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If today is your last day to live,

what will you do?

Values Formation
and Development
Glady Joy M. Mella
Values Defined
1. Value is derived from the Latin word, valere, to
be worth, be strong-something intrinsically
valuable or desirable. A thing has value when it
is perceived as good and desirable.
2. Since values are the bases of judging what
attitude and behavior are correct and desirable
and what are not.
• But how do you know what the right decisions
will be?
• How do you know which values will serve both
your own interests, and those of the greater
• How can you shape a culture built on the values
you choose that will guide people’s action?
• VALUES may be positive or negative.
• There are also subjective or objective
• There are also moral values that refer to
the good or evil nature of acts.
Values Formation/Education

• Values education is the process

by which values are formed in
the learner under the guidance
of the teacher and parents as
he/she interacts with he/she
The Why, When, Where, Who, What, and
How in Teaching Values
1. Why teach values?
 Because our parents tried to teach them to us
 Because they are what makes society safe and
 Because it helps develop a sense of autonomy,
independence, and confidence
 Because it is the most significant and effective thing
to attain happiness
The Why, When, Where, Who, What, and
How in Teaching Values

2. When?
Values should be taught to all ages with differing
agendas and changing emphasis as one gets
Teach values now and always.
The Why, When, Where, Who, What, and
How in Teaching Values

3. Where?
Values are best taught in the home, in either the
positive or the negative sense. It can be far more
influential than what is taught in school.
The Why, When, Where, Who, What, and
How in Teaching Values
4. Who?
Parents are the crucial examples and instructors
of values. They are general contractor. The
teachers, the institution, and organization are
considered as subcontractors serving as
supplement, support, and back up of parents.
The Why, When, Where, Who, What, and
How in Teaching Values

5. What?
Decide which values to teach. Choose a teaching
system that will help you decide what teach.
The Why, When, Where, Who, What, and
How in Teaching Values

6. How?
There are method especially designed in teaching
values to pre-schoolers, elementary ages,
adolescents, and community people.
The Formation of Value
• We start forming values in our childhood. First we learn to
appreciate things that fulfill our basic needs, but we value
especially those people that provide them to us. Their
behavior towards us becomes the main reference to what is
• Thus, our character and personality are molded through the
attitudes and behavior of the people who raise us, whether
they’re our parents or relative and even non-relatives.
So the consistency and coherence of our parents’
behavior is what strengthens our formation. If they
practice what they preach, our personality will be
stronger than if they don’t.

Later, when we are students, we start feeling

social pressures and pressures of values that are
different from ours, as we relate to other people. The
strength of the values formed through our parents is
put to the test.
Values are often confused with habits, and many
parents hope that school will form the values that were
not instilled at home. This is not possible, because school
does not fulfill the basic needs of life…that is the
responsibility of those who raise us.
Teachers, leaders, and value models at school can
reinforce what was formed at home, but they cannot
replace them. If the convictions formed at home are not
solid, they will soon be exposed to an intense social
competition against other beliefs.
• Why is it so difficult to form values?
• Because unlike norms, values are
convictions; they are behaviors we gladly
decide to follow and produce satisfaction.
We can follow norms against our will, but
values have the support of our will. We
have learned their importance due to the
benefits they produce, individually and
Those who play a leadership role in our
lives are most powerful at conveying to us
their values. They are our parents, elder
siblings, grandparents, some relatives,
teachers, peers we admire, professors and
However to convey something, we must
first possess it. VALUES are only
conveyed through the example of our
daily attitudes and behavior. They can
seldom be formed by explaining them or
through a list of what is considered
correct or incorrect. Memorizing their
theoretical meaning does not guarantee
their implementation.
Are valued by all human beings due to the intrinsic
nature of these values or by virtue of our being human

 Truth, for example, is valued for its own sake. We want

to know the truth rather than be misled or be under an
 Happiness, is sought by every human being
because of our biological, psychological, and
spiritual makeup.
Ex. Masochists.

 Universal values are shared by human

beings regardless of culture and age. The
following are some of these universal values:
1. Truth
2. Happiness
3. Inner peace
4. Love
5. Kindness
6. Justice
7. Respect
8. Courage and fearlessness
9. Honesty
• Universal values are seen as ideals.

