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Chapter 18

Carbohydrates
Chapter 18
Table of Contents
18.1 Biochemistry—An Overview
18.2 Occurrence and Functions of Carbohydrates
18.3 Classification of Carbohydrates
18.4 Chirality: Handedness in Molecules
18.5 Stereoisomerism: Enantiomers and Diastereomers
18.6 Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projections Formulas
18.7 Properties of Enantiomers
18.8 Classification of Monosaccharides
18.9 Biochemically Important Monosaccharides
18.10 Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides
18.11 Haworth Projection Formulas
18.12 Reactions of Monosaccharides
18.13 Disaccharides
18.14 General Characteristics of Polysaccharides
18.15 Storage Polysaccharides
18.16 Structural Polysaccharides
18.17 Acidic Polysaccharides
18.18 Glycolipids and Glycoproteins: Cell Recognition
18.19 Dietary Considerations and Carbohydrates

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Section 18.1
Biochemistry – An Overview

The Study of Living Things


• Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances
found in living organisms and the chemical interactions
of these substances with each other.
• A biochemical substance is a chemical substance found
within a living organism.
• Two types of biochemical substances: bioinorganic
substances and bioorganic substances.
– Bioinorganic substances : water and inorganic salts.
– Bioorganic substances : carbohydrates, lipids,
proteins, and nucleic acids

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Section 18.1
Biochemistry – An Overview

The Study of Living Things


• As isolated compounds, bioinorganic and bioorganic
substances have no life in and of themselves. Yet when
these substances are gathered together in a cell, their
chemical interactions are able to sustain life.
• It is estimated that more than half of all organic carbon
atoms are found in the carbohydrate materials of plants.
• Human uses for carbohydrates of the plant kingdom
extend beyond food. Carbohydrates in the form of cotton
and linen are used as clothing. Carbohydrates in the
form of wood are used for shelter and heating and in
making paper.
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Section 18.2
Occurrence and Functions of Carbohydrates

Photosynthesis
• 75% of dry plant material: Produced by photosynthesis
• Cellulose: structural element
• Starch/glycogen: energy reservoir
- small amount in human body
• Plant products are source of carbohydrates
- average human diet contains 2/3 of carbohydrates
Most of the matter in plants, except water, is carbohydrate
material.

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Section 18.2
Occurrence and Functions of Carbohydrates

Functions of Carbohydrates in the Human Body


• Carbohydrate oxidation - provides energy
• Carbohydrate storage, in the form of glycogen, provides a
short-term energy reserve
• Carbohydrates supply carbon atoms for the synthesis of other
biochemical substances (proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids)
• Carbohydrates form part of the structural framework of DNA
and RNA molecules
• Carbohydrates linked to lipids (Chapter 19) are structural
components of cell membranes
• Carbohydrates linked to proteins (Chapter 20) function in a
variety of cell–cell and cell–molecule recognition processes

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Section 18.3
Classification of Carbohydrates

Photosynthesis
• Simpler Formula:
– CnH2nOn or Cn(H2O)n (hydrates of C)
– n= number of atoms
• Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or
compounds that produce such substances upon
hydrolysis
CHO CH2 OH
Aldehyde H OH O Ketone
HO H HO H
H OH H OH
H OH H OH
Polyhydroxy ketone
CH2 OH CH2 OH
Polyhydroxy
aldehyde Glucose Fructose
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Section 18.3
Classification of Carbohydrates

Monosaccharide
• Contain single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit
• They can’t be broken down into simpler substances by
hydrolysis (reaction with water) reactions
• Contains 3-7 C atoms
• 5 and 6 carbon species are more common
• Water soluble white crystalline solids
CHO CH2 OH
H OH O
HO H HO H Glucose and fructose
H OH H OH
H OH
are monosaccharides
H OH
CH2 OH CH2 OH

Glucose Fructose Return to TOC

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Section 18.3
Classification of Carbohydrates

