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Channel Allocation for GPRS

From: IEEE Tran. Veh. Technol., Vol. 50, no. 2,


2001.
Author: P. Lin and Y.-B. Lin
CSIE, NTU & CSIE, NCTU
Outline
 Introduction
 GPRS architecture
 Packet data logical channel
 Channel allocation schemes
 System model
 Analysis results
 Simulation method
 Performance
 Conclusion
Introduction

 GPRS shares GSM frequency bands with


telephone and circuit-switched data traffic
 GPRS uses the same TDMA/ FDMA structure
as that of GSM to form physical channels
 Allocation of channel for GPRS is flexible
where one to eight channels can be
allocated to a user or one channel can be
shared by several users
GPRS architecture
Packet data logical channel
 Packet data traffic channel (PDTCH)
Employed for transferring of user data
 Packet broadcast control channel (PBCCH)
Broadcast control
 Packet common control channel (PCCCH)
 The packet random access channel (PRACH)

 The packet paging channel (PPCH)

 The packet access grant channel (PAGCH)

 The packet notification channel (PNCH)

 Packet dedicated control channels


 The packet associated control channel (PACCH)

 The packet timing advance control channel (PTCCH)


Packet data logical channel (cont’d)
Group Name Direction Function
PTC PDTCH Downlink and uplink Data

PBCCH PBCCH Downlink Broadcast


PCCCH PRACH Uplink Random access
PPCH Downlink Paging
PAGCH Downlink Access grant
PNCH Downlink Multicast
PDCH PTCCH Downlink and uplink Timing advance
PACCH Downlink and uplink Associated control
Dynamic allocation: uplink data transfer
Dynamic allocation: downlink data transfer
Channel allocation schemes:
•Fixed Resource Allocation (FRA):
For a data request of K channels, the BS assigns exact K
channels to GPRS packet request
•Dynamic Resource Allocation (DRA):
For a data request of K channels, DRA allocates at most K
channels to the request
•Fixed Resource Allocation with Queue Capability (FRAQ)
FRAQ_N: a queue for the new calls only
FRAQ_H: a queue for the handoff calls only
FRAQ_NH: a queue for both new and handoff calls
•Dynamic Resource Allocation with Queue Capability (DRAQ)
DRAQ_N: similar to FRAQ_N
DRAQ_H: similar to FRAQ_H
DRAQ_NH: similar to FRAQ_NH
System model

 A GPRS data request specifies K channels for


transmission
 The GSM voice call arrival and GPRS packet
requests to a cell form Poisson streams with
rates v and  p , respectively
 The voice call holding time and packet
transmission time are exponentially distributed
with mean times 1 /  v and 1 /  p ,
respectively
The timimg diagram

tc ,v : the voice call holding time, which is assumed to be


exponentially distributed with the density function
 uv tc ,v
f c,v (tc,v )  uv e
tm , j tm , j
: the residence time of voice user at a cell j, which are
independent and identically distributed random
variables with a general function f m (tm , j ) with mean 1 η
λvh : voice handoff call arrival rate to a cell
Pbv : the new call blocking probability for the GSM

Pbp : dropping/ blocking probability for the GPRS

ηv : GSM voice user mobility rate


Pncv : probability that a GSM voice call is not completed (either blocked
or forced to terminate)
v : the GSM voice call traffic load
p : the GPRS packet call traffic load
Analytic model for FRA

 v (1  Pbv )[1  f m* (uv )]v


vh  (1)
uv [1  (1  Pfv ) f (uv )] *
m

where

f ( s)  
*  stm , j
m f m (tm, j )e dtm, j
t m , j 0

λv   η [ P +( P  P ) f *
(u )[1  f *
m (uv )]

ρv=( )  1 
v bv fv bv m v
 (2)
uv  uv [1  (1  Pfv ) f m* (uv )] 
Analytic model for FRA (cont’d)
 v ,h 
Pncv  Pbv    Pfv
 v 
v (1  Pbv )[1  f m* (uv )]v 
 Pbv    Pfv (3)
 vu [1  (1  Pfv ) f *
m (uv )] 
S FRA state space :
  C 
S FRA  (nv , n p ) nv  Kn p  C ,0  nv  C , and 0  n p    
  K 
stationary probability:

np
1  nv
p ( n)  G ( v p
)( )
nv ! np! (4)
Analytic model for FRA (cont’d)
where
 p  p  p

 nv
 np

G  
nS FRA
[( v
nv !
)(
np!
p
)] (5)

