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• A Piston is a solid cylinder or disk that fits snugly intoa hollow

cylinder and moves back and forth under the pressure of a
fluid (typically a hot gas formed by combustion, as in many
engines), moves or compresses a fluid, as in a pump or
Cycle of a piston
• Intake
• Compression
• Ignition
• Power
• Exhaust
• The Crown : is the top surface (closest to
the cylinder head) of the piston which is
subjected to tremendous forces and heat
during normal engine operation.

• The Ring lands : Are the reliefs cut into

the side profile of the piston where the
piston rings sit.

• Ring Groove: is a recessed area located

around the perimeter of the piston that is
used to retain a piston ring.

• Skirt : of a piston is the portion of the

piston closest to the crankshaft that helps
align the piston as it moves in the
cylinder bore.

• Wrist pin boss : is a bore that connects

the small end of the connecting rod to
the piston by a wrist pin.
Piston rings
• A piston ring is an expandable split ring used to provide aseal
between the piston an the cylinderwall.

• Piston rings commonly used include the compression ring, wiper

ring (second compression ring ) , and oil ring.

• Compression ring and wiper ring

seals the combustion chamber from
any leakage during the
combustion process.

• The oil ring is used to distribute and

regulate oil within the cylinder wall
and help scrape it back into the
Material used for manufacturing
• Piston material and design contribute to the overall durability and
performance of anengine.

• Most pistons are made from cast aluminum alloy.

• Cast aluminum alloy is lightweight and has good structural integrity and
low manufacturing costs. The light weight of aluminum reduces the overall
mass and force necessary to initiate and maintain acceleration of the

• Piston rings are generally manufactured from cast iron or stainless steel .
Piston Manufacturing Process

• The pistons are usually manufactured by

means of
1) CASTING (an object made by pouring molten metal
or other material intoa mould )
2) FORGING (Forging is the operation where the metal
is heated and then a force is applied to manipulates the
metals in such a way that the required final shape is
obtained )
•The foundry is the beginning of the piston. Ingots of Aluminum are
heated in a furnace .

• The molten aluminum is poured in a hydraulic mould.

•The material is then scooped up with a ladle from the crucible (the
pot that holds the molten material). The material is then allowed to
cool .

• The fresh obtained pistons are dehorned first by a verticalmilling


• Dehorned pistons are hardened in an oven prior to machining

• Then in a lathe machine , the rough edges are cutand a smooth

profile is obtained by means of a turningoperation.

• At first the skirt of the piston is finished

• After that the CNCis programmed to

a. Cut the ring grooves
b. Make an accurate bore diameter
c. Finish the crown
4) 5 axis VMC machining

• In this machine the oil slots and pin bore is made


•This process involves the final size being machined of the piston.The
grinder machines the skirt of the piston only and in the majority of
cases is cam ground. Cam grinding ensures the piston will "grow"
evenly in the bore ofthe engine .
Final Inspection

•At this stage the piston is cleaned, fitted with the appropriate wrist
pin, stamped with the pistons oversize and any other markings, and
then sent to dispatch.

•The piston begins as a three meter, solid aluminum rod. Thereason

aluminum is used is that it's lightweight, rust-proof, and easy to cut.

•A saw then cuts the rod intosmaller pieces called slugs.

• A punch press and dye are pre-heated while the slug moves through an
oven, heating it to 426 C° asthe punch press.

• The slug is then removed from the oven, and placed into the punch. The
press applies 2,000 tons of pressure onto the slug, forging it into the basic
shape of apiston.

• This process causes the piston to become so hot, that it needs an hour to

3) The Oven
•After the forgings cool down, they go through an oven twice more. The
first time is at a higher temperature, to strengthen the metal. The second
time is at a lower temperature to stabilize it.

4) The Wrist Pin Holes and oil control holes
• Alarge hole is then drilled through both sides of the piston. This is
where the wrist pin will go, attaching the piston to the connecting rod
• Oil control holes are drilled alongthe
5) RingGrooves
• Three ring grooves are created by a Lathemachine
5) The Milling machine

•A milling machine then shaves up to a couple of centimeters off of

each side of the piston where the large holes were drilled for the wrist
pin insertion. This is to reduce the overall weight of the piston.

•Another milling machine takes some more metal off of the area where
the three rings were formed earlier, bringing the piston one step closer
to its finalform.
5) Grinding
•The next step involves grinding of the piston from it’s head to give the crown the shape
required according to the design . Alubricant is used to cool the work piece continuously.
6) Finishing the Job
•Another lathe shaves a few more millimeters off of the top, allowing the
piston to expand when heat builds up inside of it. Then a machine
engraves model and production information.

•Ahuman worker then smooths out the sharp edges of the piston created
during production. The holes created for the wrist pin are then put
through a machine which smooths them, allowing the wrist pin to fit

•Finally, the pistons sprayed by hot, deionized water, removing any

lubricant or oil gathered through the manufacturing process.After they're
dry, they're ready for use
They are affordable . They are expensive
Lighter weight becauseof
the Aluminum alloy . Mostly used for highspeed
It is generally used for slow or high rpm’s