Oligosaccharides
• Contains ~2-10 monosaccharide units - covalently
bonded to each other
• Disaccharides (contain 2 monosaccharide units) more
common - crystalline water soluble substances
• Table sugar (sucrose) and milk sugar (lactose)
- are common disaccharides
• Upon hydrolysis they produce monosaccharide
• In human body associated with proteins and lipids for
structural and regulatory functions

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Section 18.3
Classification of Carbohydrates

Polysaccharides
• Contains many monosaccharide units covalently bonded
• Polymers: May contain 100s of 1000s of
monosaccharide units

• Examples:
• Cellulose: Paper, cotton, wood
• Starch: Bread, pasta, potatoes, rice, corn, beans,
peas, etc.

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Section 18.4
Chirality: Handedness in Molecules

Objects and Mirror Images


• Most monosaccharides exist in two forms: a “left
handed” and “right handed” form - same as two hands
• Two types of objects:
- Superimposible on their mirror images: -- images that
coincide at all points when the images are laid upon
each other -- a dinner plate with no design features --
Achiral
- Non-superimposible on their mirror images: Chiral
(handedness)

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Section 18.4
Chirality: Handedness in Molecules

Chirality
• Chiral Center: C atom attached to 4 different groups
• A molecule with chiral center is a chiral molecule
– Best way to visualize - look at all C atoms and see if there are at
least two H atoms then that can’t be a chiral center
– C atoms with less than one H atoms are worth looking at for
their chirality.
• Be careful as a C atom may apparently look similar but may not
have four DIFFERENT groups.
– E. g. 3-bromopentane - C has two CH2-CH3 groups – so it is
achiral A chiral C is usually denoted by *
Br

*
3-Bromopentane Return to TOC

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Section 18.4
Chirality: Handedness in Molecules

Practice Exercise

Answers:
a. Not a chiral center
b. Not a chiral center
c. Chiral center
d. Not a chiral center Return to TOC

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Section 18.4
Chirality: Handedness in Molecules
Responses of Left and Right Handed Forms of a Molecule in a
Human Body

– Both may be active, one may be more active or one


may be active and other non-active
– Example: Right handed hormone epinephrine is 20
times more active than left handed form
– Almost all monosaccharides are right handed
– Amino acids are almost always left handed

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Section 18.5
Stereoisomerism: Enantiomers and Diasterioisomers

Stereoisomers
• Stereoisomers are isomers that have the same
molecular and structural formulas but differ in the
orientation of atoms in space.
• Two types:
• Enantiomers are stereoisomers whose molecules are
nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other.
Molecules with chiral center.
• Diastereomers are stereoisomers whose molecules are
not mirror images of each other.

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Section 18.6
Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projection Formulas

Fischer Project Formulas


• Fischer projection formulas - a method for giving
molecular chirality specifications in two dimensions. A
Fischer projection formula is a two-dimensional structural
notation for showing the spatial arrangement of groups
about chiral centers in molecules.
• In a Fischer projection formula a chiral center (Carbon) is
represented as the intersection of vertical and horizontal
lines
• Functional groups of high priority will be written at top
• D and L system used to designate the handedness of
glyceraldehyde enantiomers
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Section 18.6
Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projection Formulas

Tetrahedral Arrangements
• The four groups attached to the atom at the chiral center
assume a tetrahedral geometry and it is governed by the
following conventions
• Vertical lines from the chiral center represent bonds to groups
directed into the printed page.
• Horizontal lines from the chiral center represent bonds to
groups directed out of the printed page

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Section 18.6
Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projection Formulas

Fischer Project Formulas


• D and L system used to designate the handedness of
glyceraldehyde enantiomers (see figure below)

CHO CHO
H OH HO H
CH2OH CH2OH
D-Glyceroldehyde L-Glyceroldehyde
(-OH on right side) (-OH on left side)

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Section 18.6
Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projection Formulas

Fischer Project Formulas


• We now consider Fischer projection formulas for the
compound 2,3,4-trihydroxybutanal - a monosaccharide
with four carbons and two chiral centers
• There are four stereoisomers for this compound—two
pairs of enantiomers