• Modern society gives evidence to the

prevalence of values that contradict these
universal values
Are dependent on the social norms, religious
beliefs and other environmental situations of people.
Thus, in a society in which the ratio of males to
females is just one to ten, polygyny may be legal and
ethical; if the reverse, polyandry may be the legal
and ethical custom. In some countries, divorce is
permitted, in some it’s a sin.
• Some cultural values are cruel and yet
tolerated or even promoted by members of
the community.
• Many women in China prior to 1912 were
subjected to the binding of the feet with cloth to
make their feet small and dainty.
• Cultural values also change with time. What
used to be unethical in one generation may
no longer be so in the next.
• Many of our attitudes and beliefs are derived
from these cultural values and hence are
conditioned values.
• Cultural values are not necessarily good for
humanity simply because they have widespread
• We need to review such values, because they
can color the way we view life and the way we
• They can create inner and outer conflicts.
These are valued in a family and iare
considered either good or bad. These derive
from the fundamental beliefs of the parents,
who use them to educate their children. They
are the basic principles and guidelines of our
initial behavior in society, and are conveyed
through our behaviors in the family, from the
simplest to the most complex.
Are worthwhile to a particular individual and
differ from person to person. Thus, some people may
value art more than earning money and thus spend
more time painting, even if it provides little income.
Personal values are largely subjective and are
neither ethical or unethical except when they go
against one of the universal values.
Thus, whether we prefer chocolate or vanilla is a
subjective preference. But whether we eat the flesh of a
mammal can be an ethical issue, because it now touches on
the pain and suffering caused by the slaughtering of animals
for food.
Itsimportant to realize that inner peace is
not possible if our personal values
contradict one or more universal values.
True inner fulfillment eludes us because we
wont be able to integrate the higher and
lower aspects of our being.
Example, If I do an injustice to someone while trying to earn
money, I wont have inner peace. I'll feel insecure.
Clarifying Personal Values
• Many of us go through life not knowing that our
personla values are not really our own.
• They are just reflections of the demands of our
• parents
• friends
• society
• what people will say
These values allow us to survive, and are
related to our basic needs as human beings,
such as food and clothing and protection from
the environment. They are fundamental needs,
part of the complex web that is created between
personal, family and social-cultural values. If
exaggerated, material values can be in
contradiction with spiritual values.

They refer to the importance we give to

non-material aspects in our lives. They are
part of our human needs and allow us to feel
fulfilled. They add meaning and foundation to
our life, as do religious beliefs.

The attitudes and behaviors that a

society considers essential for
coexistence, order, and general well
Importance of Teaching Values
1. Values are extremely powerful. They guide people and identify what
behavior is acceptable and what behavior is not.
2. Values have to do with being and giving. It is who we are and what
we give rather than what we have that make up our truest inner
3. The Values of Being (who we are) are honesty, courage,
peaceability, self- reliance, discipline, and fidelity. These are given
as they are gained and practiced on the “outer” as they are develop
in the “inner” The values of giving (what we give) are respect, love,
loyalty, unselfishness, kindness, and mercy. These are gained and
develop as they are practiced.
The Value of Being and Giving
 A true and universal acceptable “value” is one that
produced behavior that is beneficial both to the
practitioner and those on whom it is practiced. A value
is a quality distinguished by
a.) its ability to multiply and increase in our possession
even as it is given away; and
b.) the fact (even the law) that, the more it is given to
others, the more it will be returned by others and
received by others.
1. On Values of Being. The Following are
value of being:
• Honesty
• Honesty must be practiced with other individuals, with
institution, with society, and with self. The Inner strength
and confidence are bred by exacting truthfulness,
trustworthiness, and integrity
• Courage
• This means daring to attempt difficult things that are
good. It is the strength not to follow the crowd, to say no
and mean it, and influence others by it.
• Peaceability
• This means calmness, peacefulness, and serenity. It
is the tendency to accommodate rather than argue. It
is the ability to understand how others feel rather
than simply reacting to them. It means the control of
• Self-Reliance and Potential
• These refer to individual, awareness, and
development of gifts and uniqueness. One must take
responsibility for one’s own actions.
• Self-Discipline and Moderation
• these refer to physical, mental and financial self-
discipline. These involved moderation in speaking, in
eating, and in exercising.
• Fidelity and Chastity
• These refer to the value and security and fidelity
within marriage. These involved the commitment that
go with marriage.
2. On Values of Giving. The following are
values of Giving
• Loyalty and Dependability
• These refer to loyal to family, to employers, to country, to
church, to school, and to other organizations and institutions.
These means reliability and consistency in doing what you
say you will do.
• Respect
• This means respect for life, for property, for parents, for
elders, for nature, and for the beliefs and rights of others. It
refers to courtesy, politeness and manners
• Love
• It means individual and personal caring that goes
beneath and beyond loyalty and respect. It means
love for friends, neighbors, even adversaries, and a
prioritized, lifelong commitment of love for family.
• Unselfishness and Sensitivity
• These pertain to becoming more extra-centered and
less self-centered. These means learning to feel with
and for others. These refer to empathy, tolerance,
brotherhood, and sensitivity to needs of people and
• Kindness and Friendship
• These refer to awareness that being kind and
considerate is more admirable than being tough or
strong. These means helpfulness and cheerfulness.
• Justice and Mercy
• These refer to obedience to law and fairness in work
and play. These involve an understanding of the
natural consequences and the law of the harvest.
Physical fitness
A Harmony with the
S material universe
E Knowledge
L Creative and critical thinking
Self –worth/Self-esteem
Personal Discipline
Faith in God
I Family Mutual love/ Respect
Responsible parenthood
Society Concern for other/Common good
C Freedom/Equality
O Social Justice/ Respect for human rights
Peace/Active non-violence
Popular participation
U Thrift/Conservation of resources
N Work ethic
T Scientific and technological knowledge
Y Entrepreneurship
Common identity
National Unity
Esteem of national heroes
Civic consciousness/Pride
International understanding and cooperation