Pbv   p(n) C 
n{( nv , n p )|nv  Kn p C , 0 nv C , 0 n p   } (6)
K 

Pbp   p(n) C  (7)


n{( nv ,n p )|C  K  nv  Kn p C, 0 nv C, 0 n p   }
K 
The iterative algorithm for FRA

 Step 1: Select an initial value for λvh


 Step 2: λvh ,old ← λvh
 Step 3: Compute Pbv and Pbp using (2) and (4)-(7)
 Step 4: Compute λvhusing (1)
 Step 5: If λvh - λvh ,old ≥ δλvh then go to step 2. Otherwise
,go to step 6. Note that  is a predefined threshold
say 10 7
 Step 6: The values for λvh , Pbv and Pbp converge. Compute
Pncv from (3)
Analytic model for DRA
Let’s consider the case when K=3

S DRA  {( i, j , k , l ) | 0 ≤ i  3 j  2k  l ≤ C ,
C 
0 ≤ i ≤ C ,0 ≤ j ≤   , M v = uv + ηv

3
C 
0  k   , and 0  l  C}
2

where M v = uv + ηv
Λv = λv + λvh

The state transition for DRA


Analytic model for DRA (cont’d)
The balance equations for the Markov process are expressed:

  
  v  iM v  3 j p  2k p  l p  1  p   2  p   3  p ) i , j ,k ,l

  v i 1, j ,k ,l   3 p i , j 1,k ,l   2 p i , j ,k 1,l  1 p i , j ,k ,l 1 


(i  1) M v i 1, j ,k ,l  3( j  1)  p i , j 1,k ,l  2(k  1)  p i , j ,k 1,l 
(l  1)  p i , j ,k ,l 1
Analytic model for DRA (cont’d)
E1 : the set of the states where no free channel is available
E1   (i, j , k , l ) | 0 ≤ i  3 j  2k  l  C ,
C  C 
0 ≤ i ≤ C ,0 ≤ j ≤  ,0  k  , and
3 2
0l C 

Pbp  Pbv  Pfv   i , j , k ,l


( i , j , k ,l )E1
Analytic model for FRAQ
S FRAQ_ N  {( x, y ) | 0  x  Ky  C  Q,
C 
0  x  C  Q, 0  y    
K 

Case I : 0  x  Ky  C
Analytic model for FRAQ (cont’d)
Case II : x  Ky  C

Case III : 0  x  Ky  C  Q
Analytic model for FRAQ (cont’d)
E2 : a packet request is dropped if the number of free channels
is smaller than K
C 
E2   ( x, y) | C  K  x  Ky  C  Q, 0  x  C  Q, 0  y    
K 
Pbp  
( x , y )E2
x, y

C K   C  Q  Ky 
Pfv     x, y 
 
y 0  x C  Ky 

C K   C Q  Ky ( x  1  C  Ky)v x, y 
Pbv     

y 0  x C  Ky (C  Ky) M v  ( x  1  C  Ky)v 
Simulation method
 We consider a 6x6 wrapped mesh cell
structure
 The model follows the discrete event
simulation approach

6X6 wrapped mesh cell structure


Performance of FRA (Pbp )

 Performance of GPRS data rate: Pbp increase as K


increase
 Effects of packet size :in Fig. 6(b)
 Effect of voice call arrival: in Fig. 6(c)
 Effect of voice user mobility: in Fig. 6(d)
voice user mobility has no apparent effect on Pbp
Performance of FRA (Pncv )

 Effect of packet size: in Fig. 7(b)


 Effect of voice call arrival: in Fig. 7(c)
packet request have less chance to served as K
increases, and Pncv decreases as K increases
 Effect of voice user mobility: in Fig. 7(d)
high mobility, handoffs are more likely to occur in a
voice call,thus Pncv for high mobility is larger
Comparison for the FRA and DRA
algorithms
 Performance of Pbp
DRA algorithms (with or without queueing)
always outperform FRA (with or without
queueing)
 Performance of Pncv
the DRAQ_NH outperforms other algorithms
Effect of the variations of the distribution
for input parameters
The average number of channels assigned
to packet transmission
The average waiting time for the accepted
voice call request
Conclusion

 The dynamic allocation effectively increases


the GPRS packet acceptance rate and
queueing mechanisms significantly reduce
the voice call incompletion probability