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Section 18.6
Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projection Formulas

Fischer Project Formulas


• The D,L system used to designate the handedness of
glyceraldehyde enantiomers can be extended to other
monosaccharides with more than one chiral center
• The carbon chain is numbered starting at the carbonyl
group end of the molecule, and the highest-numbered
chiral center is used to determine D or L configuration
• Epimers are diastereomers whose molecules differ only
in the configuration at one chiral center

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Section 18.6
Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projection Formulas

Exercise

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Section 18.7
Properties of Enantiomers

Constitutional Isomers and Diastereomers


• Constitutional isomers differ in most chemical and
physical properties. For example, constitutional isomers
have different boiling points and melting points.
• Diastereomers also differ in most chemical and physical
properties. They also have different boiling points and
freezing points.
• In contrast, nearly all the properties of a pair of
enantiomers are the same
– Two differences:
1. Their interaction with plane polarized light
2. Their interaction with other chiral substances
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Section 18.7
Properties of Enantiomers

Interaction of Enantiomers with Plane-Polarized Light


• Properties of light
– Ordinary Light: Move in all directions
– Plane polarized light move only in
one
– direction (see Figure on right side)
• Plane polarized light is rotated clockwise
• (to right) or counterclockwise (to left)
when passed through enantiomers
• Direction and extent of rotation will
• depend upon the enantiomer
• Same concentration of two enantiomers
rotate light to same extent but in opposite
direction
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Section 18.7
Properties of Enantiomers

Dextrorotary and Levorotatory Compounds


• Enantiomers are optically active: Compounds that rotate plane
polarized light
• Two Types:
– Dextrorotatory:
• Chiral compound that rotates light towards right (clockwise;
+)
– Levorotatory:
• Chiral compound that rotates light towards left
(counterclockwise; -)
– There is no correlation between D, L and +, -
• In D and L you need to look at the structure
• + and - are determined by using a polarimeter

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Section 18.7
Properties of Enantiomers

Interactions Between Chiral Compounds


• Right and Left handed baseball players can’t use same
glove (chiral) but can use same hat (achiral)
– Two members of enantiomer pair (chiral) react
differently with other chiral molecules
• Enantiomeric pairs have same solubility in achiral
solvents like ethanol and have different solubility in chiral
solvent like D-2-butanol
• Enantiomers have same boiling points, melting points
and densities - all these are dependent upon
intermolecular forces and chirality doesn’t depend on
them
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Section 18.7
Properties of Enantiomers

Interactions Between Chiral Compounds


• Our body responds differently to different enantiomers:
• One may give higher rate or one may be inactive
– Example: Body response to D form of hormone
epinephrine is 20 times greater than its L isomer

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Section 18.8
Classification of Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides
• Triose --- 3 carbon atoms
• Tetrose -- 4 carbon atoms
• Pentoses – 5 carbon atoms
• Hexoses -- 6 carbon atoms
• Aldoses: Monosaccharides with one aldehyde group
• Ketoses: Monosaccharides with one ketone group
• Combined # of C atoms and functional group:
– Example: Aldohexose: Monosaccharide with
aldehyde group and 6 C atoms

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Section 18.8
Classification of Monosaccharides

Most Common Monosaccharides

• Example: CHO CH2OH


– Aldohexose:
H OH O
Monosaccharide with
aldehyde group and 6 C HO H HO H

atoms – D-glucose H OH H OH

– Ketohexose: H OH H OH
Monosaccharide with
CH2OH CH2OH
aldehyde group and 6 C
atoms – D-fructose D-Glucose
(aldohexose)
D-Fructose
(ketohexose)

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Section 18.8
Classification of Monosaccharides

Exercise

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Section 18.9
Biochemically Important Monosaccharides

Glucose and Fructose


CHO

H OH 1. Most abundant in nature


HO H 2. Nutritionally most important
H OH 3. Grape fruit good source of glucose (20 - 30%
H OH
by mass) -- also named grape sugar, dextrose
CH2OH
and blood sugar (70 - 100 mg/100 mL of blood)
D-Glucose 4. Six membered cyclic form
(aldohexose)