 The philosophy of life for every person consists

of two aspects:
1. MAP TO REALITY— an understanding of what
life is all about, of nature and the cosmos
2. HIERARCHY OF VALUES— a perception of
which things are more important than others.
VIRTUES: The Good Habit
Virtues are habits of human excellence. Moral virtues are
excellences of character acquired through the formation
of good habits and are necessary for happiness.
In their quest to understand what a good person is and
now a good life is lived, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
studied human excellences, which came to be called
They concluded that virtue in general and some
virtues in particular, enable a person not only to be
good, but also to have a good life. People may not
always feel the need to be good, but it’s a sure
thing that everyone wants to have a good life. It
turns out that you cant have a good life without
being good, that is, being virtuous.
In his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle states there
are two kinds of virtues: intellectual virtues which
are excellences of the mind and moral virtues
which are excellences of character.
1. Intellectual virtues include:
◦ Art
◦ Science
◦ Speculative wisdom
◦ Practical wisdom (prudence)
◦ Intuitive reasoning (understanding)
These intellectual virtues can be taught and they are
actually taught in school—some more than others.
2. Moral Virtues, the virtues that make up a good
character are numerous. But the critical ones that,
once ingrained in a person, give that person the
best chance of happiness are the “cardinal” virtues
 Justice
 Temperance
 Forgiveness
 Fortitude or courage
 Prudence
Prudence (practical wisdom) is a special virtue in
that it is an intellectual one, but guides human
choices, while the moral virtues are all about doing
, or action. Unlike intellectual virtues which can be
taught, moral virtues aren’t acquired through
teaching. Moral virtues are formed by acting in the
same way over and over again, until they become
Virtues are required for a Good Life
All people want to be happy, and it turns out that a
person actually needs the cardinal virtues to achieve
happiness, which means, again, a whole life well
lived. The moral virtues give people the character
what they need to persist through difficulties to
achieve worthwhile things, to say no to themselves
when its really tempting to be self-indulgent instead of
doing what ought to be done, and to treat others
How do people acquire these moral virtues? If
extremely lucky, a person had parents who had
them and were therefore role models of
excellence. Otherwise its very hard work and
success comes only after years of making tough
decisions and acting responsibly, over and over.
Because virtues are good habits and habits take
time to form.
How will a person know when he acquires
these moral virtues? By the people around him
who will look up to him, go to him for help, rely
totally on his word, and trust him with their
lives. In addition, such a person will feel 10
feet tall, knowing that he is in control of all his
appetites, and that he does what he says he’ll
do, 100% of the time, even when it costs him
something. That person has good moral
character of just good character, because he
possesses the moral virtues.
“It’s not doing things
but doing the right things. “
Thank you
for listening