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FUNDAMENTALS OF

INVESTIGATION AND
INTELLIGENCE
HISTORY
HANS GROSS
EDMUND LOCARD
AUGUST VOLLMER
Established the earliest crime laboratory in
the world advance the art and science of
investigation
SHERLOCK HOLMES
A fictional private
detective created by
British author Sir Arthur
Conan Doyle, known
for his proficiency with
observation, forensic
science and logical
reasoning.
EUGENE FRANCOIS VIDOCQ – “IT TAKES A THIEF TO CATCH A
THIEF”
HENRY & JOHN FIELDING – “BOW STREET RUNNERS” (LONDON
METROPOLITAN POLICE (SCOTLAND YARD)
SIR LLEWELLEYN WILLIAM ATCHERLY – CHIEF CONSTABLE OF WEST
RIDING, YORSHIRE
THOMAS BYRNES – MODUS OPERANDI
ALPHONSE BERTILLON – FATHER OF PERSONAL
IDENTIFICATION(ANTHROPOMETRY)
JONATHAN WILD – WORLD’S FIRST PRIVATE DETECTIVE
ALAN PINKERTON – PIONEER IN NON-GOVERNMENT POLICING
AND PRIVATE DETECTIVE WORKS IN THE U.S.
JOHN EDGAR HOOVER – DIRECTOR OF THE FBI
DEFINITION
INVESTIGATION
CAME FROM LATIN WORD “VESTIGARE” WHICH
MEANS “TO TRACK OR TO TRACE”
IS THE PROCESS OF INQUIRING, ELICITING,
SOLICITING AND GETTING VITAL INFORMATION,
FACTS, CIRCUMSTANCES IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE
TRUTH
CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION
COLLECTION OF FACTS IN ORDER TO ACCOMPLISH
THE THREE-FOLD AIMS: (1)TO IDENTIFY THE GUILTY
PARTY;(2)TO LOCATE THE GUILTY PARTY;(3)TO
PROVIDE EVIDENCE OF HIS (SUSPECT) GUILT
THE SYSTEMATIC, STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS OF
DETERMINING WHETHER OR NOT A CRIME HAS BEEN
COMMITTED, AND IF SO, WHO COMMITTED IT
OBJECTIVES OF INVESTIGATION

1. To determine whether or not a crime has


been committed
2. To identify and arrest the suspect
3. To provide the prosecution with evidence
necessary to support conviction
4. To recover stolen property
IS
INVESTIGATION
AN ART? OR
SCIENCE?
CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION AS AN ART

 Not governed by rigid rules or fixed legal


procedures but most often based on intuition
and sometimes by chance

“Criminal Investigation is 95% perspiration, 3%


inspiration and 2% luck.”
-Hans Gross
CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION AS A SCIENCE

 It involves the application of


knowledge of forensic sciences
WHY CRIME SHOULD BE INVESTIGATED?

A. FUTURE DETERRENCE OF OFFENDERS


B. DETERRENCE TO OTHERS
C. COMMUNITY SAFETY
D. PROTECTION OF THE INNOCENT
THE ANATOMY OF CRIME
A. MOTIVE – reasons or causes why a
person commits crime
B. INSTRUMENTALITY – means or implement
used in committing the crime
C. OPPORTUNITY – chance or time given in
committing the crime
BASIC ELEMENTS OF CRIMINAL
INVESTIGATION
1. RECOGNITION
2. COLLECTION
3. PRESERVATION
4. EVALUATION
5. PRESENTATION
TOOLS OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION

1. INFORMATION
2. INTERROGATION/INTERVIEW
3. INSTRUMENTATION
CLASSIFICATION OF INFORMATION
AS TO SOURCES
1. Regular Sources
2. Cultivated Sources
3. Grapevine Sources
DISTINCTION BETWEEN INTERVIEW AND
INTERROGATION

INTERVIEW INTERROGATION
Friendly or Questioning
sympathetic somebody
questioning closely, often in
an aggressive
manner
FORENSIC SCIENCES
1. Firearms Identification
2. Fingerprints Examination
3. Questioned Document Examination
4. Photography
5. Polygraph
6. Forensic Chemistry
7. Physics
8. Biology
“The RIGHT person asking the
RIGHT question to the RIGHT
person at the RIGHT place
and at the RIGHT time will get
the RIGHT answer.”
INTERVIEW
GENERAL KINDS OF INTERVIEW

1. COGNITIVE INTERVIEW
2. QUESTION AND ANSWER
GOLDEN RULE IN INTERVIEW

“Never allow the interviewer to


conduct nor let anyone to
conduct an interview without
prior visit to the crime scene.”
QUALITIES OF A GOOD INTERVIEWER
1. RAPPORT
2. FORCEFUL PERSONALITY
3. KNOWLEDGE ON PSYCHOLOGY/PSYCHIATRY
4. CONVERSATIONAL TONE OF VOICE
5. ACTING QUALITIES
6. HUMILITY
REASONS WHY WITNESSES REFUSE
TO TESTIFY
1. FEAR OF REPRISAL
2. GREAT INCONVENIENCE
3. HATRED AGAINST THE POLICE
4. BECAUSE OF BIAS OF WITNESS
5. AVOIDANCE OF PUBLICITY
6. FAMILY RESTRICTION
PHASES OF INTERVIEW

1. PREPARATION
2. APPROACH
3. WARMING UP
4. COGNITIVE INTERVIEW
RULES IN QUESTIONING

1. One question at a time.


2. Avoid implied answer.
3. Simplicity of question.
4. Saving face.
5. Yes and no answer.
TYPES OF WITNESSES
1. Know-nothing
2. Disinterested
3. The Drunken
4. Talkative
5. Honest
6. Deceitful
7. Timid
8. Refusal to Talk
INTERROGATION
MAIN PURPOSE OF INTERROGATION
CONFESSION ADMISSION
1. There is declaration of 1. There is a statement of
the person; the person;
2. The accused 2. The person only agreed
acknowledged guilt on facts or circumstances
from the commission of of the crime;
a crime; 3. There is no acceptance
3. Guilt is admitted. of guilt.
KINDS OF CONFESSION

1. EXTRA JUDICIAL CONFESSION


A. VOLUNTARY
B. INVOLUNTARY
2. JUDICIAL CONFESSION
TECHNIQUES OF INTERROGATION

1. EMOTIONAL APPEAL
2. SYMPATHETIC APPROACH
3. FRIENDLINESS
4. TRICK AND BLUFF TECHNIQUES
A. PRETENSE OF SOLID EVIDENCE
B. WEAKEST LINK
C. DRAMA
D. FEIGNING CONTACT WITH FAMILY MEMBERS
E. LINE UP
F. REVERSE LINE UP
G. STERN APPROACH
>JOLTING
>OPPORTUNITY TO LIE
H. MUTT AND JEFF OR SWEET AND SOUR
METHOD
I. REMOVING THE ETHNIC OR CULTURAL
BARRIER
J. SEARCHING FOR THE SOFT SPOT
5. RATIONALIZATION
6. PROJECTION
7. MINIMIZATION
APPARENT SIGNS OF DECEPTION
1. EXCESSIVE SWEATING
2. CHANGE OF FACIAL COLOR
3. DRY MOUTH
4. EXCESSIVE BREATHING
5. INCREASE OF PULSE BEAT
6. AVOIDANCE OF DIRECT EYE CONTACT