CH2OH

O 1. Ketohexose
HO H
2. Sweetest tasting of all sugars
H OH
3. Found in many fruits and in honey
H OH
4. Good dietary sugar-- due to higher sweetness
CH2OH
5. Five membered cyclic form
D-Fructose
(ketohexose)

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Section 18.9
Biochemically Important Monosaccharides

Galactose and Ribose


CHO
H OH
1. Milk sugar
HO H
2. Synthesize in human
HO H
3. Also called brain sugar-- part of brain and
H OH
CH2 OH
nerve tissue
4. Used to differentiate between blood types
D-Galactose
5. Six membered cyclic form
(aldohexose)
CHO
H OH
H OH
1. Part of RNA
H OH
2. Part of ATP
CH2 OH
3. Part of DNA
D-Ribose 4. Five membered cyclic form
(aldopentose)

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Section 18.10
Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides

Cyclic Hemiacetal Forms of D-Glucose


• Dominant form of monosaccharides with 5 or more C atoms is
cyclic - cyclic forms are in equilibrium with open chain form
• Cyclic forms are formed by the reaction of carbonyl group (C=O)
with hydroxyl (-OH) group on carbon 5

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Section 18.10
Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides

Cyclic Hemiacetal Forms of D-Glucose


• 2 forms of D-glucose:
– Alpha-form: -OH of C1 and CH2OH of C5 are on opposite sides
– Beta-form: -OH of C1 and CH2OH of C5 are on same sides

6 6
CH2 OH CH 2OH
O O OH
5 5
4 1
OH 4 OH
1
2 OH 2
OH OH
3 3
OH OH
-D-Glucose -D-Glucose

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Section 18.10
Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides

• Intramolecular cyclic hemiacetal formation and the


equilibrium between various forms are not restricted to
glucose.
• All aldoses with five or more carbon atoms establish
similar equilibria, but with different percentages of the
alpha, beta, and open-chain forms.
• Fructose and other ketoses with a sufficient number of
carbon atoms also cyclize.

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Section 18.10
Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides

Pyranose and Furanose


• A cyclic monosaccharide containing a six-atom ring is
called a pyranose, and one containing a five-atom ring is
called furanose because their ring structures resemble
the ring structures in the cyclic ethers pyran and furan
respectively.
Pyran Furan
O
O

CH2 OH

OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH


O O
OH OH
OH
OH
-D-Glucose OH OH
OH OH
OH
Pyranose  -D-Fructose  -D-Ribose
Furanoses
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Section 18.11
Haworth Projection Formulas

• A Haworth projection formula is a two-dimensional


structural notation that specifies the three-dimensional
structure of a cyclic form of a monosaccharide.
CH2 OH

O CH2OH
CH2OH CH2 OH
O O
OH
OH
OH OH
OH OH
OH OH
OH OH
-D-Glucose  -D-Fructose  -D-Ribose

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Section 18.11
Haworth Projection Formulas

Alpha and Beta Configuration


• Alpha or Beta configuration is determined by the position of the —
OH group on C1 relative to the CH2OH group that determines D or L
series.
• In a Beta configuration, both of these groups point in the same
direction
• In an Alpha configuration, the two groups point in opposite
directions.

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Section 18.11
Haworth Projection Formulas

OH Group
• The specific identity of a monosaccharide is determined by the
positioning of the other —OH groups in the Haworth projection
formula.
• Any —OH group at a chiral center that is to the right in a Fischer
projection formula points down in the Haworth projection formula
and any —OH group to the left in a Fischer projection formula points
up in the Haworth projection formula.

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Section 18.11
Haworth Projection Formulas

Practice Exercise

• Which of the monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose, and


ribose has each of the following structural characteristics? (There
may be more than one correct answer for a given characteristic)
a. It is a pentose.
b. It is a ketose.
c. Its cyclic form has a 6-membered ring.
d. Its cyclic form has two carbon atoms outside the ring.

