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DENTAL ANATOMY &

PHYSIOLOGY

April 2014
Elements

A tooth is made up of three elements:

•Water
•Organic materials
•Inorganic materials

April 2014
Functions
Speech
Respiration
Digestion
Chewing
Aesthetic

April 2014
Dental Anatomy Part 1

There are two types of teeth:

•Primary (deciduous)

•Secondary (permanent)

April 2014
Dental Anatomy and Physiology
Dentition (teeth): There are two dentitions
Primary ( Milk teeth)

•Consist of 20 teeth
•Begin to form during
the first trimester of
pregnancy
•Typically begin
erupting around 6
months
•Most children have a
complete primary
dentition by 3 years of
age2014
April
Deciduous dentition

April 2014
Secondary( Permanent Teeth)

•Consist of 32 teeth in most cases


•Begin to erupt around 6 years
of age
•Most permanent teeth have erupted by age 12
•Third molars (wisdom teeth) are the exception;
often do not appear until late teens or early 20s

April 2014
April 2014
Names of Teeth

1. Anterior teeth: Incisors and canine


2. Posterior teeth: Molars and premolars
• Central Incisors
• Lateral Incisors
• Canines
• Premolars
• Molars

DECIDUIOUS TEETH DO NOT HAVE PREMOLARS!

April 2014
Parts of a TOOTH
Each tooth consists of:

• Crown – The part which


protrudes from the gum
• Root – Part embedded in
the bone
• Neck – Slightly narrowed
region where the crown
meets the root
April 2014
Components of tooth

Pulp
Dentine
Enamel
Cementum

April 2014
Enamel

• Hardest tissue

• Surrounds dentine

• Highly mineralized
Main mineral-
hydroxyapatite

April 2014
Dentine

• This forms the main bulk of


the tooth
• It is found in the crown and
the root
• It is sensitive to pain
• Not as solid as enamel
• Made up of dentine tubules
which contains soft tissue
• Acts as a shock absorbent
• Produced by odontoblast cells

April 2014
Dental Tissues—Dentin (Tubules)2
•Tubules contain fluid
and nerve fibers
•External stimuli cause Dentin

movement of the Pulp

dentinal fluid, a
hydrodynamic
movement, which can
result in short, sharp Tubule

pain episodes
Fluid Nerve Fibers

Odontoblast
Cell

April 2014
Pulp

• Purely soft tissue


• It contains blood
vessels and nerves
• The vessels and
nerves pass through
the apical foramen
enter teeth through
the apical foramen
• This is where
toothache occurs

April 2014
Cementum
• Cementum is a
specialized bony
substance covering the
root of a tooth
• Its color is yellowish and
it is softer than either
dentine or enamel.
Alveolar Bone
• Mineralized tissue that
surrounds the teeth in
jaws

April 2014
Periodontal ligament

• The tooth is attached to the


socket of the jaw by the
periodontal ligament
• This contains nerves and blood
vessels, consists of bundles of
fibres (like a web) holding the
tooth in place
• The nerves of the periodontal
ligament are particularly
sensitive to excessive pressure
(discomfort may occur from high
fillings)
April 2014
Gum

• The anatomical term is gingiva


• It is firmly attached to the underlying alveolar bone as it
fits around the neck of the tooth in the form of a tight
cuf
• A shallow crevice is present between the tooth surface
and the gum margin-the GINGIVAL CREVICE
• The mound of gum between each tooth is called the
interdental papilla
• Healthy gums are NO more than 3mm deep
• healthy gum is pink and tough.
• have limited sensitivity to - pain, Temperature, pressure
April 2014
Supporting Structures
• Every tooth fits into a socket alveolus
• The part of the jaw which containing the teeth is
known as the alveolar process (rigid bone)
• This is covered with soft tissue gingiva (GUM)
• The jaw bone consist of a dense outer layer
COMPACT BONE and an softer interior SPONGY
BONE
• The compact lining of the tooth socket is called the
LAMINA DURA, loss of this tends to indicate DENTAL
DISEASE
April 2014