommendation to check the reference values for the

force monitors. Since we have already set these we can ignore this

warning.

– File > Save Project (if running under workbench)

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-22 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

not strictly necessary) to run the FMG and then check the coarse

FMG solution before starting the main calculation iterations.

• Set the number of requested iterations to zero, and press ‘Calculate’.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-23 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

spurious values are predicted.

• Go to ‘Graphics and Animations in the LHS tree, choose ‘Contours’

and ‘Set Up’

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-24 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Display. If you need to autoscale the display press <control> A

• Zoom in as required.

• Examine the min and max reported values.

• Repeat for Contours of Velocity> Mach Number.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-25 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• There are no spurious results from the FMG, so proceed to the main

calculation.

• Return to ‘Run Calculation’ in the LHS tree.

• Change the number of windows to three (for the residual, drag and lift

monitors that we set up earlier).

• Request 900 iterations.

• ‘Calculate’

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-26 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Note that the CFL has been updated during the calculation in a number of

stages, ramping up from 5 to 200 as we requested. This can be seen in

the CFL window and the effect on the residuals is also evident. By the

end of the calculation the residuals have converged well and are no

longer changing. The drag and lift monitors are also stable.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-27 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Examine the contours of static pressure.

– Turn off ‘Filled’ to just display the The contour will display in the active

contour lines. window (click a window to activate).

Alternatively, use the drop down menu to

– Adjust the Levels to increase the return the display to a single window as

number of contour lines. shown here

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-28 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Plot contours of Velocity > Mach Number and notice that the flow is

now locally supersonic.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-29 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Plot Pressure Coefficient along the top and bottom airfoil surfaces.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-30 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

import and plot here alongside the numerical prediction.

• Click on ‘Load File’ and browse for the files in your directory.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-31 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• A good agreement can be seen.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-32 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

model to work effectively, we need to have a mesh that is well

resolved near to the wall, such that the first grid point is in the

viscous sub-layer. Ideally we want a Y+ value of 1 or less.

• Plot Turbulence > Y+, along both of the airfoil walls.

– Deselect the Pressure Coefficient File Data.

• We can see that this is achieved here, the max Y+ is 0.75

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-33 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• From Reference 1

– Cl = 0.241 and Cd = 0.0079

– Cl = 0.241 and Cd = 0.0083

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary April 28, 2009

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-34 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Take the middle option ‘Continue after replacing settings file’)

• Close FLUENT (File > Close FLUENT)

• Additional post-processing will now be performed in CFD Post.

• Return to the Workbench Project window.

• Click on ‘Update Project’ and notice the Results panel update.

• Right click on cell B2 (Results) and select edit. This will launch CFD Post.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-35 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Note that CFD Post works in 3D, so a unit thickness will be added to

the 2D airfoil, with symmetry side boundaries.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-36 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

– Top menu > Insert > Contour

• Choose the location as symmetry-1

• Choose the variable to be pressure and ‘Apply’ (zoom in)

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-37 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

sets of CFD data.

– Verify that the file NACA0012-mach-0.5-conv.dat.gz is in your working

directory.

– File > Load Results – Browse to your working directory.

– Under ‘Case options’ make sure ‘keep current cases loaded’ is checked.

– Open the File NACA0012-mach-0.5-conv.dat.gz.

• Click OK if an Information/Warning dialog box appears.

• We now have two data sets loaded and can do a case comparison.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-38 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Make sure that two windows are open, and select the respective

cases in a different window.

• Lock the views so they are synchronised.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-39 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• Select ‘Contour 1’ and apply. We can compare the two pressure plots.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-40 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

• In the Outline view, double-click Case Comparison.

• The Case Comparison details view appears.

• Select Case Comparison Active and click Apply.

• A third viewport opens that displays the pressure difference between

the two cases.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-41 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

compute the transonic, compressible flow over a naca0012 airfoil.

seen good agreement.

Workbench project, and we have explored some of the features

within CFD Post.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-42 Inventory #002601

WS2: Transonic Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

Flows,” NASA Ames Research Center, AIAA-87-0416, 1987.

NACA 0012 Airfoil in the Langley 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel,”

NASA Ames Research Center, NASA TM 81927, 1981.

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. WS2-43 Inventory #002601

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