Answers:
a. Ribose
b. Fructose
c. Glucose, galactose
d. Fructose
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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

• Five important reactions of monosaccharides:


– Oxidation to acidic sugars
– Reduction to sugar alcohols
– Glycoside formation
– Phosphate ester formation
– Amino sugar formation
• These reactions will be considered with respect to
glucose.
• Other aldoses, as well as ketoses, undergo similar
reactions.
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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Oxidation
• Oxidation to acidic sugars: The redox chemistry of
monosaccharides is closely linked to the alcohol
and aldehyde functional groups present in them.
• Oxidation can yield three different types of acidic
sugars depending on the type of oxidizing agent
used:
– Weak oxidizing agents such as Tollens and
Benedict’s solutions oxidize the aldehyde end
to give an aldonic acid.
– A reducing sugar is a carbohydrate that gives a
positive test with Tollens and Benedict’s
solutions.
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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Oxidizing Agents
• Strong oxidizing agents can oxidize both ends of a
monosaccharide at the same time (the carbonyl group
and the terminal primary alcohol group) to produce a
dicarboxylic acid:
– Such polyhydroxy dicarboxylic acids are known as
aldaric acids.

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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Oxidization
• In biochemical systems enzymes can oxidize the primary
alcohol end of an aldose such as glucose, without
oxidation of the aldehyde group, to produce an alduronic
acid.

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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Sugar Alcohols
• Reduction to sugar alcohols: The carbonyl group in a
monosaccharide (either an aldose or a ketose) is
reduced to a hydroxyl group using hydrogen as the
reducing agent.
– The product is the corresponding polyhydroxy alcohol
- sugar alcohol.
– Sorbitol - used as moisturizing agents in foods and
cosmetics and as a sweetening agent in chewing
gum

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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Glycloside
• Glycoside formation: Cyclic forms of monosaccharides
are hemiacetals, they react with alcohols to form acetals:
– Monosaccharide acetals are called glycoside
• A glycoside is an acetal formed from a cyclic
monosaccharide by replacement of the hemiacetal
carbon —OH group with an —OR group:
– A glycoside produced from glucose - glucoside
– A glycoside produced from galactose – galactoside
– Glycosides exist in both Alpha and Beta forms

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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Blood Types and Monosaccharides


• Blood Types and Monosaccharides: Human blood is
classified into four types: A, B, AB, and O:
– Blood of one type cannot be given to a recipient
with blood of another type.
– A transfusion of wrong blood type can cause the
blood cells to form clumps - a potentially fatal
reaction.
– People with type O blood are universal donors,
and those with type AB blood are universal
recipients.

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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Blood Types
• In the United States type O blood is the most common
and type A the second most common.
• The biochemical basis for the various blood types
involves monosaccharides present on plasma
membranes of red blood cells.
• The monosaccharides responsible for blood groups
are D-galactose and its derivatives.

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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Phosphate Ester Formation


• Phosphate ester formation: The hydroxyl groups of a
monosaccharide can react with inorganic oxyacids to
form inorganic esters.
• Phosphate esters of various monosaccharides are stable
in aqueous solution and play important roles in the
metabolism of carbohydrates.

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Section 18.12
Reactions of Monosaccharides

Amino Sugar Formation


• Amino sugar formation: An amino sugar - one of the
hydroxyl groups of a monosaccharide is replaced with an
amino group
• In naturally occurring amino sugars the carbon 2
hydroxyl group is replaced by an amino group
• Amino sugars and their N-acetyl derivatives are
important building blocks of polysaccharides such as
chitin

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Section 18.13
Disaccharides

• Two monosaccharides can react to form disaccharide


• One monosaccharide act as a hemiacetal and other as
alcohol

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Section 18.13
Disaccharides

Cellobiose
• Cellobiose is produced as an intermediate in the
hydrolysis of the polysaccharide cellulose:
– Cellobiose contains two b - D-glucose
monosaccharide units linked through a b (1—4)
glycosidic linkage.
CH2OH
O OH
CH2OH  (1-4)
H
O OH
O
OH
OH
OH
OH
Cellobiose
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Section 18.13
Disaccharides

Maltose
• Maltose is digested easily by humans because we have
enzymes that can break a (1-4) linkages but not b (1-4)
linkages of cellobiose. Therefore cellobiose cannot be
digested by humans.

CH2 OH CH2 OH

O O

OH OH
O OH
OH  (1-4)
OH OH
Maltose
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Section 18.13
Disaccharides

Lactose
• Lactose is made up of b-D-galactose unit and a b-D-
glucose unit joined by a b(1-4) glycosidic linkage

CH2OH
O OH
 (1-4)
CH2OH H
OH
OH O O
OH
OH

OH
Lactose

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Section 18.13
Disaccharides

Lactose
• Lactose - principal carbohydrate in milk.
– Human - 7%–8% lactose
– cow’s milk - 4%–5% lactose
– Lactose intolerance: a condition in which people lack the
enzyme lactase needed to hydrolyze lactose to galactose and
glucose.
– Lactase hydrolyzes b(1-4) glycosidic linkages.
– Deficiency of lactase can be caused by a genetic defect,
physiological decline with age, or by injuries to intestinal
mucosa.
– When lactose is undigested it attracts water causing fullness,
discomfort, cramping, nausea, and diarrhea. Bacterial
fermentation of the lactose further along the intestinal tract
produces acid (lactic acid) and gas, adding to the discomfort. Return to TOC

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Section 18.13
Disaccharides

Sucrose
• Sucrose (table sugar): The
CH2 OH
most abundant of all O
disaccharides and found in CH2 OH
OH
plants. OH OH
O

• It is produced commercially OH OH

from the juice of sugar cane -D-Glucose OH

+ OH  (1-2)
and sugar beets. CH2 OH CH2 OH
O
Linkage
O OH O
– Sugar cane contains up to
OH OH
20% by mass sucrose
CH 2OH CH 2OH
– Sugar beets contain up to OH OH
17% by mass sucrose -D-Fructose Sucrose

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Section 18.13
Disaccharides

Practice Exercise

• Which of the monosaccharides maltose, cellobiose, lactose, and


sucrose has each of the following structural or reaction
characteristics? (There may be more than one correct answer for a
given characteristic)
a. Two different monosaccharide units are present.
b. Hydrolysis produces only monosaccharides.
c. Its glycosidic linkage is a “head-to-head” linkage.
d. It is not a reducing sugar.
Answers:
a. Lactose, sucrose
b. Maltose, cellobiose, lactose, sucrose
c. Sucrose
d. Sucrose
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Section 18.14
General Characteristics of Polysaccharides

The Polymer Chain


• Polymers
• Many monosaccharide units bonded with glycosidic linkages
• Two types:
- Linear and branched, homo- and hetero-polysaccharides

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Section 18.14
General Characteristics of Polysaccharides

• Polysaccharides are not sweet and don’t show positive


tests with Tollen’s and Benedict’s solutions whereas
monosaccharides are sweet and show positive tests
• Limited water solubility
• Examples:
– Cellulose, starch in plants
– Glycogen in animals
– Chitin in arthropods

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Section 18.15
Storage Polysaccharides

Starch
• A storage polysaccharide is a polysaccharide that is a
storage form for monosaccharides and is used as an
energy source in cells.
• Starch:
– Glucose is the monomeric unit
– Storage polysaccharide in plants
– Two types of polysaccharidse isolated from starch:
– Amylose: Straight chain polymer - 15 - 20% of the
starch and has a (1  4) glycosidic bonds
– Molecular Mass: 50,000 (up to 1000 glucose units)

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Section 18.15
Storage Polysaccharides

Amylopectin Stucture
• Amylopectin:
– Branched chain polymer - 80 - 85 % of the starch a
(14) glycosidic bond for straight chain and a (16)
for branch
– Molecular Mass: 300,000 (up to 100,000 glucose
units) - higher than amylose
– Human can hydrolyze alpha linkage but not beta
linkage

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Section 18.15
Storage Polysaccharides

Glycogen
– Humans and animals storage polysaccharide
– Contains only glucose units
– Branched chain polymer – a (14) glycosidic bonds in straight
chains and a (16) in branches
– Molecular Mass: 3,000,000 (up to 1,000,000 glucose units)
– Three times more highly branched than amylopectin in starch
– Excess glucose in blood stored in the form of glycogen

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Section 18.16
Structural Polysaccharides

Cellulose
• Linear homopolysaccharide with b (1  4) glycosidic bond
• Up to 5000 glucose units with molecular mass of 900,000 amu
– Cotton ~95% cellulose and wood ~50% cellulose
– Humans don’t have enzymes that hydrolyze b (1  4) - so humans
can not digest cellulose -- animals also lack these enzymes but they
can digest cellulose because they have bacteria in their guts to
hydrolyze cellulose
– It serves as dietary fiber in food-- readily absorbs water and results in
softer stools HO
– 20 - 35 g of dietary fiber is desired everyday O HO O
OH
HO O O
OH (1-4) OH
HO O O
OH  (1-4)
O O OH
OH (1-4)
O OH
OH Return to TOC

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Section 18.16
Structural Polysaccharides

Chitin
– Similar to cellulose in both function and structure
– Linear polymer with all b (14) glycosidic linkages - it has a N-
acetyl amino derivative of glucose
– Function is to give rigidity to the exoskeleton s of crabs,
lobsters, shrimp, insects, and other arthropods
HO

HO O O
OH
HO O
O N-Acetyl
OH HN -D-Glucoseamine
O O
HO
OH HN O
O O
O OH HN O

HN O

O
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Section 18.17
Acidic Polysaccharides

• Acidic polysaccharides - polysaccharides with a repeating


disaccharide unit containing an amino sugar and a sugar with a
negative charge due to a sulfate or a carboxyl group.
• Structural polysaccharide present in connective tissue associated
with joints, cartilage, synovial fluids in animals and humans
– Primary function is lubrication necessary for joint movement
– These are heteropolysaccharides - have more than one type of
monosaccharide monomers is present.
• Examples:
– Hyaluronic acid
– Heparin

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Section 18.17
Acidic Polysaccharides

Hyaluronic Acid and Heparin


• Hyaluronic acid:
– Alternating residues of N-
acetyl-b-D-glucosamine and
D-glucuronic acid.
– Highly viscous - serve as
lubricants in the fluid of
joints and part vitreous
humor of the eye.
• Heparin:
– An anticoagulant-prevents
blood clots.
– Polysaccharide with 15–90
disaccharide residues per
chain.
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Section 18.18
Glycolipids and Glycoproteins: Cell Recognition

• A glycolipid is a lipid molecule that has one or more


carbohydrate (or carbohydrate derivative) units
covalently bonded to it.

• A glycoprotein is a protein molecule that has one or


more carbohydrate (or carbohydrate derivative) units
covalently bonded to it.

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Section 18.19
Dietary Considerations and Carbohydrates

Nutrition
• Foods high in carbs content constitute over 50% of the diet of most
people of the world -- a balanced dietary food should contain about
60% of carbohydrate:
– Corn in South America
– Rice in Asia
– Starchy root vegetables in parts of Africa
– Potato and wheat in North America
• Nutritionist divide dietary carbs into two classes:
– Simple carb: dietary monosaccharides or disaccharides - sweet
to taste commonly referred to as sugars - 20 % of the energy in
the US die
– Complex carbs: Dietary polysaccharides -- starch and cellulose -
normally not sweet to taste
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Section 18.19
Dietary Considerations and Carbohydrates

Glycemic Foods
• A developing concern about intake of carbohydrates
involves how fast the given dietary carbs are broken
down to glucose within the human body
• Glycemic effect refers to:
– how quickly carbs are digested
– how high blood glucose rise
– how quickly blood glucose levels return to normal
• Glycemic index (GI) has been developed for rating foods

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